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A Bibliography of Terrain Modeling(Geomorphometry), the QuantitativeRepresentation of ��Topography—Supplement 4.0


Provides over 1600 additions and corrections to the 1993Bibliography of Geomorphometry and its 1995, 1996,and 1999 Supplements, with an updateof recent advances



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R.J.Pike / USGS OF 02-4652

This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Surveyeditorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, firm, or productnames is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsem*nt by the U.S. Government


1MENLO PARK, California

Abstract This report adds over 1600 annotated referenceson the numerical characterization of topography, terrainmodeling or geomorphometry, to a 1993 literature review andits first three updates. Erroneous references from the fourearlier reports are corrected and many citations of historicinterest are included; the cumulative archive is at 6000entries. An introductory essay cites several hundred of thenew entries. These are listed under various topic headings orreferenced in brief discussions of several other areas ofresearch, including terrain data and new parameters, neo-orometry, landslide-hazard mapping, Hack's Law, and earlywork on the mathematical representation of ridges anddrainageways.


Terrain modeling, the practice of ground-surface quantification, is anamalgam of Earth science, mathematics, engineering, and computerscience. The discipline is known variously as geomorphometry (or simplymorphometry), terrain analysis, and quantitative geomorphology. Itcontinues to grow through myriad applications to hydrology, geohazardsmapping, tectonics, sea-floor and planetary exploration, and other fields.Dating nominally to the co-founders of academic geography, Alexandervon Humboldt (1808, 1817) and Carl Ritter (1826, 1828), the field wasrevolutionized late in the 20th Century by the computer manipulation ofspatial arrays of terrain heights, or digital elevation models (DEMs), whichcan quantify and portray ground-surface form over large areas (Maune,2001). Morphometric procedures are implemented routinely bycommercial geographic information systems (GIS) as well as specializedsoftware (Harvey and Eash, 1996; Köthe and others, 1996; ESRI, 1997;Drzewiecki et al., 1999; Dikau and Saurer, 1999; Djokic and Maidment,2000; Wilson and Gallant, 2000; Breuer, 2001; Guth, 2001; Eastman,2002). The new Earth Surface edition of the Journal of Geophysical

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Research, specializing in surficial processes, is the latest of manypublication venues for terrain modeling.

This is the fourth update of a bibliography and introduction to terrainmodeling (Pike, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999) designed to collect the diverse,scattered literature on surface measurement as a resource for theresearch community. The use of DEMs in science and technologycontinues to accelerate and diversify (Pike, 2000a). New work appearsso frequently that a sampling must suffice to represent the vastliterature. This report adds 1636 entries to the 4374 in the four earlierpublications1. Forty-eight additional entries correct dead Internet linksand other errors found in the prior listings. Chronicling the history ofterrain modeling, many entries in this report predate the 1999supplement. Coverage is representative from about 1800 throughearly–mid 2002. Papers increasingly are published exclusively or induplicate on the Internet's World Wide Web; the dates given here forWeb addresses (URLs) that lack a print publication indicate a Web site'slast update or my last access of it.

The bibliography is arranged alphabetically and thus is not readilysummarized. This introduction cites about 500 entries, a third of themgrouped under 24 morphometric topics, as a guide to the listing'scontents. Continuing the practice of previous bibliographies in the seriesto provide more information on a few applications (see summary of pasttopics in Pike, 2000a), this report elaborates further on topographic data,putative new parameters, tectonic geomorphology/neo-orometry,biogeography, ice-cap morphometry, results from the Mars Global DEM,landslide-hazard mapping, terrain modeling as physics, Hack's law, andbroad-scale computer visualization. The literature of some of thesesubjects is large, and none of the summaries is intended to more thanintroduce the topic and comment on some of the current contributions ofterrain modeling. Closing the essay is a discussion of pre-1900 papersthat trace the evolution of ridge-line and watercourse quantification bydescriptive geometry, as well as comments on some new books and anon-line bulletin board.

Revisions in Format

1 The few text citations not in the main bibliography are listed at the close of this introduction or in 'Corrections'

appended to the main bibliography.

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With this report the title of the series incorporates Terrain Modeling, in aneffort to broaden its readership. According to the Internet-search resultsillustrated in Table 1, Terrain Modeling (plus Modelling) is 15 times morefrequent than geomorphometry. Other alternatives are inapt: DigitalTerrain Modeling would exclude pre- or non-computer work (Penck,1894a, b; Hack and Goodlett, 1960); Terrain Analysis has military and non-quantitative connotations (Graff, 1997; DARPA, 2002); Morphometry is acommon practice in biology and paleontology (Cracraft, 1980; MacLeod,1999); Surface Rendering, Terrain Rendering, and Surface Modeling have

Table 1

Ranking Descriptors of Surface Quantification(as keywords on the World Wide Web)

*Index *Search Word(s) of Hits

100 Surface Modeling**72 Surface Topography57 Morphometry

53 Terrain Modeling**40 Terrain Analysis24 Surface Rendering18 Digital Terrain Modeling**14 Terrain Rendering11 Topographic(al) Analysis**

6 Surface Metrology 3.5 Geomorphometry

2.4 Digital Elevation Modeling**2.3 Digital Terrain Analysis1.6 Quantitative Geomorphology1.2 Landform Modeling**

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0.1 Quantitative Terrain Analysis

*using the exact-phrase option in the Google search engine, 23 September2002; Index for each term is number of hits / number of hits (28,100) on'surface modeling' × 100

**includes the British spellings '... Modelling' and 'Topographical ...'

specialized meanings in computer vision and image analysis (Koenderinkand van Doorn, 1993, 1994, 1998; López, 1997; Thompson and others,1998); and Surface Topography connotes industrial micro- and nano-morphometry (Thomas and others, 1999; Blunt and Stout, 2000; Scott,2001).

Another change with this report is the annotation of all entries except the90 or so that were not seen but whose titles, context, or literaturecitations insure involvement with terrain modeling (for example,Malyavsky and Zharnovsky, 1974; Brown, 1994; Schneider, 2001). Mostremarks are brief, were made hastily, and reflect the author's interest orunderstanding at the time—commonly descriptive parameters, techniquesand data. This informal annotation is not to be construed as a summaryof an entry's contents or an appraisal of the work reported—which rangesfrom trivial to profound. Comments tend to lengthen with the age of thepublication, most early work requiring historic context to justify itsinclusion. To increase the usefulness of the (eventual) consolidatedbibliography, entries in the initial 1993 listing and prior updates are beingannotated. Comments have been appended to 61% of the combined6000 citations, and all entries before 1966.

Topographic Data

Data availability and quality persist as areas of concern in terrainmodeling. In the U.S. a new master DEM assembled from all 55,0001:24,000- and 1:63,360-scale topographic maps eliminates the oneroustiling of multiple 7.5' quadrangles and other data preparation (Gesch andothers, 2002). This National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a seamless,continually updated, DEM of uniform horizontal datum (NAD83), unit ofheight (decimal meters), and projection. Horizontal grid resolution is 1"(nominally 30 m) for the conterminous U.S., Hawaii, and Puerto Rico and2" for Alaska. Digital filtering during compilation reduces artifacts in thesource DEMs (Oimoen, 2000), seamlessly matches adjacent quadrangles,

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and fills sliver areas of missing data. Because heights for much of thecountry increasingly are gridded at a spacing of 10 m, a 1/3" (nominally10 m) DEM is in progress. New national DEMs are not unique to the U.S.For example, Carroll and Morse (1996) describe creation of the GEODATA9" DEM of Australia and Hutchinson and others (2001) its subsequentupgrading, including discussion of the ANUDEM gridding algorithm toimprove data accuracy. In a reversal of conventional experience,contours for the recently completed 1:50,000-scale topographic maps ofIreland were extracted from DEMs generated by digital photogrammetry(Cory and McGill, 1999).

All DEMs are in some respect flawed (Coops, 2000). Most of the error incurrent DEMs originated in the contour maps from which they werederived and thus cannot be reduced through efforts of the user. Map-accuracy standards vary widely and do not provide a rigorous evaluation.Production standards, moreover, guarantee only a statistical level ofquality; locally, accuracy can be low. Contour maps are merely models—ofvarying fidelity—of topography, just as DEMs are, in turn, imperfectmodels of the maps (Ollier, 1967). Contour maps never were intended toprovide heights of the high density and accuracy increasingly required forterrain modeling. What can be mitigated to some extent by the DEM useris error originating in contour map-to-DEM processing (Duh and Brown,1999; Holmes and others, 2000; Lane and others, 2000; Lynch, 2002).Most DEMs currently available have been interpolated from contours bysampling designs and computer algorithms that add artifacts and otherdistortions inherent in the processing (Shortridge, 2001). Variousprocedures have been applied to repair some of these flaws (Hutchinsonand Gallant, 2000; Oimoen, 2000; Hutchinson, 2001; Gesch and others,2002).

Production methods that bypass map contours as the source of digitalheights can improve DEM quality. Two emerging technologies thatmeasure the true ground-surface directly have the potential to reducesome of the current shortcomings in DEM coverage and accuracy (Maune,2001). Laser altimetry, particularly LiDAR (light distance and ranging),promises DEMs of fine resolution and high accuracy (Ritchie, 1995;DeLoach and Leonard, 2000; Brock and others, 2002), as well as seafloorbathymetry (Sandwell and Smith, 2000). Radar interferometry (InSAR orIfSAR) yields terrain-height accuracies and resolutions comparable withthose generated by optical methods (Small, 1998; Gens, 1999; Dowman,2000; Hanssen, 2001; Smith, 2002). Interferometry also is used tomonitor displacements of topography, for example, by subsidence orsurface faulting.

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LiDAR's aircraft-mounted lasers record 2000-5000 height measurementsper second to a vertical precision of ±15 cm. From these voluminousobservations DEMs at a horizontal resolution of about a meter can beprepared for large areas (Hill and others, 2000; Carter and others, 2001).While expensive compared to DEMs compiled photogrammetrically or fromdigitized contours, LiDAR data are decreasing in cost as techniques ofacquisition and processing (notably, filtering out vegetation and man-made structures) improve in efficiency and economies of scale make thedata more competitive in the marketplace. LiDAR could become thestandard procedure, with digital photogrammetry (Gwinner and others,2000; Lane and others, 2000; Hanco*ck and Willgoose, 2001), for creatingfine-scale DEMs of small areas. For representative applications of LiDARto terrain modeling see Jansma and others (1999), Cowen and others(2000), and Marks and Bates (2000).

Interferometry, which requires simultaneous or repeated signalacquisitions by synthetic-aperture mapping radar, has delivered a near-global DEM at a uniform horizontal resolution of 90 m. Over ten days inFebruary 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) systemonboard Space Shuttle Endeavour imaged about 80% of Earth's landsurface, creating an immense set of terrain heights. The SRTM carriedtwo radar antennas, one aboard the spacecraft, the other at the end of a60-m mast extending from it. A 3" (nominally 90-m) DEM compiled frommission results (Farr and Kobrick, 2000; NASA, 2002) is taking its placebeside the l-km GTOPO30 DEM (Gesch and Larson, 1998; Gesch andothers, 1999) that remains the current standard for elevation coverageworldwide. A global 1" (30-m) DEM also is being extracted from the SRTMbut only the United States data will be publicly available.

Advanced methods do not assure DEM quality. InSAR, LiDAR, and otherremotely-sensed data all contain errors, some of them severe, that areunique to their technologies (Leberl, 1998; Toutin, 1999; Endreny andothers, 2000; Ahmadzadeh and Petrou, 2001; Kervyn, 2001; Nuth andothers, 2002). The early SRTM results are a cautionary example. Asidefrom the fact that 1/5 of Earth's land mass (all at high latitudes) wasexcluded, relative vertical accuracy of the new data at the 90% level isexpected to average ±10m, a substantial error at the 90-m grid spacingand potentially serious at 30m. Also, because the radar did notpenetrate dense vegetation, data in such areas describe the tree canopyrather than bare ground—in which case the new DEM probablyreproduces the terrain surface no more faithfully than the NED. NASA(2002) alerts users of SRTM data to "... be aware that the digital ...topographic data are unedited and are intended for scientific use and

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evaluation. They are outputs directly from the SRTM interferometric radarprocessor and, for example, may contain numerous voids (areas withoutdata), water bodies may not appear flat, and coastlines may be ill-defined." Currently available, more accurate, DEMs thus are likely toremain the better data for many areas. Slatton and others (2001) haveproposed a way to fuse LiDAR with InSAR to get coverage that is at onceaccurate, dense, and extensive.

New (?) Parameters

While Wolfgang Pauli's "the surface was invented by the devil!" waslamenting complexities of atomic structure at the surface of a solid, thephysicist's exasperation applies equally to terrain modeling. Continuoustopography is difficult to express, and many new parameters have beenproposed to quantify attributes of terrain that existing measures cannotdescribe. 'New' terrain measures have included mean elevation (Huber,1825; Sonklar, 1872) and slope gradient (Tillmann, 1915; Bonniard,1929), relative relief (relief energy in European and Japanese practice;Scheer, 1933; Tada, 1937), the hypsometric integral (Hurtrez and others,1999; Luo, 2000), and most recently the fractal dimension—which brieflyrevived the old philosopher's-stone fallacy that a single 'magic number'might suffice to express surface form (Evans and Cox, 1998).

Two approaches recently developed to describe continuous topography, asdistinguished from discrete landforms, are the DEM-based 'terrain fabric'of Guth (1999a, b; 2001) and surface 'openness' of Yokoyama and others(1999, 2002). Terrain fabric characterizes the tendency of a surface to beorganized into linear ridges rather than isotropic topography, whereasopenness expresses dominance (exposure) versus enclosure of a locationon an irregular surface. 'New' parameters, however, rarely are; manydescribe the same basic attribute of surface form and thus are redundant(Pike, 2001e). In geomorphology, for example, the hypsometric integraldiffers little from elevation skewness (Pike, 2001a). If, or to what extent,the two most recently proposed candidates mimic existing, and perhapssimpler, measures remains to be determined (Guth, 1999b; Pike, 2001d).

Tectonic Geomorphology as Neo-Orometry

Global DEMs of Earth and Mars, as well as coverage of Earth's seafloorand ice caps, have fostered terrain modeling at broad spatial and

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temporal scales (van der Beek and Braun, 1998; Clayton and Shamoon,1999; Whipple and others, 1999). In some respects, this trend returnsmorphometry to its origins in the quantitative generalities sought by vonHumboldt (1817, 1843c) and his successors (Sonklar, 1860, 1866;Stange, 1885), but with a sophistication and emphasis on geologicprocess that were absent from the older work (Hurtrez and others, 1999;Yamada 1999, 2001a, b; Bendick and Bilham, 2001; Bishop and others,2002). Orometry, the 19th-Century measurement of mountains (Penck,1894b), is echoed today in tectonic geomorphology, which interpretslandscape evolution from DEM data and assumptions of physical processthat reflect the interplay of mountain building and erosion in regions ofactive deformation (Summerfield, 2000; Burbank and Anderson, 2001;Pazzaglia and Knuepfer, 2001).

By testing theory in controlled experiments (Ahnert, 1966), the broad-scale quantification of topography has helped transform tectonicgeomorphology into one of the most active and exciting fields in the Earthsciences (Hovius, 1996; Talling, 1997; Miliaresis and Argialas, 1999a–c;Miliaresis, 2001a, b; Kühni and Pfiffner, 2001a, b; Dietrich and others,2002). GTOPO30 and other DEM data are being used to modelgeodynamic and surface processes, rates, and physiographic effects(Whipple and Tucker, 1999; Rice-Snow and Russell, 2000; Montgomeryand others, 2001; Montgomery and Brandon, 2002; Azor and others,2002). In related work requiring large DEMs, classic drainage-basinmorphometry has expanded beyond single catchments and fluvialsystems (Strahler, 1956, 1958). Current applications include tidal creeksystems (Cleveringa and Oost, 1999) and the hydrologic parsing of entirecontinents (Danielson, 1998; Kumar and others, 2000; Vaughn andothers, 1999) and planets (Verdin and Verdin, 1999; Vörösmarty andothers, 2000a; Cabrol and Grin, 2001; Smith and others, 2001).


The numerical modeling of terrain is now evident in landscape ecologyand wildlife and conservation biology (Meisel and Turner, 1998). Thesefields traditionally have emphasized spatial over relief attributes of theEarth's surface (Gustafson, 1998; Li, Lu, and others, 2001; Raines, 2002).Although land-surface form affects distribution of plants and the faunathat need them for concealment, food, nesting, and other functions, fewhabitat models have incorporated topography (Vales, 1996). Even whenincluded, characterization of the ground surface usually is limited to

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elementary DEM-derived parameters: elevation and slope gradient andaspect—which are insufficient for many field-biological applications.

Such attributes of terrain as roughness, which incorporates both slopesteepness and spacing, and site position with respect to the nearestvalley bottom or ridge crest are important to local fauna because theyinfluence microclimate, cover from predation, and susceptibility todisturbance by humans. The literature on biogeography is starting toreflect a more complex numerical characterization of topography. Recentexamples include topographic determinants of butterfly habitats(Fleishmann and Mac Nally, 2002), ruggedness indices that quantifytopographic heterogeneity (Riley and others, 1999) and predict thedistribution of musk oxen (Nellemann and Reynolds, 1997), and GISmodels such as that by Gustafson and others (2001), which combineshillslope position and its correlation with soil moisture to model theresponse of salamanders to alternative plans for forest management.

Ice-cap Morphometry

Dating from the pioneering hypsometric curves of Greenland and theArctic (Meinardus, 1926) and the first DEM of Antarctica (Budd and others,1984), over two dozen bibliographic entries describe the morphometry ofEarth's largest ice-covered surfaces. Topographic measurements areneeded to understand the interaction of ice sheets with global climateand sea level. Much of the 10-25 cm rise in sea level over the last 100years may reflect waning polar ice caps. Mass balance, which describeswhether an ice sheet is growing, shrinking, or stable, may be estimatedfrom data on the rate of ice thickening or thinning (Krabill and others,2000). Because polar ice sheets are large, remote, and change slowly,systematic observations on elevation and thickness have been difficult toobtain.

Remote-sensing technology dramatically increased the ease ofmeasurement (Bamber and others, 1998; Bindschadler and others, 1999;Liu and others, 1999; Thomas and others, 1999; Rémy and others, 2001).Not only have accurate DEMs been compiled for the major ice caps(Bingham and Rees, 1999; Bamber and others, 2001), but large 'icebasins' analogous to fluvial catchments have been delimited from theDEMs (Vaughn and other, 1999; Hardy and others, 2000). Other workhas quantified subglacial bedrock surfaces and thus estimated ice-capthickness and volume (Warner and Budd, 2000; Björnsson and others,2000; Lythe and others, 2001). Not all high-latitude morphometry is of

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regional extent. Bintanja and others (2001), for example, have quantifiedfine-scale ripples in polar-cap ice.

The Mars Global DEM

Terrain modeling is indispensable to the investigation of planetarysurfaces (Pike, 2001a). Extraterrestrial landforms recently studied fromheight measurements include impact craters, volcanoes, scarps, andother features on the Moon (Craddock and Howard, 1999), Mercury(Watters and others, 2002), Venus (Bulmer and Wilson, 1999; Herrick andSharpton, 2000), and the satellites of Jupiter (Schenk and others, 2001;Schenk, 2002). Measurement-driven progress in the quantitativegeomorphology of Mars has been spectacular. Over a dozen entriesdescribe morphometric results from topographic data acquired by theMars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), a 10-Hz pulsed infrared-ranginginstrument operated in orbit around the planet from 1997 to 2001 aboardthe Mars Global Surveyor.

As the mission progressed, a global DEM compiled from rangemeasurements improved in spatial resolution from 59 km to 12 km and toas little as 230 m locally, and in vertical accuracy to ±1 m (Neumann andothers, 2001). The resulting global topographic map is the most accurateof any planet in the solar system (Smith and others, 1999; Zuber andothers, 1998a, b, 1999, 2001). Geomorphic findings from the MOLA DEMinclude confirmation of the extraordinary smoothness of the planet'snorthern hemisphere (Aharonson and others, 1998), regional hypsometryand slope gradients (Head and others, 1999; Kreslavsky and Head, 2000;Aharonson and others, 2001), discovery of a new multi-ring impact basin(Frey and others, 1999), refinement of crater depth/diameter relations(Garvin and Frawley, 1998; Garvin and others, 2000), and delineation andinterpretation of valley networks and watersheds (Smith and others,2001; Williams and Phillips; Stepinski and others, 2002).

Landslide-hazard Assessment

The flurry of activity in mapping landslide susceptibility since its earliermention in this series (Pike, 1999) warrants revisiting the topic. Becausethe morphology of landslide source-areas and deposits can be describedin geometric terms, slope failure rivals flooding as the geomorphic hazardmost amenable to analysis through terrain modeling. The spread of DEMs

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and GIS technology has shifted emphasis in morphometry fromcharacterizing individual landslides (Collin, 1846; Simonett, 1967; Waltz,1971) to regional assessment of slope stability (Jäger and Wieczorek,1994; Montgomery and Dietrich, 1994; Atkinson and Massari, 1998;Dietrich and Montgomery, 1998b). Much of the recent work has involvedthe spatial modeling of landslide susceptibility, the relative likelihood thata hillside site will fail upon occurrence of a triggering event, such as anearthquake or heavy or persistent rainfall. Two dozen entries in thisreport sample a small fraction of the current literature on susceptibilitymapping, which combines variously slope gradient, curvature, and aspectwith geology, evidence of prior failure, and land use (Larsen and Parks,1998; Mason and others, 1998; Pack and others, 1999; Bucknarn andothers, 2001; Coe and Godt, 2001; Gritzner and others, 2001; Pike andothers, 2001).

Physics and Terrain Modeling

Recent interest in theoretical aspects of terrain modeling by researcherswho are physicists, mathematicians, or engineers rather than Earthscientists may reflect a maturing of the discipline (Arakawa and Krotkov,1994; Brown and others, 1994; Dodds and Rothman,1999, 2000; Glanz,1999). Complementing this trend, Earth scientists are beginning topublish on topography in physics journals (Clarke, 1997; Pastor-Satorrasand Rothman, 1998a, b; Schörghofer and Rothman, 2001). Much of thisnew work was prompted by the use of topography in explicating fractal-surface phenomena (Dubuc and Dubuc, 1996; Struzik, 1996) and byrecognition of self-organizing properties in the landscape (Bak andothers, 1987; Halsey, 2000; Mandelbrot, 2002). More attention has beenaccorded to planimetric description of river networks (Tokunaga, 1994;Newman and others, 1997; Dodds and Rothman, 2001a, b, c) than to themore complicated problem of characterizing relief, or Z-domain, attributesof continuous topography (Mandelbrot, 1985; Koenderink and van Doorn,1993, 1994, 1998).

Hack's Law

The post-World War II USGS geomorphologist John Hack combined terrainmodeling with a more traditional interpretation of field observations (Hackand Goodlett, 1960; Hack, 1965). His enduring 1957 contribution, knownas Hack's Law, is an empirical relation with moderate scatter, L = 1.4 A0.6,

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showing that drainage-basin area A increases exponentially with channellength L. (see also, Makkaveev, 1955). The significance of the equationwas discussed throughout the 1960s and 1970s, centering on debateover the exact value of the exponent—the observed range was0.47–0.65—and whether it varied regionally and with basin size (Miller,1958; Mueller, 1972, 1973; Moseley and Parker, 1973; Shreve, 1974).Advances in understanding steady-state scaling of landscapephenomena, resulting from DEM-based analysis of topography in the early1990s, have revived interest in Hack's Law. Hovius (1996), for example,suggested that the equation was related to the spacing of streamsdraining mountain belts, while Rinaldo and Rodríguez-Iturbe (1998)considered Hack's Law and basin elongation to be an outgrowth of fractalproperties. Among the most recent interpretations are those of Doddsand Rothman (2000, 2001a), Willemin (2000), Birnir and others (2001),and Sivapalan and others (2002).

Broad-scale Visualization

Vigil and others (2000) merged two existing digital images of the lower 48United States, shaded relief and geologic time (expressed as geologic-map units), into one map, a colored three-dimensional perspective view ofthe landscape at 1:3,500,000 scale. The resulting digital 'tapestry' isamong the more effective combinations of shaded relief with other spatialdata and has potential for Earth-science education (Leech and others,2002). The geologic map, a multi-color, non-uniform vector file, wasconverted to raster structure and overlaid on the shaded-relief file, agray-scale raster at a uniform scale. Processing was not routine GIS.Differences between the source maps required various procedures tosubdue or remove irregularities in the merged image. Adjustingtransparency (opacity), color levels, and contrast of the geologic map toattain an aesthetic and visual balance between shaded relief andgeologic-time units was an iterative, trial-and-error process. The finalmap, occupying a modest 700 MB, did not require high-end hardware orcustom programming, but was processed on a PowerMacintosh desktopcomputer by Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop software. Barton andothers (2002, 2003) have created a similar image of the entire NorthAmerican continent at 1:8,000,000 scale from a later DEM (GTOPO30) anda combined geologic map of Canada, the U.S., and Latin America. Despitethe reduced scale, this latest map successfully extends the originaltapestry concept.

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Other Topics

Terrain modeling has progressed in areas besides those highlightedabove. Over 150 references, in 24 of the many subject categoriesrepresented in the appended listing, convey the extent of recentdevelopments in morphometry. Most of the following citations touch onseveral topics:

• ontology, or definition, of terrain and landforms, especially mountains(Agarwal and others, 1996; Mark and Smith, 2002a, b);

• conversion of contour lines to grid DEMs (Gousie, 1998; Gousie andFranklin, 1998; Franklin and Gousie, 1999);

• DEM error and accuracy (Webber, 1995; Giles and Franklin, 1996; Gao,1997; Gesch, 1998; Duh and Brown, 1999; Lemmens, 1999; Toutin,1999; Endreny and others, 2000; Gong and others, 2000; Krupnik,2000; Rees, 2000; López, 2002);

• compression of elevation data (Franklin, 1995; Franklin and Said, 1995;Kidner and Smith, 1997; Ottoson, 2001; Park and others, 2001; Bjørkeand Nilsen, 2002);

• impact of DEM error and grid spacing on terrain-modeling applications(Hunter and Goodchild, 1997; Brasington and Richards, 1998; Gesch,1999; Guth, 1999c; Walker and Willgoose, 1999; Holmes and others,2000; Wise, 2000; Wolock and McCabe, 2000; Canters and others,2002);

• the triangulated irregular network, TIN (Brown and others, 1994; Mark,1997; Ware and Kidner, 1997; Little and Shi, 1998, 2001; Park andothers, 2001; Wang and others, 2001; Zhu and others, 2001);

• computing terrain parameters from square-grid DEMs (Weih and Smith,1996; Jones, 1998; Defourny and others, 1999; Garbrecht and others,1999; Guth, 1999a, b, 2001; Meyer and others, 2001; Luo, 2002; Shary,2002; Shary and others, 2002);

• computing terrain parameters from elevation contours and flow lines(Schneider, 1998a, b; Menduni and Riboni, 2000; Mizukoshi and Aniya,2002);

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• visibility analysis and viewsheds (Wang and others, 1996; De Florianiand Magillo, 1999; Franklin, 2000; Messina and Stoffer, 2000; Wang andothers, 2000; Kidner and others, 2001; O'Sullivan and Turner, 2001);

• computer visualization of irregular surfaces (Banks and Wickens, 1997;Duchaineau and others, 1997; Valentine and others, 1998, 2001;Eckhardt and others, 2000; Gardner and others, 2000a, b; Malzbenderand others, 2001; Mossman, 2001; Yokoyama and others, 2002);

• extracting drainage lines and watersheds from DEMs (Soille and Gratin,1994; ESRI, 1997; Danielson, 1998; ASCE Task Committee, 1999; Band,1999; Bertolo, 2000; Djokic and Ye, 2000; Garbrecht and Martz, 2000;Liang and Mackay, 2000; Saunders, 2000; Jones, 2002);

• hillside erosion and slope evolution (Pastor-Satorras and Rothman,1998a, b; Katsube and Oguchi, 1999; Favis-Mortlock and others, 2000;Iwahashi and others, 2001; Roering and others, 2001);

• fluvial step-pools (Chin, 1999; Chartrand and Whiting, 2000; Ducksonand Duckson 2001; Madej, 2001); Jackson and Sturm, 2002);

• self-similar and fractal properties of streams and topography (Tate,1998a, b; Cleveringa and Oost, 1999; fa*gherazzi and others, 1999a–c;Peckham and Gupta, 1999; Pelletier, 1999; Sulebak, 1999; Venezianoand Iacobellis, 1999);

• scaling of river networks and runoff processes (Dietrich andMontgomery, 1998a; Dodds and Rothman, 2000; Schmidt and others,2000; Veneziano and Niemann, 2000a, b; Fekete and others, 2001;Tang and Day, 2000);

• aeolian dunes (Kar and others, 1998; Wadhawan, 1998; Gay, 1999;Goudie and others, 1999; Jimenez and others, 1999; Sauermann andothers, 2000; Bishop, 2001; Al Harthi, 2002);

• glacial landforms (Davis, 1999; Evans, 1999; Etzelmüller and Björnsson,2000; García-Ruiz and others, 2000; MacGregor and others, 2000; Liand others, 2001a, b);

• volcanic landforms (Rossi, 1999; Stevens and others, 1999; Wichman,1999; Carn, 2000; Schenk and others, 2001; Stoddard and Jurdy,2002);

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• submarine surfaces and features (Nolan and others, 1999; Adams andSchlager, 2000; Clague and others, 2000; McAdoo and others, 2000;Dunn and others, 2001; Mitchell, 2001);

• karst features (Magdalene and Alexander, 1995; Sykioti and others,1996; Ferrarese and others, 1998; Whitman and others, 1999;Denizman and Randazzo, 2000);

• relation of ground-surface form to soil properties (Vivas and PazGonzalez, 1998; Crawford and others, 1999; Thomas and others, 1999;Bochet and others, 2000; Florinsky and Kuryakova, 2000; Sulebak andothers, 2000; Fraisse and others, 2001; Manning and others, 2001;Thompson and others, 2001; Florinsky and others, 2002);

• agricultural fields (Remond and others, 1999; Inamdar and Dillaha,2000; Fraisse and others, 2001; Takken and others, 2001; Wilson andothers, 2001; Planchon and others, 2002; Zobeck and Popham, 2002);

• predicting flood inundation (Cohen and Small, 1998; Ramsey andothers, 1998; Small and Cohen, 1999; Bae and others, 2000; Bates andDeRoo, 2000; Marks and Bates, 2000; Nicholls and Small, 2002); and

• numerical classification of terrain, by types and regions (Dikau, 1996;Friedrich, 1996, 1998; Brabyn, 1997; Bivand, 1999; Gimel'farb andothers, 1999; Miliaresis and Argialas, 1999a–c; Schmidt and Dikau,1999; Verdin and Verdin, 1999; Cronin, 2000).

New Books

Book-length publications continue to mark advances in terrain modelingand its supporting technologies. Among recent volumes are thoseauthored by Burbank and Anderson (2001) and edited by Wilson andGallant (2000), Maune (2001), and Pazzaglia and Knuepfer (2001).Papers from three morphometry-oriented sessions of the 5thInternational Conference on Geomorphology in Tokyo (2001) are beingedited by Evans, Dikau, Tokunaga, Ohmori, and Hirano for a 2003 bookprovisionally titled Concepts and Modeling in Geomorphology.

Publication of Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications (Wilson andGallant, 2000) was a major event. Celebrating the work of Ian Moore(1951-1993), the book began as the proceedings of a 1996 Australianworkshop, Creation and Applications of DEMs in Land Resource

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Assessment. Much updated from the papers read at the meeting, thebook focuses on TAPES (Terrain Analysis Programs for the EnvironmentalSciences), a set of computer algorithms for quantifying terrain with specialreference to hydrology and ecology (for example, Moore and others,1988). Among the most informative of the 16 chapters are the firstfive—by Gallant and Wilson, Hutchinson and Gallant, Wilson and Gallant(two), and Wilson and others (all 2000)—which introduce and describethe various TAPES programs. The remaining 11 articles report a variety ofapplications, some of which illustrate the chronic problem of noisy DEMs.

Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications, edited by DavidMaune (2001) for the American Society for Photogrammetry and RemoteSensing, is subtitled The DEM Users Manual. Prepared by industryspecialists in remote sensing rather than by academic scientists, the bookis strong on the basics of acquiring and preprocessing square-grid digitalelevation data, principally for the U.S. Applications in terrain modeling perse are limited to a few examples. After an introduction to DEMterminology and concepts, the remaining 12 chapters address verticaldatums, accuracy standards, the USGS National Digital Elevation Program,photogrammetry, IfSAR, Topographic LiDAR, airborne LiDAR bathymetry,Sonar, the various enabling technologies, a sampling of DEM applications,DEM quality assessment, and likely requirements of the DEM user. Whileuseful, much of the material could quickly become dated by advances intechniques of data acquisition and processing.

Quantified topography is essential to the analysis of landscapes shapedby diastrophism. The last two chapters of Burbank and Anderson's(2001) textbook Tectonic Geomorphology draw from published researchinto the DEM-based� modeling of geodynamic and surface process.Illustrated are elevation and slope distributions for highland subregions,drainage spacing as a function of mountain-belt width, valley height/widthratios and other morphometric attributes, and models of landscapeevolution constructed from the diffusion equation and a range ofassumptions about process and temporal and spatial scale. In addition,five of the eight papers in a special 2001 volume of the American Journalof Science edited by Pazzaglia and Knuepfer, The steady-state orogen:concepts, field observations, and models—by Whipple, Pazzaglia andBrandon, Montgomery, Willett and others, and Stark and Stark—containDEM-based analyses of erosion and tectonism that contribute tounderstanding the evolution of mountain topography.

Two books, by Stout and others (2000) and edited by Stout and Blunt(2000), update the three-dimensional quantification of micro- and nano-

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surfaces from ultra-fine-scale DEMS. This 1990s breakthrough intechnique revolutionized the field of industrial-surface metrology, terrainmodeling's sister discipline in manufacturing and production engineering.Shorter advances in 3-D metrology include Stout and others (1999);Thomas and others (1999); Blunt and Stout (2001); Wieczorowski (2001);and Assender and others (2002). Among works of historical importancethat have come to light are Abbott and Firestone (1933), Kramrisch(1935), and Schmaltz (1936). Pike (2000b, 2001b, c) explored theconvergence of Earth-science and industrial practices of surfacequantification.

A New Internet Resource

The visibility of terrain modeling on the World Wide Web grew in 2000with the inauguration of an on-line bulletin board, The GeomorphometryMailing List. Maintained by Dr. George Miliaresis, a former student ofDemetre Argialas (Argialas and Miliaresis, 1997b, 2000, 2001) and now inthe Department of Surveying and Regional Planning at the NationalTechnical University of Athens, the English-language list had about 400subscribers by late 2002. The URL ishttp://groups.yahoo.com/group/geomorphometry/. Miliaresis' list "...points out information resources for ... geomorphometry and theprocessing of digital elevation models, related conferences, dataavailability, algorithms and methods, scientific news, etc. The aim is topromote geomorphometry to new scientists and to integrate advances ingeomorphometry and news that are distributed in various fields (remotesensing, geography, geology, surveying, etc.)." Besides serving as afocus for the terrain-modeling community, the list supplements the aging1999 on-line article Web Resources Compiled For Terrain Modeling, athttp://www.agu.org/eos_elec/97260e.html. Other new Internetresources include Discoe (2002), on terrain rendering and animation, andChilds (2002), a repository of current hands-on experience in terrainmodeling and digital mapping.

Early Morphometry: Ridges and Watercourses

About 200 of the bibliographic entries listed in this report are over fiftyyears old and half of them predate 1900. The concepts evolved from19th-Century orometry and later obsolete work, distant as they are, haveshaped much of today's terrain modeling. John Playfair's (1802)

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explication of the ideas of James Hutton, for example, recognized not onlyan orderly confluence of streams and their valleys, but also that theupstream angle at which a tributary meets its trunk stream generally isacute (1802, p. 113-114). The latter observation, which was known toImmanuel Kant (1803, v. 3, p. 18) may be even older. A prescient mid-19th Century contribution, although it little affected the science because itwas so advanced for the time, is the 1834 paper by Julian Jackson, whodevised a primitive—but unmistakable—precursor to the Gravelius-Horton-Strahler system of stream ordering.

Among the best examples of current terrain modeling rooted in earlypractice is the geometric representation of topographic curvature. Twodozen entries in this report, which elaborate on the historic materialdiscussed in Rieger (1997) and López (1997, 1999) as well as on mytranslations of short passages from some of the following citations,chronicle the 200-year evolution of mathematical definition of ridges,watercourses, and hillside flow-lines. The 19th-Century context isrevealing: While German geographers were quantifyingKüstenentwicklungen, 'coastal development' or more accurately its degreeof planform convolution (Humboldt, 1817, 1835; Nagel, 1835; Reuschle,1869)—an intricate coastline was thought to favor the rise of 'moreadvanced', i.e. industrialized, societies)—or calculating the volume andmean height of mountains and continents (Humboldt, 1843c; Koristka,1858; Sonklar, 1872; Penck, 1886, 1894b), French civil engineers andmathematicians were developing a geometric model to characterizetopography's most fundamental features.

Well before Arthur Cayley's 1859 paper "On hills and dales" and CarlGauss' (1827) paper on curved surfaces, Dupuis de Torcy and Brisson(1808, reprinted in Brisson, 1829) conceptualized topographic ridges andvalleys as special cases of downslope flow-lines normal to heightcontours. (Cayley and Gauss cited neither of these nor their other Frenchpredecessors identified below.) This early (the first?) representation ofthe land surface by descriptive geometry—Barnabé Brisson, a geometerand civil engineer, was a student of Gaspard Monge, the inventor ofdescriptive geometry—arose from a practical problem. The French hadbeen the first to map height contours regionally, but also were leaders inthe engineering of modern canals. The lay of the land and the designcompromises it forced upon civil engineers were major considerations inestimating the cost of canals, which could either follow a straight courseor trace a sinuous path dictated by the terrain. A canal aligned alongrelief contours resulted in a longer and less direct course, but requiredfewer expensive earthworks and locks. Dupuis de Torcy and Brisson

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proposed applying descriptive geometry to the spot heights indicated ontopographic maps, rather than employing the usual field surveys, tolocate the divides that separate adjacent large watersheds—thusidentifying candidate canal-routes and facilitating cost estimates for cut-and-fill engineering.

This pioneering work in applied surface-geometry was picked up by J.C.Saint-Venant (1852). The French mathematician and civil engineer wasperhaps the first to define ridges and valleys explicitly as points ofminimum slope—compared to other points at the sameelevation—although he did not specify the zero-sloping flow-lines thatform the drainage pattern. Shortly thereafter, his countryman P.-E.Breton de Champ (1854) offered a new theorem to redress thisshortcoming and elaborated his proposed solution in subsequent papers(1861, 1867, 1870, 1877). Breton de Champs' earliest work precedes the1858 paper "Démonstration d'une propriété général des surfacesfermées" of Ferdinand (née Frédéric) Reech, the Alsatian thermo- andhydrodynamicist who specified 'critical points' of zero slope on continuoussmooth surfaces in descriptive-geometric terms. (A free Englishtranslation of Reech's paper was rendered by Warntz, 1967). Thehydrodynamicist and mathematical physicist Joseph Boussinesq, a pupil ofSaint-Venant, also noted that Saint-Venant's 1852 formulation wasincomplete, and developed his own ideas (Boussinesq, 1871, 1872a, b) ina series of exchanges with the French scientist and mathematician M.E.C.Jordan (1872a, b, c). None of the post-1858 works referred to here citeReech's paper.

The problem of describing slope curvature appears to have attracted littlefurther attention until Müller (1912) cited some of the older French papersin his textbook, wherein he ascribed the earliest descriptive-geometrictreatment of ridges and watercourses to Dupuis de Torcy and Brisson(1808). Evidently stimulated by Müller's retrospective, Rothe (1915)further reviewed the French literature, criticizing the formulation ofJordan, and devised yet another geometric definition of ridges and valleysthat he claimed solved the problem. Decades lapsed until Rothe'sdefinition was noticed by present-day investigators concerned with themathematical description of complex surfaces other than topography.Recently, Rothe's work was rediscovered by López (1997, 1999) and byRieger (1997; pers. comm., e-mail, 09/2001), who disputes the Rothesolution and prefers Jordan's (1872a) definition of ridges andwatercourses. Not all contemporary work stems from the foregoingevolution. The characterization of terrain-surface curvature by Shary(2001) and Shary and others (2002), for example, is grounded in the

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concepts articulated by Gauss (1827) as also, evidently, has been thecurvature-based terrain work of Krcho (1983, 1999).

The descriptive-geometric representation of ridge lines and watercoursesis powerful and widely applied (Reeb, 1946; Kweon and Kanade, 1994;Brassard, 1998; Rana and Morley, 2002). Terrain-derived concepts havehelped shape research in computer vision and image segmentation, muchof which characterizes surfaces other than terrestrial landscapes (Burland others, 1994; López, 1997; Rieger, 1997; Souille, 1999). The mostrecent development in machine vision, on-the-fly rendering of digitalterrain (Duchaineau and others, 1997), brings the descriptive geometry ofirregular surfaces full circle, to natural topography, as computer-gamedevelopers attempt to create realistic animations of landscapes forcommercial video products (Lindstrom and others, 1996; Blow, 2000;Discoe, 2001). This cutting-edge application of terrain modeling toleisure-time mass entertainment probably commands more financialresources than all geomorphic and hydrologic morphometry combined.Most topographic animation employs some variant of the TIN model (Wareand Kidner, 1997). The military follows a similar approach in some of itsthree-dimensional simulations of battlefield scenarios (Banks andWickens, 1997; Thompson and others, 1998), although other defenseapplications are based on square-grid DEMs (Franklin, 1994).

Citation Accuracy and Additions

Incorrect and incomplete citations—through failure to consult originalworks, careless manuscript preparation, unproofed typesetting, or,recently, computer errors—are an irritating fact of life. The author triednot to perpetuate them here—or worse, create new ones. However,mistakes invariably enter a large and detailed reference list even when,as in this case, all entries were recorded by one individual in a computerfile that has been repeatedly checked and updated. Instances of theerrors noted above remain and are the author's responsibility. May theybe few and not unduly misleading. Mistakes and omissions found byreaders should be referred to the author so that corrections can bereleased in an addendum or in a more formal publication of thebibliography.

Contributions to this archive from its readers would help fill gaps in theterrain-modeling record, improve annotation, and correct mistakes.Especially desired are current and historical morphometric references thatare not readily available in the United States, such as non-English-

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language publications from central and eastern Europe and declassifiedmilitary reports. Work from France and India also is underrepresented.The earlier bibliographies in this series are available for exchange forcopies of contributed papers. To reduce ambiguity and ensure accuracy,please send reprints or photocopies of contributions rather than just thecitations, if possible. However, new entries can be added from thefollowing brief information:

1. photocopy of title page, or• title of the work, and• the name(s) of author(s); surname plus two initials (or, if one given name, then spelled out)

2. year of publication3. complete citation of journal or other form of publication (book,

conference proceedings, and so forth), including volume number, issuenumber, and inclusive pages. For meetings give location and dates; forbooks the name of city and publisher

4. for publications in languages other than French, German, and Spanish,an English translation of the title and source only.

Address correspondence to:Richard J. PikeM/S 975U.S. Geological Survey345 Middlefield RoadMenlo Park, CA 94025 U.S.A.FAX [650] 329-4936e-mail: [emailprotected]

Acknowledgments: I thank Igor Florinsky for his list of Russianreferences and Stefan Rasemann, Antonio López, Ronny Peikert, andJoachim Rieger for copies of French and German publications as well asleads to further sources of information. Comments by USGS colleaguesPhil Stoffer and Charles Powell II improved the report.


Pike, R.J., 1993, A bibliography of geomorphometry, with a topical key to theliterature and an introduction to the numerical characterization of topographic

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form: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 93-262A, 132 p. Open-file Report93-262B.

-------- 1995, A bibliography of geomorphometry, the quantitative representationof topography—Supplement 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file Report 95-046, 30 p.

-------- 1996, A bibliography of geomorphometry, the quantitative representationof topography—Supplement 2.0: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file Report 96-726, 52 p.

-------- 1999, A bibliography of geomorphometry, the quantitative representationof topography—Supplement 3.0: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file Report 99-140, 57 p.

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Aasgaard, Rune, and Sevaldrud, Thomas, 2001, Distributed handling of level of detail surfaces withbinary triangle trees, in ScanGIS'2001, Scandinavian Research Conference on GeographicalInformation Science 8th, Ås, Norway, 25-27 June, Proceedings: p. 45-58;<http://www.nlh.no/conf/scangis2001/papers/27.pdf>. [modifies the ROAM algorithm; based on J.Blow's 2000 paper]

Abbott, E.J. and Firestone, F.A., 1933, Specifying surface quality—a method based on accuratemeasurement and comparison: Mechanical Engineering, v. 55, no. 9, p. 569-72. [famous earlymetrology paper; depth/% bearing area curves fr. profilograph ≈ hypsometric curves!]

Abrahams, A.D., 1970, An evaluation of Melton's order-by-order growth analysis: AustralianGeographical Studies, v. 8, no. 1, p. 57-70. [o-b-o slope coeff. neither indicates remaining reliefnor relief lowered as net grows]

Abrahams, A.D., 1970, Towards a precise definition of drainage basin axis—comment: AustralianGeographical Studies, v. 8, no. 1, p. 84-87. [criticizes Ongley's 1968 measure of basin axis &proposes alternatives]

Abrahams, A.D., 1972, Drainage densities and sediment yields in eastern Australia: AustralianGeographical Studies, v. 10, no. 1, p. 19-41. [Dd/Sy relation largely similar to that of USA]

Abrahams, A.D., 1972, Factor analysis of drainage basin properties—Evidence for stream abstractionaccompanying the degradation of relief: Water Resources Research, v. 8, no. 3, p. 624-633. [5var., 3rd. order; cautious use of FA]

Ackermann, F.E., 1979, The accuracy of digital terrain models, in Photogrammetric Week, 37th, 24-28 September, University of Stuttgart, Proceedings: p. 113-143. [experimental tests]

Ackermann, F.E., 1994, Digital elevation models—techniques and applications, quality standards,development: Atlanta, GA, IAPRS, v. 30/4, Comm. IV, p. 421-432. [review of photogrammetricDEM issues]

Ackermann, F.E., 1996, Techniques and strategies for DEM generation, in Digital Photogrammetry,an addendum to the Manual of Photogrammetry: Bethesda MD, American Society forPhotogrammetry and Remote Sensing, p. 135-147; see alsohttp://phot.epfl.ch/workshop/wks96/art_3_4.html. [topo parameters for quality control]

Ackermann, F.E, and Krzystek, P., 1995, New investigations into the technical performance ofautomatic DEM generation, in ASPRS/ACSM annual convention, Charlotte NC 1995, Proceedings:v. 2, p. 488-500; http://phot.epfl.ch/workshop/wks96/art_3_4.html. [the MATCH-T system createsDEMs fr digital photogrammetry]

Adams, E.W., and Schlager, Wolfgang, 2000, Basic types of submarine slope curvature: Journal ofSedimentary Research, v. 70, no. 4, p. 814-828. [of 150 seismic profiles, 12% are linear, 20%exponential, & 1/2 Gaussian]

Adams, E.W., Schlager, Wolfgang, and Anselmetti, F.S., 2001, Morphology and curvature of deltaslopes in Swiss lakes—lessons for the interpretation of clinoforms in seismic data: Sedimentology,v. 48, no. 3, p. 661-679. [curve-fitting fr Adams & Schlager 2000; slope h & angle & break depth]

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Adams, E.W., Schlager, Wolfgang, and Wattel, Evert, 1998, Submarine slopes with an exponentalcurvature: Sedimentary Geology, v. 117, nos. 3-4, p. 135-141. [of 120 seismic profiles, 18 areconcave-upward exp.]

Agarwal, Pankaj, de Berg, Mark, Bose, Prosenjit, Dobrint, Katrin, van Kreveld, Marc, Overmars, Mark,de Groot, Marko, Roos, Thomas, Snoeyink, Jack, and Yu, Sidi, 1996, The complexity of rivers intriangulated terrains, in Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry 8th, CCCG'96, August12-15, Carleton University, Ottawa, Proceedings: p. 325-330. [extend formal definitions of Franket al. 1986; if terrain has n triangles, then C, in no. line segments, ≈ Q(n3)]

Aggarwal, S., and eight others, 2000, Spontaneous ordering of oxide nanostructures: Science, v.287, no. 5461, p. 2235-2237. [tall conical hillocks of PdO2; height, base diam., areal density onfilm]

Agterberg, F.P., 1999, Review of 'Fractals and Chaos in Geology and Geophysics, 2nd Ed.' byDonald L. Turcotte: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 1, p. 93-99. [likes it; addsmultifractals, self-org. criticality, wavelets; difficult material well explained]

Aharonson, Oded, Zuber, M.T., Neumann, G.A., and Head, J.W. III, 1998, Mars—northernhemisphere slopes and slope distributions: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, no. 24, p. 4413-4416. [Elev. & slope of var. geol-topo provinces (v. smooth); comp. w/ other planets]

Aharonson, Oded, Phillips, R.J., Rothman, D.H., Zuber, M.T., and Williams, R.M.E., 2000, Valleynetworks and topographic gradients on Mars—correlations and their dependence on scale (abs.):Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 48 (Supplement, P52C-05), p.F773. [local slope (fr DEM) agrees best w/ network direction at 90km]

Aharonson, Oded, Zuber, M.T., and Rothman, D.H., 2001, Statistics of Mars' topography from theMars Orbiter Laser Altimeter—slopes, correlations, and physical models: Journal of GeophysicalResearch, v. 106, no. E10, p. 23,723-23,735. [regional hypsometry, profiles, slope histograms,PSD]

Ahmadzadeh, M.R., and Petrou, Maria, 2001, Error statistics for slope and aspect when derived frominterpolated data: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 39, no. 9, p. 1823-1833. [mean & variance of model error distr.= f(terrain roughness & subsampling rate)]

Ahnert, Frank, 1966, Zur Rolle der elektronischen Rechenmaschine und des mathematischenModells in der Geomorphologie (in German): Geographische Zeitschrift, v. 54, no. 2, p. 118-133.[suggests volume & hypsometry can be calc. by computer]

Akagiri, Takekazu, Niwa, Shunji, Suzuki, Katuyoshi, and Nemoto, Masami, 1990, A research of slopefailure using orthophotomaps: Bulletin of the Geographical Survey Institute, v. 35, p. 35-45. [5-mDEM descr. individ. slides; slope, catchment area & soil depth control slides]

Al-Harthi, A.A., 2002, Geohazard assessment of sand dunes between Jeddah and Al-Lith, westernSaudi Arabia: Environmental Geology, v. 42, no. 4, p. 360-369. [linear h/W fit for 30 barchanshas highest R2 of 21 correls.]

Allemand, P., and Thomas, P.G., 1995, Localization of Martian ridges by impact craters—mechanicaland chronological implications: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 100, no. E2, p. 3251-3262.[distr. of ridge spacing & ridge-crater distance; linear rel. of ridge width to graben width]

Allen, P.A., and Hovius, Niels, 1998, Sediment supply from landslide-dominatedcatchments—implications for basin-margin fans: Basin Research, v. 10, no. 1, p. 19-35.[basin/fan A ratios for arid-area fans (n= 116) vary widely (0.1-10.0); 35 sets of c & n values frpower-law fits in literature]

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Alsdorf, D.E., and Smith, L.C., 1999, Interferometric SAR observations of ice topography and velocitychanges related to the 1996, Gjálp subglacial eruption, Iceland: International Journal of RemoteSensing, v. 20, no. 15 & 16, p. 3031-3050. [pre- & post-eruption topo. from ERS-1/2 data onVatnajökull ice cap]

American Society of Photogrammetry, 1978, Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Symposium, St. Louis,Missouri, May 9-11, Falls Church, VA, Proceedings: 624 p. [first-ever big DEM meeting; allpresentations; only Mark (p. 24-31) & Peucker et al. (p. 516-540) commonly cited now]

Anbalagan, R., 1992, Terrain evaluation and landslide hazard zonation for environmentalregeneration and land use planning in mountainous terrain, in Bell, D.H., ed., Landslides,International Symposium 6th, 10-14 February, Christchurch NZ, Proceedings: Rotterdam, Balkema,v. 2, p. 861-868. [no DEM; terrain facets; variables include slope type & angle, & relief]

Andrews, J.T., 1961, The devlopment of scree slopes in the English Lake District and CentralLabrador: Cahiers Géographie de Québec, v. 10, p. 219-230. [measured & compared profiles oftalus slopes]

Andrews, J.T., 1971, Quantitative analysis of the factors controlling the distribution of corrie glaciersin Okoa Bay, East Baffin Island (with particular reference to global radiation, in Morisawa, M.E., ed.,Quantitative geomorphology—some aspects and applications, Binghamton, NY, AnnualGeomorphology Symposia Series, 2nd, October 15-16, Proceedings: p. 223-241. [size, elev.,geometry, azimuth, & spatial clustering for 165 cirques]

Andrews, J.T., and Dugdale, R.E., 1971, Quaternary history of Northern Cumberland Peninsula,Baffin Island, N.W.T., Part V—factors affecting corrie glacierization in Okoa Bay: QuaternaryResearch, v. 1, no. 4, p. 532-551. [details & expanded analysis of 17 x 165 dataset in Andrews1971]

Anonymous, 1963, Some recent developments in hill shading from air photographs in the Directorateof Overseas Surveys: Survey Review, v. 17, no. 127, p. 3-11. [pre-digital UK state-of-art; effectivecombination of layer tint, relief shading, & contours]

Anonymous, 1972, Automatic contouring: The Military Engineer, v. 64, no. 420 (July-August), p. 271.[ConPlot-II software interpolates 4 elevs. fr UNAMACE DEM; must smooth by editing]

Anonymous, 1990, Firefinder mask considerations, in Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for FieldArtillery Target Acquisition: Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C., FM 6-121,Appendix F, 5 p. http://www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/6-121/appf.pdf. [explains onecurrent military implementation of terrain mask-angle]

Anzidei, Marco, 1998, The marine digital terrain model of the Panarea Caldera (Aeolian Islands,southern Italy): Annali di Geofisica, v. 41, no. 2, p. 265-270. [active volc.; differential GPS &echo-sounding; +30 cm XY & +10 cm Z accy.]

Anzidei, Marco, Baldi, Paolo, Chiocci, F.L., Marsella, Maria, Martorelli, Eleonora, and Zanutta,Antonio, 2000, Integrazione tra un aerophotogrammetrico e batimetria swath—it DTMM (digitalterrain & marine model) del versante orientale e meridionale dell'Isola di Palmarola (Lazio) (in Italianwith english abstract & figure captions): Bolletino della Società Geologica Italiana, v. 119, no. 3, p.767-775. [how disparate subaerial & submarine data were combined in one hom*ogeneous 1.0m'DTMM']

Apaphant, M., and Bethel, J.S., 1997, Semi-automated conversion of hardcopy contour maps todigital form for DEM applications in GIS, in GIS/LIS'97 Annual Conference and Exposition, 28-30October, Cincinnati OH, Proceedings: p. 710-718. [no info]

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Arakawa, K., and Krotkov, E., 1994, Modeling of natural terrain based on fractal geometry: Systemsand Computers in Japan, v. 25, no. 11, p. 99-113. [method for computing D from a variogram;route planning for exploration by autonomous robots]

Argand, Émile, 1912, Sur de drainage des Alpes Occidentales et les influences tectoniques (inFrench): Proc. Verb. Soc. Vaudoise des Sc., Nature (Lausanne), 03 Avril, p. II-V. [1st used term'summit level', a '... surface defined by envelope of present-day summits ...']

Argialas, D.P., and Miliaresis, G.Ch., 1996, Physiographic knowledge acquisition—identification,conceptualization, and representation, in Annual Convention, American Society forPhotogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Proceedings: v. 1, p. 311-320. [expert systems: 1st oftheir Basin & Range morphometry]

Argialas, D.P., and Miliaresis, G.Ch., 1997a, An object oriented representation model for thelandforms of an arid climate intermontane basin—case study of Death Valley, California, in AnnualConference 23rd, Remote Sensing Society, Proceedings: p. 199-205. [expert systems: 2nd oftheir Basin & Range work]

Argialas, D.P., and Miliaresis, G.Ch., 1997b, Landform spatial knowledge acquisition—identification,conceptualization and representation, in Annual Convention, ACSM (57th)/ASPRS (63rd), SeattleWA, April 7-10: Technical Papers, p. 733-740. [expert systems: 3rd of their Basin & Range work]

Argialas, D.P., and Miliaresis, G.Ch., 2000, Physiographic region interpretation—formalization withrule-based structures and object hierarchies: International Archives of Photogrammetry and RemoteSensing, v. 33, Part B4, p. 91-98. [knowledge-based expert-system relates Basin & Rangephysiographic features, topographic forms, and landforms]

Argialas, D.P., and Miliaresis, G.Ch., 2001, Human factors in the interpretation of physiography bysymbolic and numerical representations within an expert system, in Hoffman, R.R., and Markman,A.B., eds., Interpreting remote sensing imagery—human factors: Boca Raton FL, Lewis Publ.(CRC), p. 59-81. [extracts mountains from GTOPO30, then gets size, elong., azimuth, elev.,roughness (elev. std. dev.), relief, hyps. integr., & slope]

Armstrong, A.C., 1987, Slopes, boundary conditions, and the development of convexo-concaveforms—some numerical experiments: Earth Surface Processes, v. 12, no. 1, p. 17-30. [var. slopeprofiles fr simple implementation of continuity-eqn model]

Arrighi, Patrice, and Soille, Pierre, 1999, From scanned topographic maps to digital elevation models,in Jongmans, D., Pirard, E., and Trefois, P., eds., Geovision'99, International Symposium onImaging Applications in Geology, May, Université de Liège, Belgium, Proceedings: p. 1-4.[complicated by textured backgrounds & data layers overlaid on contours]

Arthur, D.W.G., 1962, Some systematic visual lunar observations, in Kopal, Zdenêk, and Mikhailov,Z.K., eds., The Moon, IAU symposium no. 14, Pulkovo Observatory, USSR, December 1960,London & New York, Academic Press, p. 317-324. [d/D, h/D (good eqn), floor-width ratios forsimple craters; gen'l dome dimensions]

ASCE Task Committee, 1999, GIS Modules and Distributed Models of the Watershed: Reston VA,American Society of Civil Engineers, 120 p. [review & guide to DEM, TIN, DLG, & GIS applics.(DEM-to-watershed transformation, etc.) & software (9 pkgs.), big biblio]

Assender, Hazel, Bliznyuk, Valery, and Porfyrakis, Kyriakos, 2002, How surface topography relates tomaterials' properties: Science, v. 297, no. 5583, p. 973-976. [emph. soft-surface applics; relief,spacing, anisotropy; 2D autocorrel. fcn.]

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Atkins, Robert, 1994, TEC and TRAC to continue work on terrain resolution LOS sensitivity studyplan: Digital Data Digest (USACE/TEC), v. 4, no. 1, p. 5-7. [effort to improve line-of-sight calcs.;final report issued ~1996]

Atkinson, P.M., 1999, Geographical information science—geostatistics and uncertainty: Progress inPhysical Geography, v. 23, no. 1, p. 134-142. [several refs. on error in DEM's]

Atkinson, P.M., and Massari, Remo, 1998, Generalised linear modelling of susceptibility to landslidingin the central Apennines, Italy: Computers and Geosciences, v. 24, no. 4, p. 373-385. [GLM;geology & slope most signif.; results diff. for active vs. dormant slides]

Atkinson, P.M., Jiskoot, Hester, Massari, Remo, and Murray, Tavi, 1998, Generalised linear modellingin geomorphology: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms—Technical and Software Bulletin, v.23, p. 1185-1195. [unlike mult. regression, GLM combines continuous & categorical var.]

Augustinus, P.C., 1992, The influence of rock mass strength on glacial valley cross-profilemorphometry—a case study from the southern Alps, New Zealand: Earth Surface Processes andLandforms: v. 17, no. 1, p. 39-51. [form ratio, shape factor, drainage density, & 3 coeff. frquadratic curves (easier to fit to small-scale map); correl. analysis]

Azor, Antonio, Keller, E.A., and Yeats, R.S., 2002, Geomorphic indicators of active foldgrowth—South Mountain–Oak Ridge Anticline, Ventura Basin, southern California: GeologicalSociety of America Bulletin, v. 114, no. 6, p. 745-753. [quant. modeling of tectonicgeomorphology; elev, distance, sinuosity, valley h/W, hypsom. integr., drainage density]


Badura, Janusz, and Przybylski, Boguslaw, 1993, An attempt at application of selected morphometricmethods to estimation of neotectonic movements in the Sudety Mountains, SW Poland, and theirforeland (in Polish with English summary & figure captions): Folia Quaternaria, v. 64, p. 43-53.[isoline maps of valley (same stream order) height & stream length]

Bae, D.-H., Kim, J.-H., and Kwon, W.-T., 2000, A feasibility study of TOPMODEL for a floodforecasting model on a single watershed (in Korean with English abstract): Journal of Korea WaterResources Association, v. 33, no. 1, p. 87-97. [conclude is OK on Soyang River basin, thus OKfor all Korea]

Bak, Per, Tang, Chao, and Wiesenfeld, Kurt, 1987, Self-organized criticality—an explanation of 1/fnoise: Physical Review letters, v. 59, no. 4, p. 381-385. [their earliest statements of SOC; thesand-pile experiment; 'dynamical systems with spatial degrees of freedom naturally evolve into aself-organized critical point. Flicker noise, or 1/f noise, can be identified with the dynamics of thecritical state. This picture also yields insight into the origin of fractal objects']

Bald, William, 1841, An account of the construction of the models of the island of Achil, Clare Island,and the south-western district of Mayo, in Ireland: Report of the Tenth Meeting of the BritishAssociation for the Advancement of Science—Notices and abstracts of communications, GeologySection, Glasgow, August 1840, v. 9, p. 126-127. [quite exact; 4 & 8 in./mile; no VE; elevs fr.level, theodolite, sextant, & barometer]

Bamber, J.L, Ekholm, S., and Krabill, W., 1998, The accuracy of satellite radar altimeter data over theGreenland ice sheet determined from airborne laser data: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, no.16, p. 3177-3180. [new 2.5-km DEM fr ERS-1; error >w/ slope due to surface roughness]

Bamber, J.L, Ekholm, S., and Krabill, W., 2001, A new, high-resolution digital elevation model ofGreenland fully validated with airborne laser altimeter data: Journal of Geophysical Research, v.104, no. B4, p. 6733-6745. [new 1-km DEM compiled fr var. sources; mean accuracy = -0.33±7m]

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Bamber, J.L., Muller, J.P., and Mandanayake, A., 1997, A global 5 arc minute digital elevation modelderived from the geodetic phase of ERS-1, in ERS symposium on space at the service of ourenvironment, 3rd, Florence, IT, March 17-21, Proceedings: European Space Agency report SP-414, p. 1779-1787. [to be used in future updates of GTOPO30]

Bamber, J.L., Vaughan, D.G., and Joughin, Ian, 2000, Widespread complex flow in the interior of theAntarctic ice sheet: Science, v. 287, no. 5456, p. 1248-1250. [DEM fr. ERS-1 radar altimetry +1983 Drewry atlas]

Banavar, J.R., Maritan, Amos, and Rinaldo, Andrea, 1999, Size and form in efficient transportationnetworks: Nature, v. 399, no. 6732, p. 130-132 (& comments by Painter, Haff, 2000, v. 408 p. 159-160; reply p. 160). [allometric general size/flow rate relation & theory includes river basins]

Band, L.E., 1999, Spatial hydrography and landforms in Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire,D.J., and Rhind, D.W., eds., Geographical Information Systems, v. 1, Principles and TechnicalIssues, 2nd ed.: New York, Wiley, p. 527-542. [reviews DEM-to-watershed work; problems withGRASS software]

Banerdt, W.B., 2000, Surface drainage patterns on Mars from MOLA topography (abs.): EosTransactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 48 (Supplement, P52C-04), p. F773.[possible patterns traced fr DEM slopes yield 4 mega-basins]

Banerjee, Paramesh, 1998, Gravity measurements and terrain corrections using a digital terrainmodel in the NW Himalaya: Computers and Geosciences, v. 24, no. 10, p. 1009-1020. [optimizescorrections; improves on classic (Hammer 1939) method]

Banks, Rachel, and Wickens, C.D., 1997, Commanders' display of terrain information—manipulationsof display dimensionality and frame of reference to support battlefield visualization: TechnicalReport ARL-97-12/ARMY-FED-LAB-97-2, Aviation Research Lab, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; for U.S. Army, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD and Ft. Hauchuca, AZ, Contract DAAL01-96-2-0003ARL, 62 p. [perception experiments; maps better than 3D at distance est., but 3D >maps for LOS; etc.]

Bannister, E.N., 1980, Hypsometries of Michigan's southeastern lake plain: Journal of Great LakesResearch, v. 6, no. 2, p. 154-163. [channel geometry, hypsometry]

Bannister, E.N., 1982, Hypsometric curve variance and drainage basin planforms, in Larimore, A.E.,ed., Studies in fluvial geomorphology and morphometry; the collected papers of Everette N.Bannister 1948-1979; a memorial volume: Ann Arbor, MI, Univ. Michigan, Geography Dept.,Michigan Geographical Publications, no. 27, p. 87-106. [hypsometric analysis, mathematicalmethods]

Barlow, N.G., 1994, Sinuosity of Martian rampart ejecta deposits: Journal of Geophysical Research,v. 99, no. E5, p. 10,927-10,935. [the old area/perimeter relation; calc. 'lobateness' = P/(4�A)0.5

for 2213 craters; results differ fr Kargel 1986]

Barrio, G.A.B. del, and Diez, J.C., 1993, The choice of cell size in digital terrain models—an objectivemethod, in Robinson, M., ed., Methods of Hydrological Basin Comparison: Wallingford, UK, Instituteof Hydrology (now Centre for Ecology and Hydrology) Report no. 120, p, 190-196. [used'information theory']

Barrio, G.A.B. del, Puigdefabregas, Juan, and Diez, Carlos, 1997, Response of high mountainlandscape to topographic variables—Central Pyrenees: Landscape Ecology, v. 12, no. 2, p. 95-115. [statistical land-type regionalization from DEM-based variables]

Barry, R.G., 1961, The punched card and its application in geographical research: Erdkunde, v. 15,p. 140-142. [early automated data handling]

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Barton, K.E., Howell, D.G., Vigil, J.F., Ciener, Jane, and Lesle, Timothy, 2002, The North Americatapestry of time and terrain (abs.): Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, 27-30 October, paper no. 217-1;http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_43524.htm. [broad-scale computervisualization combining shaded relief & geology extended to an entire continent]

Barton, K.E., Howell, D.G., Vigil, J.F., Reed, J.C., Jr., and Wheeler, J.O., 2003, The North Americatapestry of time and terrain: U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Investigations Series map I-2781,scale, 1:8,000,000, in press. [extension of 1:3.5M conterminous U.S. tapestry combining digitalmaps of shaded relief (gray scale) & geologic time units (color)]

Basu, Atanu, and Saxena, N.K., 2002, Bathymetry data correction using global optimization method:Marine Geodesy, v. 25, no. 1, p. 37-60. [old data upgraded by nonlinear inversion to fill gaps inmodern data]

Bates, P.D., and De Roo, A.P.J., 2000, A simple raster-based model for flood inundation simulation:Journal of Hydrology, v. 236, nos. 1-2, p. 54-77. [tests fr different DEMs; low-relief terrain requireshigh-accuracy data]

Baudemont, Frédéric, and Parrot, J.-F., 2000, Structural analysis of DEM's by intersection of surfacenormals in a three-dimensional accumulator space: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and RemoteSensing, v. 38, no. 3, p. 1191-1198. [pattern-recognition approach to extract morphologicfeatures]

Bauer, J., Rohdenburg, H., and Bork, H.-R., 1985, Ein digitales Reliefmodell zur Berechnunggeoökologisch relevanter morphographischer Parameter (A digital relief model to calculate geo-ecologically relevant morphographic measures): Landschaftsökologisches Messen und Auswerten,v. 1, no. 2/3, p. 117-123. [DEM-based modeling of continuous topography]

Baulig, Henri, 1928, Le Plateau Central de la France et sa bordure Méditerranéene—Étudemorphologique: Thèse d'Etat, Paris, Armand Colin, paging unknown. [mapped by summit-levelmeth; used spot-height freq. fr hachured-only maps]

Baumann Elizabeth, 1914, Morphometrie des Greifswalder Boddens: Universität Greifswald, Ph.D.dissertation, Jahresbericht der Geographischen Gesellschaft Greifswald 1914/15, v. 15, p. 1-44.[morphom. of estuary seafloor fr maps & charts; much lit. & technique review; bathym. curve;area/depth & slope, 'coastal development', vol., mean depth]

Beardmore, Nathaniel, 1851, Manual of Hydrology: London, Waterlow and Sons, 384 p. [dynamicadjustment of form to process re. hydraulic geometry]

Beasley, D.B., Huggins, L.F., and Monke, E.J., 1980, ANSWERS—A model for watershed planning:Transactions of the American Socirty of Agricultural Engineers, v. 23, no. 4, p. 938-944.[pioneering distributed-parameter model simulated runoff & erosion in agric. watersheds; calc. slopefr grid DEM by best-fit plane]

Beasley, D.B., and Huggins, L.F., 1982, ANSWERS—User’s manual: U.S. EPA-905/9-82-001,Chicago, IL, 54 p. [see Beasley et al. 1980]

Beaty, C.B., 1956, Landslides and slope exposure: Journal of Geology, v. 64, no. 1, p. 70-74.[70% of slides E. of Berkeley CA are on (shaded) slopes facing N or E]

Beauvais, A.A., 1997, Analyse fractale des réseaux (in French), in Davy, Philippe, Guillocheau,François, and Hamelin, Bruno, eds., Géomorphologie—Processus et Modélisation: Rennes,Geosciences-Rennes, p. 44-45. [brief synopsis of fractal analysis; good bibliography]

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Beke, C.T., 1847, On the physical character of the table-land of Abyssinia: Report of the TenthMeeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science—Notices and abstracts ofcommunications, Geology & Geography Section, Southhampton, September 1846, v. 15, p. 70-72.[primitive estimates of different regional slopes]

Belgrand, Eugène, 1872, La Seine, études hydrologiques—régime de la pluie, des sources, deseaux courantes, applications à l'agriculture (in French): Paris, Dunod, >349 p., accompanying Atlaspublished 1873. [contains an early hydro-morphometric relation: ratio of watershed area tonumber of streams within ('drainage density')]

Belisario, Filippo, Del Monte, Maurizio, Fredi, Paola, Funicello, Renato, Lupia Palmieri, E., and Salvini,Francesco, 1999, Azimuthal analysis of stream orientations to define regional tectonic lines:Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 118, p. 41-63. [rose diagrams & azimuthalspectra]

Bendick, R., and Bilham, R., 2001, How perfect is the Himalayan arc?: Geology, v. 29, no. 9, p. 791-794. [elev./ & relief/distance distrs. & least-sq. circle-fitting; plate boundary= small circle of radius1696±55km]

Bengtsson, B.-E., and Nordbeck, Stig, 1964, Construction of isarithmic maps by computers: NordiskTidskrift for Informationsbehandling (now 'BIT'), v. 4, no. 2, p. 87-105. [earlest reference to usingtriangles in computer mapping]

Bergbauer, Stephan, and Pollard, D.D., 1999, Calculating curvatures of geological surfaces (abs.):EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 80, no. 46, Supplement, p. F1050. [basedon '1st & 2nd Fundamental Forms'—quadratic diff. eqns.]

Berger, F., 1805 ca., Hauteurs de plusiers lieux determinées par le barometre, dans le cours dedifferens voyages faits en France, en Suisse, en Italie (in French): Geneva, privately published, 29p. [1802-03 barometric determinations of altitudes in Europe by Swiss physician]

Bergsma, E., 1985, Classes of relief susceptibility for surface erosion, in El-Swaify, S.A.,Moldenhauer, W.C., and Lo, Andrew, eds., Soil Erosion and Conservation: Ankeny, Iowa, SoilConservation Society of America, p. 432-436. [proposes 4 erosion slope-length classes for 7slope classes]

Berlyant, A.M., 1984, Morfometricheskiye issledovaniya rel'yefa v SSSR; sostoyaniye, problemy,perspektivy (in Russian; Morphometric investigations of relief in the USSR; present state, problems,perspectives): Geomorfologiya, v. 1984, no. 2, p. 15-24. [25 refs; landform description, quant.geomorph.]

Berlyant, A.M., Koshel', S.M., Musin, O.R., and Suyetova, I.A., 1991, Opyt sozdaniya global'noytsifrovoy bazy dannykh po gipsometricheskoy karte Mira v masshtabe 1/15 000 000; pervyyerezul'taty (in Russian with English summary; Creation of global digital data base using hypsometricworld map scale 1/15M; first results): Geomorfologiya, v. 1991, no. 2, p. 25-31. [DEM's, GIS,morphometry; topo. maps]

Bertolo, Francesca, 2000, Catchment delineation and characterisation—a review: EC-JRC, SpaceApplications Institute, (EUR 19563 EN) Ispra (VA), Italy, 36 p.;http://ams.egeo.sai.jrc.it/newluc/euroland/pdf/CatchRev.pdf. [the DEM-to-watershedtransformation; useful review; good biblio]

Béruber, Dominique, and Jébrak, Michel, 1999, High precision boundary fractal analysis for shapecharacterization: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 9, p. 1059-1071. [Euclidean distancemapping (EDM) better than box-counting & dilation methods; dividers meth. not tested]

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Béthune, P. de, 1967, On the field survey of hillslopes: Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique, v.17, no. 4, p. 152-153. [favors 10m slope-length sampling interval but 15.25 m OK]

Béthune, P. de, and Mammerickx, J., 1960, Études clinométriques du laboratoire géomorphologiquede l'Université de Louvain (Belgique), in Birot, P., and Macar, P., eds., Contributions Internationalesà la Morphologie des Versants: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 1, p. 93-102 & 2plates. [1955-59; field & map data, various areas; freq. diagrams]

Beucher, Serge, 1992, The watershed transformation applied to image segmentation. 1OthPfefferkorn Conf. on Signal and Image Processing in Microscopy and Microanalysis, 16-19 sept.1991, Cambridge, UK, Scanning Microscopy International, Suppl. 6., p. 299-314.<http://cmm.ensmp.fr/~beucher/publi/pfefferkorn.pdf>. [image segmentation by grey scale-to-elevation transformation]

Beucher, Serge, 1994, Watershed, hierarchical segmentation and waterfall algorithm, in Serra, J. andSoille, P. eds., Mathematical Morphology and its applications to Image Processing: Dordrecht,Kluwer, p. 69-76. [image segmentation by grey scale-to-elevation transformation]

Beucher, Serge, and Meyer, Fernand, 1992, The morphological approach to segmentation—thewatershed transformation, in Dougherty, E., ed., Mathematical Morphology in Image Processing:New York, Marcel Dekker, p. 433-481. [image segmentation by grey scale-to-elevation transform.& watershed crest-line identification]

Beven, Keith, and Kirkby, M.J., eds., 1993, Channel Network Hydrology: New York, Wiley, 319 p.[10-chapter state-of-art synthesis]

Biasini, Alessandro, Buonasorte, G., Ciccacci, Silvio, Fredi, Paola, and Lupia Palmieri, E., 1993,Geomorphological characteristics, in Di Philippo, M., ed., Sabatini Volcanic Complex: Roma, C.N.R.,Quaderni de "La ricerca scientifica" no. 114, v. 11, 2 c. geol., p. 81-94. [local relief & drainagedensity]

Biasini, Alessandro, 1997, Estimating relief heights from shadows in vertical aerial photographs:Geologica Romana, v. 33, p. 81-87. [Antarctica (poor parallax & no topo); shadows v. clear onsnow & ice]

Biasotti, Silvia, 2001, Topological techniques for shape understanding: 10 p.,http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/studentwork/CESCG-2001/SBiasotti/paper.pdf. [Morse theory, Reebgraphs, height fnc., handles degenerate points]

Bindschadler, Robert, Fahnestock, Mark, and Sigmund, Angela, 1999, Comparison of Greenland icesheet topography measured by TOPSAR and airborne laser altimetry: IEEE Transactions onGeoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 37, no. 5, p. 2530-2535. [AOL more precise, but TOPSARcovers broader freq. range & has biases]

Bingham, A.W., and Rees, W.G., 1999, Construction of a high-resolution DEM of and Arctic ice capusing shape-from-shading: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 20, no. 15 & 16, p. 3231-3242. [photoclinometry of Landsat MSS image; less accurate (14 m RMS) than InSAR]

Bintanja, Richard, Reijmer, C.H., and Hulscher, J.M.H., 2001, Detailed observations of Antarctic blue-ice surfaces: Journal of Glaciology, v. 47, no. 158, p. 387-396. [regular ripples; troughs spaced20-24 cm & crests 1-2 cm deep; crests deeper in summer]

Birnir, Bjorn, Smith, T.R., and Merchant, G.E., 2001, The scaling of fluvial landscapes: Computersand Geosciences, v. 27, no. 10, p. 1189-1216. ["how models capture effects of randominfluences driving processes of landscape evolution; account for oval shape of basins & leads to aderivation of Hack's law"]

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Bishop, M.A., 2001, Seasonal variation of crescentic dune morphology and morphometry, Strzelecki-Simpson desert, Australia: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms: v. 26, no. 7, p. 783-791.[L/W & vector-mean rose diagrams]

Bishop, M.P., Shroder, J.F. Jr., 2000, Remote sensing and geomorphometric assessment oftopographic complexity and erosion dynamics in the Nanga Parbat massif, in Kahn, M.A., Treloar,P.J., Searle, M.P., and Jan, M.Q., eds., Tectonics of the Nanga Prabat Syntaxis and the WesternHimalaya: London, Geological Society of London, Special Publication No. 170, p. 181-200. [20-mDEM & 3-D terrain simulations fr satellite imagery indicate high scale-dependency & hierarchicalorder reflecting erosion dynamics]

Bishop, M.P., Bonk, Radoslav, Kamp, Ulrich Jr., and Shroder, J.F. Jr., 2002, Terrain analysis anddata modeling for alpine glacier mapping: Polar Geography, v. 25, no. 3, P. 182-201. [successfulobject-oriented delineation of glaciers by morphometry; 12 elev & slope attributes fr 20-m DEM; alsocurvature & aspect; unsupervised clustering]

Bishop, M.P., Shroder, J.F. Jr., Bonk, Radoslav, and Olsenholler Jeffrey, 2002, Geomorphic changein high mountains—a western Himalayan perspective: Global and Planetary Change, v. 32, no. 4,P. 311-329. [topo analysis fr 20m SPOT DEM incl. elev, A, R, perim., hypso. of 22 basins; otherquant.]

Bitelli, G., Carrara, A., and Vittuari, L., 1996, Comparison of DTM's derived from contour lines anddigital photogrammetry, in Unguendoli, U., ed., Reports on Surveying and Geodesy, DIS TART,Nautilus, Bologna, p. 159-179. [DTM accuracy from softcopy image correl. not yet fullydocumented]

Bivand, R.S., 1999, Integrating GRASS 5.0 and R—GIS and modern statistics for data analysis, inScandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Science 7th, Aalborg, Denmark,Proceedings: p. 111-127; http://www.nhh.no/geo/gib/gib1999/gib99-1/scangis.pdf. [topo types,but not regions, of Kosovo fr elev, relief, slope, elev-rel. ratio, plan & profile curv. on GTOPO30DEM]

Bivand, R.S., 2000, Using the R statistical data analysis language on GRASS 5.0 GIS database files:Computers and Geosciences, v. 26, no. 9-10, p. 1043-1052;http://www.nhh.no/geo/gib/gib1999/gib99-2/durham.pdf. [morphometric example has hypsometricintegral & topo types]

Björke, J.T., and Nilsen, Stein, 2002, Efficient representation of digital terrain models—compressionand spatial decorrelation techniques: Computers and Geosciences, v. 28, no. 4, p. 433-445.[wavelets slightly better than adapt. triangulation & univ. kriging, but also have other attractiveproperties for terrain modeling]

Björnsson, Helgi, Pálsson, Finnur, and Gudmundsson, M.T., 2000, Surface and bedrock topographyof the Myrdalsjokull ice cap, Iceland—the Katla caldera, eruption sites and routes of jökulhlaups:Jökull, no. 49, p. 29-46. [100m ice & subsurface DEMs, ice relief, ice & topo hypsometric curves]

Black, P.E., 1972, Hydrograph responses to geomorphic model watershed characteristics andprecipitation variables: Journal of Hydrology, v. 17, p. 309-329. [planform little effects peakmagnitude; defines 'basin-eccentricity' param.]

Blackwell, P.R., and Wells, Gordon, 1999, DEM resolution and improved surface representation:ESRI 1999 User Conference, San Diego, CA, Proceedings;www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/abstracts/a629.htm. [10m DEMs, esp. withdrainage enforcement, better for geomorphic analysis than 30m.]

Blenk, M., 1963, Eine kartographische Methode der Hanganalyse, erläutert an zweiBeispielen—N.W.-Harz und Salinstal, Kalifornien ('... slope analysis ...', in German), in Neue

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Beiträge zur internationalen Hangforschung: Göttingen, Vandenhœck und Ruprecht, p. 29-44.[get angle of crests, valley floors & plan-curved slopes fr contour maps]

Bliss, N.B. and Olsen, L.M., 1998, Development of a 30 arc-second digital elevation model of SouthAmerica, in Pecora Thirteen, Human Interactions with the Environment-Perspectives from Space,13th, Sioux Falls, SD, August 20-22, 1996, Proceedings: Bethesda, MD, American Society ofPhotogrammetry and Remote Sensing, CD-ROM; also<http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/gtopo30/papers/olsen.html>. [GTOPO30 DEM]

Blong, R.J., 1972, Methods of slope profile measurement in the field: Australian GeographicalStudies, v. 10, no. 2, p. 182-192. [details methods for fine-scale survey; 1.5m = min. practicallength; good biblio]

Blong R.J., 1985, Gully sidewall development in New South Wales, Australia, in El-Swaify, S.A.,Moldenhauer, W.C., and Lo, Andrew, eds., Soil Erosion and Conservation: Ankeny, Iowa, SoilConservation Society of America, p. 574-584. [field meas. of gully cross-section, to get sidewallsurface-area ratio, volume]

Blow, Jonathan, 2000, Terrain rendering at high levels of detail, in Game Developers Conference2000, 20-24 March, San Jose Conference Center, San Jose, CA, Proceedings: 1st online article,13 PDF pages + his lecture notes for Two Advanced Terrain Rendering Systems (4 p.);<http://www.bolt-action.com/dl_papers.html>. [state-of-art; modifications improve the ROAMtriangulation (a 'top-down' algorithm rather than Lindstrom et al's. 1996 less efficient 'bottom-up'procedure) to handle high levels of texture detail in a scalable way]

Blunt, Liam, and Stout, K.J., eds., 2001, International Conference on Metrology and Properties ofEngineering Surfaces, 8th, 26-29 April, 2000, Huddersfield, UK, Proceedings: International Journalof Machine Tools and Manufacture, v. 41, Nos. 13-14, p. 1847-2193. [38 papers on topology,contact mech., instrumentation, eng. sfcs., meas. & calibr., & charac. & filtering]

Bobrik, A.A., 1916, On the calculation of the 'Küstenentwicklung' or shore-line convolution accordingto the Berghaus and Nagel methods (in Russian): Izvestiya Russkogo geograficheskogoobshchestva, v. 52, no. 1. [early Russian morphometry addressing the 19th-Centuryarea/perimeter problem]

Bochet, E., Poesen, J., and Rubio, J.L., 2000, Mound development as an interaction of individualplants with soil, water erosion and sedimentation processes on slopes: Earth Surface Processesand Landforms: v. 25, no. 8, p. 847-867. [slope & mound height fr. quant. height (±mm) profilesfr. microprofilometer]

Böhm, August, 1887, Einteilung der Ostalpen (in German), in Penck, Albrecht, ed., GeographischeAbhandlungen: Vienna, E. Hölzel, v. 1, no. 3, p. 243-478. [contains morphometry; no other info]

Böhm, August, 1887, Über Gerbirgsgruppierung (in German; on classification of mountain ranges), inVerhandlung des 7 Deutschen Geographentages zu Karlsruhe: Berlin, Reimer, p. 152-158. [amorphologic objective that affected the morphometry of the time; no other info]

Böhm, August, 1889, Über die Genauigkeit der Bestimmung von Gerbirgsvolumen und mittleterMassenerhebung (in German; On accuracy of obtaining mountain volume & center of mass), inVerhandlung des 8 Deutschen Geographentages zu Berlin: Berlin, Reimer, p. 214-224. [aconcern of morphometry at the time; no other info]

Böhmer, Gerhard, 1922, Die Flußdichte im Gebiete der mecklenburgischen Seenplatte und ihrerVorländer; Ein Beitrag zur Heimatkunde (in German; drainage density ...), Univ. Rostock, Ph.D.dissertation: Teterow, Germany, 16 p. [methods of Rasehorn 1911 & Neumann 1900; pamphletundated & no maps, tables, or refs]

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Bohner, Jürgen, Köthe, Rüdiger, and Trachinow, Christian, 1997, Weiterentwicklung derautomatischen Reliefanalyse auf der Basis von Digitalen Reliefmodellen (Advancing automatic reliefanalysis by means of digital relief models): Göttinger Geographische Abhandlungen, v. 100, p. 3-21. [post-SARA development of Köthe's morphometric pkg.]

Bonk, Radoslav, 2002, Scale-dependent Geomorphometric Analysis for Glacier Mapping at NangaParbat, Pakistan: Master's thesis, Department of Geography-Geology, College of Arts andSciences, University of Nebraska at Omaha, paging unknown. [TFO (terrain form objects) fr slope,aspect, plan. & profile curv. fr 20-m DEM / details]

Bonk, Radoslav, 2002, Scale-dependent geomorphometric analysis for glacier mapping at NangaParbat—GRASS GIS approach, in Open source GIS–GRASS users conference 2002, Trento, Italy,11-13 September, Proceedings: paging unknown;http://dionysos.gssr.sk/ig_home/exchange/ppaudits/trento2002_bonk.pdf. [TFO (terrain formobjects) fr slope, aspect, plan. & profile curv. fr 20-m DEM]

Bonniard, F., 1929, Représentation graphique de la pente moyenne d'un bassin-versant (in French):Revue Phys. Géographie Dynamique, v. 2, p. 247-252. [1st publ.? method for clinographic curve,or mean slope betw. paired contours]

Borsuk, O.A., 1989, Morfometriya rel'yefa; indikatsionnoye i geneticheskoye napravleniya (in Russian;indicative & genetic morphometry of relief), in Logachev, N.A., Timofeyev, D.A., and Ufimtsev, G.F.,ed., Problemy metodologii geomorfologii (Methodology problems in geomorphology): Novosibirsk,Izd. Nauka, p. 37-40. [corr. coeff., indicators, relief, statistical analysis]

Böttcher, Herr, 1900, Maß für die Dichte der Eisenbahnnetze (index of railroad network density; inGerman): Geographische Zeitschrift, v. 4, p. 635-639. [adapted to drainage density; x = 2A/L; P= unit-cell area & L = total length]

Boussinesq, J.V., 1871, Sur une propiété remarquable des points où les lignes de plus grande pented'une surface ont leurs plans osculateurs verticaux, est sur la différence qui existe généralement, àla surface de la terre, entre les lignes de faîte ou de thalweg et celles le long desquelles la pentedu sol est un minimum (in French; ... a remarkable property of points where the steepest slope lineshave vertical osculatory plans (?), is about the difference which generally exists on the groundsurface between ridges or drain lines & locations where ground slope is a minimum.): ComptesRendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, v. 73, no. 24, p. 1368-1371.[hydrodynamicist & Saint-Venant pupil; noted that Saint-Venant's 1852 math. formulation of topo.ridges & drains had not specified slope-lines (slope = zero) that form drainage pattern itself]

Boussinesq, J.V., 1872a, Sur les lignes de faîte et de thalweg (in French; on ridge & drainage lines):Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, v. 73, p. 198-201.[see Boussinesq 1871]

Boussinesq, J.V., 1872b, Sur les lignes de faîte et de thalweg (in French; on ridge & drainage lines):Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, v. 75, no. 15, p. 835-837. [criticizes Jordan 1872a; see note for Boussinesq 1871]

Bovis, M.J., and Jakob, Matthias, 1999, The role of debris supply conditions in predicting debris flowactivity: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 24, no. 11, p. 1039-1054. [33 basins; pred.d-f attributes fr. basin morphometry by mult. regression]

Bowler, P.J., 2002, Climb Chimborazo and see the world: Science, v. 298, no. 5591, p. 63-64.[briefly reviews work of A. von Humboldt (1769-1859), citing 'passion for precise description &accurate measurement', interest in the 'structure of mountains' & 'techniques of geodetic andgeophysical measurement', and preparation of 'the first relief map of Spain']

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Boyell, R.L., and Rushton, H., 1963, Hybrid techniques for real-time radar simulation, in Fall 1963Joint Computer Conference, November, Las Vegas NV, Proceedings: paging unknown. [1st tomap contours into arcs & intercontour areas into nodes]

Boyko, A.V., and Limontov, L.Ya., 1980, Digital terrain models and topographic data collection inlarge-scale mapping (in Russian): Geodesiya i Cartographiya, no. 10, p. 46-53. [no info]

Brabyn, L.K., 1996, Landscape classification using GIS and national digital databases: ChristchurchNZ, University of Canterbury, Department of Geography, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 225 p. + refs.['classif. visual landscape character'; esp. p. 124-150 automates, modifies Hammond system; 200mDEM fr 1/250K map]

Brabyn, L.K., 1997, Classification of macro landforms using GIS: ITC Journal, no. 1, p. 26-40.[automates, modifies Hammond system; 1/250K DEM (200-m grid)]

Brändli, Martin, 1998, Modelle und Algorithm für Extraktion geomorphologischer und hydrologischerObjekte aus digitalen Geländemodellen (in German): Geographisches Institut Universität Zürich,Geoprocessing Reihe, v. 32 (Inaugural dissertation), 200 p. + appendices. [continuaton of priorwork extracting catchments etc. from DEM's]

Brasington, James, and Richards, Keith, 1998, Interactions between model predictions, parametersand DTM scales for TOPMODEL: Computers and Geosciences, v. 24, no. 4, p. 299-314.[depends much on grid size DL (20m<DL<500m), esp. @ 100m-200m threshold]

Brassard, Louis, 1998, The Perception of the Image World: Burnaby, BC, Simon Fraser University,unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 409 p. http://www.visionlb.ca/Thesis/Abstract.html. [far-ranging treatiseby a computer-vision engineer, focusing on crease detection in greyscale images (among 'creases'are such critical points & lines as peaks, pits, ridges, valleys, saddles, passes)]

Braun, Jean, Zwartz, Dan, and Tomkin, J.H., 1999, A new surface-processes model combining glacialand fluvial erosion: Annals of Glaciology, v. 28, p. 282-290. [exper. results fr CASCADE algorithmmodified to include glaciation]

Breton de Champ, Paul-Émile, 1854, Note sur les lignes de faîte ou de thalweg (in French; ... ridgesand drains): Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences / Institutde France, v. 39, p. 647-648. [noted that (Saint-Venant's 1852 implied) math. formulation oftopo. ridges & drains had not specified exactly the slope-lines that form the drainage pattern;offered new theorem]

Breton de Champ, Paul-Émile, 1861, Note sur les charactères géométriques des lignes de faîte oude thalweg (in French; ... geometric char. of ridges or drains): Comptes Rendus Hebdomadairesdes Séances de l'Académie des Sciences / Institut de France, v. 53, p. 808-811. [elaboration onideas in 1854 paper]

Breton de Champ, Paul-Émile, 1867, Note sur une propriété de l'équation différentielle des lignes deplus grande pente (in French; ... prop. of diff. eqn. of flow lines): Comptes Rendus Hebdomadairesdes Séances de l'Académie des Sciences / Institut de France, v. 64, p. 407-410. [eqn. describesflow lines, slope lines normal to contours]

Breton de Champ, Paul-Émile, 1870, Sur les lignes de plus grande pente à déclivité minimum oumaximum (in French; on flow lines of minimum or maximum steepness): Comptes RendusHebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences / Institut de France, v. 70, no. 18, p.982-985. [no info]

Breton de Champ, Paul-Émile, 1877, Mémoire sur les lignes de faîte et thalweg que l'on est conduit àconsidérer en topographie (in French; ... on drain and ridge lines that must be addressed in topo.):

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Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, ser. 3, v. 3, p. 99-114. [extends descriptive-geometric description of ridges & drains; poses 5 problems]

Breuer, Barbara, 2001, Reliefmodellierung mit dem Programm SARA (System zur AutomatischenRelief-Analyse) für ein Untersuchungsgebiet in der Oberpalz (in German): Zeitschrift fürGeomorphologie, v. 45, no. 1, p. 17-31. [elev. & slope maps, etc. fr DEM]

Breunig, M., 1999, An approach to the integration of spatial data and systems for a 3D geo-information system: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 1, p. 39-48. [theory & basics of 3Dmodeling; topology]

Breusing, Dr., 1882, comments (in German) in Günther (1882), p. 146. [the area/perimeter problem]

Bribiesca, Ernesto, 1988, Digital elevation model data analysis using the contact surface area:CUGIP - Graphical Models and Image Processing, v. 60, no. 2, p. 166-172. [computer graphics,A.I., simulation, & modeling]

Brice, J.C., 1966, Erosion and deposition in the loess-mantled Great Plains Medicine Creek drainagebasin, Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 352-H, p. 255-339. [% upland, freq.1st-order channels, relief ratio, areal freq. of valley-head & -side gullies]

Brimicombe, A.J., and Tsui, P.H.Y., 2000, A variable resolution, geocomputational approach to theanalysis of point patterns: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p. 2143-2155. [compared tonearest-neighbor, quadrat, & L-function approaches]

Brisson, Barnabé, 1829, Un essai sur l'art de projeter les canaux à point de partage par MM. Dupuisde Torcy et B. Brisson (on planning canals à point de partage (those linking different drainagebasins) ... ; in French), in Essai sur le système général de navigation intérieure de la France (Onthe General System of France's Inland Navigation): Carilian-Goeury, Paris (172 p.), paging of essayunknown. [posthumous re-publ. of Dupuis-Torcy & Brisson 1808 under more explicit title, byDuleau, who edited book & contributed a long intro.; Brisson was a geometer & civil engineer(1777-1828) & student of Gaspard Monge ('father of differential geometry' & 1st to describe lineson curved 3-D surfaces); Brisson applied descriptive geometry to canal engineering & thus improveits cost estimates]

Brock, J.C., Wright, C.W., Sallenger, A.H., Krabill, W.B., and Swift, R.N., 2002, Basin and methods ofNASA Airborne Topographic Mapper LiDAR surveys for coastal srudies: Journal of CoastalResearch, v. 18, no. 1, p. 1-13. [good overview of LiDAR measurement in low-relief terrain]

Brodley, C.E., Lane, Terran, and Stough, T.M., 1999, Knowledge discovery and data mining:American Scientist, v. 87, no. 1, p. 54-61. [improved automated technique for finding smallvolcanoes on Venus]

Bronstert, Axel, 1999, Capabilities and limitations of detailed hillslope hydrological modelling:Hydrological Processes, v. 13, no. 1, p. 21-48. [uses HILLFLOW; review; soils & climate dataneeded for best results, etc.]

Brooks, S.M., and McDonnell, R.A., eds., 2000, Geocomputation in Hydrology and Geomorphology:Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p. 1899-2206. [7 of the papers deal with some aspectof DEM-based geomorphometry]

Brown, C.A., Charles, P.D., and Johnsen, W.A., 1994, Method for quantifying the topographicstructure of a surface: U.S. patent 5,307,292. [fractal analysis by their TIN 'patchwork' method]

Brown, D.G., 1994, Anisotropy in elevation and derivative surfaces as an indication of systematicerrors in DEMs, in Congalton, R.G., ed., International Symposium on the Spatial Accuracy of

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Natural Resource Data Bases, Williamsburg, VA, American Society for Photogrammetry andRemote Sensing, Proceedings: p. 98-107. [no info]

Brown, D.G., and Olson, J.M., 2001, Integrated teaching of geographic information science andphysical geography through digital terrain analysis: Journal of Geography, v. 100, no. 1, p. 4-13.[DEM-based pedagogy emphasizing technology]

Brown, D.R., and Owen, D.H., 1967, The metrics of visual form—methodological dyspepsia:Psychological Bulletin, v. 68, p. 243ff. [caveat: 12 linear factors explain 87% variance in shapemeasures for random sample of quadrilaterals, despite object space having only 4 geometricdegrees of freedom!]

Brown, E.H., 1950, Erosion surfaces in north Cardiganshire: Transactions and Papers of the Instituteof British Geographers, no. 16, p. 51-66. [modified the height-range diagram of Sparks 1949]

Brown, E.H., 1952, The River Ystwyth, Cardiganshire—A geomorphological analysis: Proceedings ofthe Geologists' Association, v. 63, no. 3, p. 244-269. [modified height-range diagram (Sparks1950); longit. profile]

Brown, S.R., 1995, Measuring the dimension of self-affine fractals—examples of rough surfaces, inBarton, C.C., and LaPointe, P.R., 1995, eds., Fractals in the Earth Sciences: NY & London,Plenum, p. 77-87. [presents methods for computation]

Bruce, R.C., 1971, A study of the relationship between soil and quantitative terrain factors: Honolulu,University of Hawaii, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 202 p. [no info]

Brunsden, Denys, 1973, The application of systems theory to the study of mass-movement:Geologica Applicata e Idrogeologia (Univ. Bari, IT): v. 8, no. 1, p. 185-207. [proposes 20geometric quantities for landslide mass & scar & enclosing hillside, after Varnes 1958 terminology]

Brunsden, Denys, ed., 1971, Slopes, Form and Process: Institute of British Geographers SpecialPublication no. 3, 178 p. [11 papers fr. British Geomorphological Research Group; emph. slopeprofiles, soils]

Brunsden, Denys, 1984, Mudslides, chap. 9 in Brunsden, Denys, and Prior, D.B., eds., SlopeInstability: London, Wiley, p. 363-418. [obs. on approx. geometries of mudslide source, track, &accumulation zone]

Brunson, E.B., and Olsen, R.W., 1978, Data digital elevation model collection systems, in DigitalTerrain Models (DTM) Symposium, May 9-11, St. Louis, MO, American Society of Photogrammetry,Proceedings: p. 72-99. [explains origin of striped artifacts in USGS manually-profiled DEMs]

Bruun, Bjørn, and Nilsen, Stein, 2001, Multiscale representation of terrain models using averageinterpolating wavelets, in ScanGIS'2001, Scandinavian Research Conference on GeographicalInformation Science 8th, Ås, Norway, 25-27 June, Proceedings: p. 33-44;<http://www.nlh.no/conf/scangis2001/papers/20.pdf>. [rapidly partitions large DEMs to constructhierarchical DEMs]

Bucknarn, R.C., Coe, J.A., Chavarria, M.M., Godt, J.W., Tarr, A.C., Bradley, L.-A., Rafferty, S.A.,Hanco*ck, Dean, Dart, R.L., and Johnson, M.L., 2001, Landslide susceptibility mapping on thePueblo Viejo and Río Hondo Quadrangles, in Landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch inGuatemala; inventory and discussion: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 01-0443, p. 26-33,http://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/open-file-reports/ofr-01-0443/. [map from spatial freq. of elev,slope, and landslides; aspect & plan curv. not signif.]

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Budd, W.F., Jenssen, D., and Smith, I.N., 1984, A three-dimensional time-dependent model of theAntarctic ice sheet: Annals of Glaciology, v. 5, p. 29-36. [1st Ant. DEM; constr. fr. digitized 1/6Mmap; 20m resolution]

Bull, W.B., 1964, Geomorphology of segmented alluvial fans in western Fresno County, California:U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 353-E, p. 89-129. [earliest? power functions relatingfan area to that of drainage basin]

Bull, W.B., 1964, Alluvial fans and near-surface subsidence in western Fresno County, California:U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 437-A, 71 p. [relief/area, % area/altitude (littlevariance for 3 fan types), slope]

Bull, W.B., 1968, AlluviaL Fans: Jouirnal of Geological Education, v. 16, no. 3, p. 101-106. [reviewsquant. aspects; area, slope, Troeh eqn.]

Bull, W.B., 1975, Landforms that do not tend toward a steady state, in Melhorn, W.N., and Flemal,R.C., eds., Theories of Landform Development, annual geomorphology symposium, 6th, 26-27September, Proceedings: Binghamton, N.Y., SUNY, Publications in Geomorphology, p. 111-128.[allometric fcn. useful for such forms, esp. erosional, incl. cliffs]

Bulmer, M.H., and Wilson, J.B., 1999, Comparison of flat-topped stellate seamounts on Earth'sseafloor with stellate domes on Venus using side-scan sonar and Magellan synthetic apertureradar: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 171, no. 2, p. 277-287. [log-log height/diam.;domes large; cf Kreslavsky & Head; some clusters, much scatter]

Bülow, Kurd von, Kranz, Walter, and Sonne, Erich, 1938, Wehrgeologie (in German; with revisions byProf. Dr. Otto Burre & Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Dienemann): Leipzig, Quelle & Meyer, 178 p. [the Germanclassic on military geology, incl. terrain intelligence & appreciation]

Burbank, D.W., and Anderson, R.S., 2001, Tectonic Geomorphology: Malden, MA, and Abingdon,UK, Blackwell Science, 274 p. [Ch. 10 & 11 address DEM applics. & landscape-evolutionmodeling]

Burgkhardt, Johannes, 1888, Das Erzgebirge, eine orometrisch-anthropogeographische Studie:Stuttgart, Engelhorn, Forschungen zur deutschen Landes- und Volkskunde, v. 3, no. 3, p. 84-159.[a 79 p. thesis (Leipzig, 1890)?; relates population, etc. to terrain measures; mean elev., ridgeheight, area, vol.]

Burl, M.C., Fayyad, U.M., Perona, Pietro, Smyth, Padhraic, and Burl, M.P., 1994, Automating thehunt for volcanoes on Venus, in 1994 Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference(CVPR-94), Seattle WA, June, Proceedings: Los Alamitos CA, IEEE Computer Society Press, p.302-309. [multi-tiered data mining the Magellan images for small edifices]

Burnett, A.D., Brand, E.W., and Styles, K.A., 1985, Terrain classification mapping for a landslideinventory in Hong Kong, in International Conference abnd Field Workshop on Landslides, 4th, 23-31 August, Tokyo, Proceedings: The Japan Landslide Society, p. 63-68. [slope angle, height &morphology, length/width, landform, hydrology, erosion type; no. freq. by slope & geology]

Burrough, P.A., and McDonnell, R.A., 1998, Principles of geographical information systems for landresources assessment, 2nd ed. (corrected reprinting, 1998): New York, Oxford Press, 333 p.[standard text; 150 pp. longer than 1st ed.]

Butler, J.B., Lane, S.N., and Chandler, J.H., 2001, Characterization of the structure of river-bedgravels using two-dimensional fractal analysis: Mathematical Geology, v. 33, no. 3, p. 301-330.[semivariograms (& their contoured surfaces) fr hi-res. digital photogramm. DEMs]


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Cabrol, N.A., and Grin, E.A., 2001, Composition of the drainage network on early Mars:Geomorphology, v. 37, nos. 3-4, p. 269-287. [n=71; modified Horton ordering & 12 params.;stream nos., A, 'compacity', etc.]

Cacheiro Pose, M., Valcarcel Armesto, M., Vieira, S.R., and Toboada Castro, M.T., 1998, Elaboraciónde modelos de elevación digital empleando técnicas geoestadísticas y sistemas de informacióngeográfica (Using geostatistics and GIS for DTM assessment, in Spanish): Cadernos doLaboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe (Univ. Coruña), v. 23, p. 137-150. [an exercise in applying anumber of techniques to cultivated fields]

Cailleux, André, 1947, Caractères distinctifs des coulées de blocailles liées au gel intense (in French;dist. char. of blocky ravines related to intense freezing): Comptes Rendue Sommaire de la SociétéGéologique de France, 15 Dec., p. 323-324. [slope measurements; early postwar example ofFrench morphometry]

Caine, Nel, 1982, Toppling failures from alpine cliffs on Ben Lomond, Tasmania: Earth SurfaceProcesses and Landforms, v. 7, no. 2, p. 133-152. [LT/LC ratio critical; respective distances= frtop of topple (LT) & cliff (LC) to base of cliff where it meets topple]

Caine, Nel, 1983, The Mountains of Northeastern Tasmania: Rotterdam, Balkema, 200 p. [var.morphometry; valley width/distance, solution-pan W/D, cliff profiles & PSD, cliff ratio/mt. elev.,blockfield size & orientattion & slope/distance]

Calvet, Marc, Carozza, J.-M., and Delcaillau, Bernard, 2000, Du bon usage de la morphometrie; apropos de Reponse des bassins versants a l'active tectonique; l'exemple de la terminaisonorientale de la chaine pyreneenne; approche morphotectonique (in French; on proper use ofmorphometry; re Response of drainage basins to active tectonics; example from the easternPyrenees; morphotectonic approach; discussion and reply: Geomorphologie, v. 2000, no. 4, p.267-274. [no info; neo-orometry?]

Campbell, R.H., and Chirico, Peter, 1999, Geographic information system (GIS) procedure forpreliminary delineation of debris-flow hazard areas from a digital terrain model, Madison County,Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file Report 99-336, 25 p. [user-specified input = depth ofd-f surge rather than its initial volume]

Canters, Frank, De Genst, William, and Dufourmont, Hans, 2002, Assessing effects of inputuncertainty in structural landscape classification: International Journal of Geographical InformationScience, v. 16, no. 2, p. 129-149. [DEM & classif. error; 4 indices incl. field-of-view 'shape'complexity]

Caputo, C., Del Monte, M., Fredi, Paola, Plamieri, E.L., and Pugliese, F., 1995, The volcano of theAlban Hills—geomorphological features, in Trigila, Raffaello, ed., The Volcano of the Alban Hills:Roma, Tipografia SGS, p. 13-32. [local relief & drainage density mapped]

Carlberg, Berthold, 1942, Morphographische und physiographische Karte. zur kleinmaßstäbigenGeländedarstellung (in German): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 88, no. 5, p. 193-195. [small-scale repr. of physiography; cites Tanaka, H. Lehmann, Raisz]

Carling, P.A., Gölz, E., Orr, H.G., and Radecki-Pawlik, A., 2000, The morphodynamics of fluvial sanddunes in the River Rhine, near Mainz, Germany. I Sedimentology and morphology: Sedimentology,v. 47, no. 1, p. 227-252. [height/length, lee & stoss slopes & lengths, flatness index]

Carn, S.A., 2000, The Lamongan volcanic field, East Java, Indonesia—physical volcanology, historicactivity and hazards: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 95, nos. 1-4, p. 81-108.[morphometry for 22 maars & 37 cinder/spatter cones]

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Carniel, P., and Schiedegger, A.E., 1974, Morphometry of an Alpine scree cone (in Italian): RivistaItalia Geofisica, v. 23, p. 95-100. [measured profiles of talus slopes]

Carrara, Alberto, Bitelli, G., and Carla', R., 1997, Comparison of techniques for generating digitalterrain models from contour lines: International Journal of Geographic Information Science, v. 11,no. 5, p. 451-473. [set out Q/A criteria: most techniques fail on at least one; ArcTin not so good]

Carrara, Alberto, Cardinali, Mauro, Detti, Riccardo, Guzzetti, Fausto, Pasqui, Valdo, andReichenbach, Paola, 1990, Geographical information systems and multivariate models in landslidehazard evaluation, in Cancelli, Andrea, ed., ALPS 90, Alpine Landslide Practical Seminar (6th Int'l.Conf. & Field Workshop on Landslides, Switz.-Austr.-Italy), August 31-September 12, Milano, IT,Proceedings: p. 17-28. [4-part hazard eval. for Tescio basin, Umbria; see also same authors,1991]

Carroll, Damian, and Morse, Michael, 1996, A national digital elevation model for resource andenvironmental management: Cartography (Canberra), v. 25, no. 2, p. 43-49. [GEODATA 9-second DEM of Australia]

Carson, T.M., 1996, Texture-based terrain classification and optimal sampling in support of digitalelevation model extraction: West Lafayette, IN, Purdue University, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,257 p. [no info]

Carter, W.E., Shrestha, R.L., Tuell, Grady, Bloomquist, David, and Sartori, M., 2001, Airborne laserswath mapping shines new light on Earth's topography: EOS, Transactions, American GeophysicalUnion, v. 82, no. 46, p. 549-550, 555. [intro to LIDAR; specs, processing, applics; landslidemapping]

Centamore, E., Ciccacci, Sirio, Del Monte, Maurizio, Fredi, Paola, and Lupia Palmieri, E., 1996,Morphological and morphometric approach to the study of structural arrangement of northeasternAbruzzo (central Italy): Geomorphology, v. 16, no. 2, p. 127-137. [map of relative relief & streamrose diagrams]

Cerny, J.W., 1975, Sensitivity analysis of the Boyce-Clark shape index: The Canadian Cartographer,v. 12, no. 1, p. 21-27. [needs procedural consistency & >16 radials]

Chakraborty, B., Schenke, H.W., Kodagali, V., and Hagen, R., 2001, Analysis of multibeam-Hydrosweep echo peaks for seabed characterisation: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 20, no. 3, p. 174-181.[roughness from PSD functions]

Chan, D., 1992, Fractal geometry and its geomorphologic meanings for Taiwan (in Chinese): Tainan,National Cheng Kung University, Department of Earth Sciences, M.Sc. thesis, 103 p. [variogrammethod for self-affine D]

Chandler, R.J., 1973, The inclination of talus, Arctic talus terraces, and other slopes compoised ofgranular materials: Journal of Geology, v. 81, no. 1, p. 1-14. [field profiles + 1960-71 histograms& 1903-70 slope means fr older obs.]

Chang, K.-T., and Li, Zhaoxing, 2000, Modelling snow accumulation with a geographic informationsystem: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, v. 14, no. 7, p. 693-707. [get'snow water equivalent' fr location & topo variables fr USGS 3" DEM]

Chang, S.-C., 1992, The Simprecise mapping and evaluation system for engineering geological andlandslide hazard zonation, in Bell, D.H., ed., Landslides, International Symposium 6th, 10-14February, Christchurch NZ, Proceedings: Rotterdam, Balkema, v. 2, p. 905-910. [no DEM; terrainfacets; variables include slope type & angle]

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Chao, P.W., 1995, Landform simulation and the fractal properties of the topography of Taiwan (inChinese): Tainan, National Cheng Kung University, Department of Earth Sciences, M.Sc. thesis,100 p. [variogram method for self-affine D]

Chaplot, V., Walter, C., and Curmi, P., 1999, Sensitivity of a quantitative soil-landscape model to theprecision of the topographical input parameters, Ch. 10 in Lowell, Kim, and Jaton, Annick, eds.,Spatial Accuracy Assessment—Land Information Uncertainty in Natural Resources: Chelsea, MI,Ann Arbor Press, p. 89-95. [DEM needs < 20m spacing + hi-info-content supplementary elevs.]

Chappelow, J.E., Kieniewicz, J.M., and Sharpton, V.L., 2000, Calculation of crater depths fromshadows of arbitrary width (abs.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no.48 (Supplement, P11A-19), p. F803. [by assuming simple crater shape = parabola, shadow neednot be at center]

Charleux-Demargne, Julie, and Puech, Christian, 2000, Quality assessment for drainage networksand watershed boundaries extraction from a digital elevation model (DEM), in Li, K.-J., Makki, Kia,Pissinou, Niki, and Ravada, Siva, Eds., ACM-GIS 2000, ACM Symposium on Advances inGeographic Information Systems 8th, 10-11 Nov., Washington D.C.: Proceedings, p. 89-94. [see2001 citation]

Charleux-Demargne, Julie, 2001, Qualité des Modèles Numériques de Terrain pour l'hydrologie,Application à la caractérisation du régime de crues des bassins versants (in French with Englishabstract): Thèse Univ. Marne-La-Vallée (France), Sciences de l'Information Géographique, 350 p.,http://www.montpellier.cemagref.fr/doc/publications/theses/julie-charleux-demargne.html. [probabl.repr. network & watersheds to find bias of DEM orientation = f (DTM & terrain); eval. assess impactof DEM repairs]

Chartrand, S.M., and Whiting, P.J., 2000, Alluvial achitecture in headwater streams with specialemphasis on step-pool topography: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 25, no. 6, p. 583-600. [channel-bed step L, H, W, slope, & scour-depth]

Cheng, A.F., and 11 others, 2001, Laser altimetry of small-scale features on 433 Eros from NEAR-Shoemaker: Science, v. 292, no. 5516, p. 488-491. [1.0m resolution; 1 crater profiled; fractalanalysis of terrain profiles]

Cheng, Qiuming, 1999, Multifractality and spatial statistics: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 9,p. 949-961. [lacunarity & semivariance for patterns on bands from 6 Landsat TM images]

Cheng, Qiuming, Russel, H., Sharpe, D., Kenny, Frank, and Qin, Ping, 2001, GIS-based statisticaland fractal/multifractal analysis of surface stream patterns in the Oak Ridges Moraine: Computersand Geosciences, v. 27, no. 5, p. 513-526. [stream L, no., bifurc. ratio, density, R, slope, & basinperim. & A for 322 basins]

Cheng, Y.C., Lee, P.J., and Lee, T.Y., 1999, Self-similarity of the Taiwan Island landscape:Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 9, p. 1043-1050. [40 m DEM; 3-D box-count fractal D >w/ elev. < 1000m; gets D for regions]

Chentsov, V.N., 1940, Morphometric attributes of relief as applied to geomorphological maps (inRussian?), in Grigoryev, A.A., ed., Transactions of the Institute of Geography, no. 36: SovietAcademic Press, Moscow, p. 69-71. [no info]

Chertkov, V.Y., and Ravina, I., 1999, Tortuosity of crack networks in swelling clay soils: Soil ScienceSociety of America Journal, v. 63, no. 6, p. 1523-1530. [2-D network char. ~ tort.(connectedness) & spacing of cracks]

Childs, John, 2002, Terrain modeling and mapping using DEM, SDTS, DRG, DLG and DTED Data:Digital Terrain Modeling and Mapping; http://www.terrainmap.com/index.html#top. [excellent

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hands-on info for DTM, emphasizing "data sources, general technique (as opposed to specificapplications), & ... demystification ..." [emailprotected]]

Chin, Anne, 1999, The morphologic structure of step-pools in mountain streams: Geomorphology, v.27, nos. 3-4, p. 191-204. [n=464; height & spacing ≈ particle size & discharge, resp., not slopedirectly]

Cholnoky, Jenö, 1902, A futóhom*ok mozgásának törvényei (in Hungarian): Földtani Közlöny (J.Hung. Geol. Soc., Budapest), v. 69, no. 32, p. 6-38. [topo maps & sections of barchan dunes;refs. Hedin & Cornish]

Chorley, R.J., 2000, Classics in physical geography revisited—'Mackin, J.H., 1948, Concept of thegraded river: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 59, p. 463-511': Progress in PhysicalGeography, v. 24, no. 4, p. 563-578. [explains why Mackin's qualitative explication is essential tounderstanding subsequent quant. developments]

Chorowicz, Jean, Rouis, T., Rudant, J.-P., and Manoussis, S., 1998, Computer aided recognition ofrelief patterns on radar images using a syntax analysis: Remote Sensing of the Environment, v. 64,no. 3, p. 221-233. [x-band (3,2cm), 2m x 2m pixels, reqd. much filtering & processing]

Chou, Y.-H., Dezzani, R.J., Minnich, R.A,. and Chase, R.A., 1995, Correction of surface area usingdigital elevation models: Geographical Systems, v. 2, p. 131-151. [for both planimetric maps &scanned images]

Chou, Y.-H., Liu, P.-S., and Dezzani, R.J., 1999, Terrain complexity and reduction of topographicdata: Journal of Geographical Systems (Springer), v. 1, p. 179-198. [meas. terrain complexity toreduce data redundancy & applies to two 30-m DEMs]

Christiansen, A.H.J., 2001, Contour smoothing by an eclectic procedure: Photogrammetricengineering and Remote Sensing, v. 67, no. 4, p. 511-517. [splices arcs of quadratic parabolasto use both TIN & its linearly interpolared contours]

Churchill, R.R., 1981, Aspect-related differences in badlands slope morphology: Annals of theAssociation of American Geographers, v. 71, no. 3, p. 374-388. [stats. & anal. var. for 16 formvariables fr segmented slope profiles]

Cipolletti, D.L., 1988, Morphometry of Central American composite cones: New Brunswick, NJ,Rutgers University, unpublished MA thesis, 56 p. [no info]

Clague, D.A., Moore, J.G., and Reynolds, J.R., 2000, Formation of submarine flat-topped volcaniccones in Hawai'i: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 62, no. 3, p. 214-233. [height/diam., rim/base diam.,depth/rim diam.; low & broad]

Clague, D.A., Reynolds, J.R., and Davis, A.S., 2000, Near-ridge seamount chains in the northeasternPacific Ocean: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105, no. B7, p. 16,541-16,561. [3 chains;edifice & summit crater & caldera morphometry; much var.]

Clark, C.D., and Meehan, R.T., 2001, Subglacial bedform geomorphology of the Irish ice sheetreveals major configuration changes during growth and decay: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.15, no. 5, p. 483-496. [lineaments & variously processed DEM-views of ribbed (Rogen) moraineshow ground texture better than satellite images]

Clark, W.A.V. and Gaile, G.L., 1973, The analysis and recognition of shapes: Geografiska Annaler, v.55 B, p. 155-165. [shape characterization]

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Clarke, G.K.C., 1991, Length, width and slope influences on glacier surging: Journal of Glaciology, v.37, no. 126, p. 236-246. [multivar. analysis of 1754 Yukon glac.: signif. diff. geom.; L isdominant]

Clarke, G.K.C., Schmok, J.P., Ommanney, C.S.L., and Collins, S.G., 1986, Characteristics of surgingglaciers: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, no. B7, p. 7165-7180. [univariate analysis of2356 Yukon glac.: longer glac. more likely to surge]

Clarke, K.C., 1997, Topography, geographical, in Trigg, G.L., ed., Testing Equipment—Mechanical toTopological Phase Effects, Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, v. 21: Weinheim, Wiley-VCH verlag, p.525-531. [includes DEM's, relief depiction, morphometry, topology]

Clayton, Keith, and Shamoon, Nadhim, 1999, A new approach to the relief of Great Britain III.Derivation of the contribution of neotectonic movements and exceptional regional denudation tothe present relief: Geomorphology, v. 27, nos. 3-4, p. 173-189. [isostatic uplift fr denudationalunloading ≈ 50%; other = river slopes (≈f(rock strength) + misc.]

Cleveringa, Jelmer, and Oost, A.P., 1999, The fractal geometry of tidal-channel systems in the DutchWadden Sea: Geologie en Mijnbouw, v. 78, no. 1, p. 21-30. [fractal & Horton analysis; channelsystems similar]

Coe, J.A., and Godt, J.W., 2001, Debris flows triggered by the El Niño rainstorm of February 2-3,1998, Walpert Ridge and vicinity, Alameda County, California: U.S. Geological Survey,Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map MF-2384, 22 p., 1:24,000 scale;http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/map-mf/mf2384/. [slope, curvature, upslope contrib. A on 10m DEMfor 551 debris-flow source areas]

Cohen, J.E., and Small, Christopher, 1998, Hypsographic demography, the global distribution ofhuman population with altitude: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v.95, November, p. 14,009-14,014;http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~small/Pop/HypsoDemo/HypsoDemoMain.html. [Global systematics;As elev. < fr 800 m to 0 m, no. people increase >exponentially while occupied land area increases~ linearly. Occupied area between 0 & 100 m has disproportionate % of world pop.]

Coleman, Alice, 1952, Some aspects of the development of the lower Stour, Kent: Proceedings ofthe Geologists' Association, v. 63, part 1, p. 63-86. [modified height-range plot of Sparks 1950; v.detailed (300 'flats')]

Collett, Bernard, Taud, Hind, and Parrot, J.-F., 1999, Anomalies altimétriques de la zone afro-arabe(in French): Eclogae Geol. Helvetica, v. 92, no. 3, p. 275-284. [modeled 'Afar Plume' topo fr. 1 kmDEM (DCW) with spline fnc.]

Collin, Alexandre, 1846, Recherches expérimentales sur les glissem*nts spontanés des terrainsargileux, accompagnés de considérations sur quelques principes de la mécanique terrestre (inFrench; ... landslides in clay strata ... soil mechanics): Paris, Carilian-Goeury & Damont, 2 vol., text168 pages, atlas 21 plates. [early observation & experiment; measured slopes & before & afterprofiles of slides in embankments; proposed a curved slip face]

Collins, Michael, 1999, The edge of the world—revisiting Earth curvature concerns in terrainmodeling: Digital Data Digest (USACE/TEC), v. 5, no. 4, p. 5-7. [line-of-sight calcs. >2000m needcorrection for curvature]

Cook, A.C., and Robinson, M.S., 1999, Digital elevation models of the lunar surface, in Workshop onnew views of the Moon II—understanding the Moon through the integration of diverse datasets:Houston TX, Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI Contribution no. 980, p. 8-10. [fr Clementine UV-VIS images; 1/5 of Moon at 1km/px; maria noisy, uplands best]

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Cook, A.C., Watters, T.R., Robinson, M.S., Spudis, P.D., and Bussey, D.J.B., 2000, Lunar polartopography derived from Clementine stereoimages: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105, no.E5, p. 12,023-12,033. [new 1 km/pixel DEM + laser altimetry = global topo map of Moon]

Coops, N.C., 2000, Comparison of topographic and physiographic properties measured on theground with those derived from digital elevation models: Northwest Science, v. 74, no. 2, p. 116-130. [old 90-m DMA DEM; also use to better relocate forest-survey plots]

Corominas, J., Baeza, C, and Salueña, I., 1992, The influence of geometrical slope characteristicsand land use on the development of shallow landslides, in Bell, D.H., ed., Landslides, InternationalSymposium 6th, 10-14 February, Christchurch NZ, Proceedings: Rotterdam, Balkema, v. 2, p. 919-924. [field meas. of slide depth/length, slope, height, basin area, etc.; mult. regress. & PCA]

Cory, M.J., and McGill, A., 1999, DTM derivation at Ordnance Survey Ireland: OEEPE Workshop onAutomation in Digital Photogrammetric Production, 22-24 June, Ecole Nationale des SciencesGéographiques, Marne la Vallée (France); http://phot.epfl.ch/workshop/wks99/5_2.html. [newnational 1:50K map series; contours fr DEMs by digital photogramm., largely automatically]

Court, Arnold, 1972, Heterodox hydrology: Geographical Analysis, v. 4, p. 194-196. [sharp attackon Wong 1963, esp. PCA; Wong reply 197-203]

Cowen, D.J., Jensen, J.R., Hendrix, Chad, Hodgson, M.E., and Schill, S.R, 2000, A GIS-assisted railconstruction econometric model that incorporates LIDAR data: Photogrammetric engineering andRemote Sensing, v. 66, no. 11, p. 1323-1328. [3 m DEM from 0.3 m data; considerable tree-canopy cover tolerated]

Cox, E.P., 1927, A method of assigning numerical and percentage values to the degree ofroundness: Journal of Paleontology, v. 1, no. 3, p. 179-183. [early work: R =4�r(area)/(perimeter)2]

Cox, R.T., 1994, Analysis of drainage-basin symmetry as a rapid technique to identify areas ofpossible Quaternary tilt-block tectonics—an example from the Mississippi Embayment: GeologicalSociety of America Bulletin, v. 106, no. 5, p. 571-581. [polar plots of asymmetry vectors (calc. frtransverse topo profiles) for 271 basin segments & streams]

Cracraft, Joel, 1980, Review of The Measurement of Biological Shape and Shape Change, by F.L.Bookstein, F.L., 1978: Systematic Zoology, v. 29, no. 1, p. 102-103. [quant. measurement ofshape as the core os systematics; parallels in specific geomorphometry]

Craddock, R.A., and Howard, Alan D., 2000, Simulated degradation of lunar impact craters and anew method for age dating farside mare deposits: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105/E8, p.20,387-20,401. [validates Pike 1974 & 1977 lunar-crater d/D & h/D data]

Crave, Alain, and Davy, Philippe, 1997, Dynamique et géométrie des réseaux hydrographiques (inFrench), in Davy, Philippe, Guillocheau, François, and Hamelin, Bruno, eds.,Géomorphologie—Processus et Modélisation: Rennes, Geosciences-Rennes, p. 39-43. [briefexamples of analysis of stream networks]

Crave, Alain, and Davy, Philippe, 2001, A stochastic "precipiton" model for simulatingerosion/sedimentation dynamics: Computers and Geosciences, v. 27, no. 7, p. 815-827. [basedon cellular automata]

Crave, Alain, Lague, D., Davy, Philippe, Kermarrec, J., Sokoutis, D., Bodet, L., and Compagnon, R.,2000, Analogue modelling of relief dynamics: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (A), v. 25, no. 6-7, p. 549-553. [rain-erosion; parameters fr DEM of scale model @ ±100µ Z & ±500µ XY]

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Crawford, J.W., Baveye, Philippe, Grindrod, Peter, and Rappoldt, Cornelius, 1999, Application offractals to soil properties, landscape patterns, and solute transport in porous media, in Corwin, D.L.,Loague, Keith, and Ellesworth, T.R., eds., Assessment of non-point source pollution in the vadosezone: Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph 108, p. 151-164.[good tips on using fractal D, p. 152-156]

Cronin, Terrence, 1999, A boundary concavity code to support dominant point detection: PatternRecognition Letters, v. 20, no. 6, p. 617-634. [identifies spurs & draws (small ridges & valleys)from shape of indiv. contours]

Cronin, Terrence, 2000, Classifying hills and valleys in digitized terrain: Photogrammetric Engineeringand Remote Sensing, v. 66, no. 9, p. 1129-1137. [fr. containment relations of nested contours,not DEM's; can use open contours at edge of map; good review of prior work]

Cross, Martin, 1998, Landslide susceptibility mapping using the Matrix Assessment Approach—aDerbyshire case study, in Maund, J.G., and Eddleston, Malcolm, eds., Geohazards in EngineeringGeology: London, The Geological Society, Engineering Geology Special Publication no. 15, p.247-261. ['MAP'; deep-seated slides; bedrock geol. & slope best; relief, aspect & soils good]

Crosta, G.B., 2000, Detailed report of contractor (DAMOCLES-EVG1-1999-00027P) for first progressmeeting: Dept. di Science Geologiche e Geotecnologie, Univ. Milano-Bicocca (UNIBICO), October(for period April-Sept. 2000), 10 p.; http://damocles.irpi.pg.cnr.it/docs/october-2000/mi-october-2000.pdf. [list of 27 morphometric parameters used to describe alluvial fans & catchments inLombardy]

Crown, D.A., and Baloga, S.M., 1999, Pahoehoe toe dimensions, morphology, and branchingrelationships at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 61, no. 5, p. 288-305. [445 toes; L, W, thickness, orientation; slope affects aspect ratio, etc.]

Crozier, M.J., Eyles, R.J., Marx, S.L., McConchie, J.A., and Owen, R.C., 1980, Distribution of landslipsin the Wairarapa hill country: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 23, nos. 5 & 6,p. 575-586. [slope gradient, aspect, & profile location (high, mid, low) of 2206 landslides & parenthillsides]

Cruden, D.M., and Hu, X.-Q., 1999, The shapes of some mountain peaks in the Canadian Rockies:Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 24, no. 13, p. 1229-1241. [slope (cataclinal,anaclinal, dihedral) varies by rock structure; 5 shape types]

Culling, W.E.H., 1960, Analytical theory of erosion: Journal of Geology, v. 68, no. 3, p. 336-344.[by hypothesizing that horizontal flux of eroded material ≈ slope gradient, introduced use ofgeomorphic 'transport laws' in the conservation of mass to explore controls on landscape form &dynamics; 1st to apply the classical diffusion equation to geomorphology]

Cunit, C., 1855, Études sur les cours d'eau à fond mobile: Grenoble, publisher & paging unknown.[his courbe de régularisation = concept of a limiting slope for fluvial transport]

Currado, Claudia, and Fredi, Paola, 2000, Morphometric parameters of drainage basins andmorphotectonic setting of eastern Abruzzo: Memorie della Società Geolica Italiana, v. 55, p. 411-419. [relief map; stream orientations; asymmetry & transverse topo. factors]

Currey, D.R., 1964, A preliminary study of valley asymmetry in the Ogototuk Creek area, northwesternAlaska: Arctic, v. 17, no. 2, p. 84-98. [232 map & airphoto slope & azimuth obs. for stream orders1-4 quantify N (steeper) / S asymmetry]

Curry, A.M., 1999, Paraglacial modification of slope form: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v.24, no. 13, p. 1213-1228. [surveyed gully L, W, depth, vol; nongullied terrain slope & concavity]

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Cybulz, Ignatz, 1862, Handbuch der Terrain-Formenlehre, mit einem Anhange über elementar-Unterricht in Terrain-Zeichen nach plastischem unterrichts-Material (in German): Vienna, W.Braumüller, 200 p. [maps & profiles emph. geometry of forms; earliest (?) illustr. (albeit not 3-D) ofthe 9 slope elements (predates all other refs.); uses Lehmann's (1799) quant. hachure method]


Da Fontoura Costa, Luciano, and Cesar, R.M. Jr., 2000, Shape Analysis and Classification—Theoryand Practice: Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 659 p. [comprehensive 2-D computer-based shaperecognition & analysis, incl. measures for statistical classification; no Earth-sciences examples!]

Dade, W.B., 2000, Grain size, sediment transport and alluvial channel pattern: Geomorphology, v.35, nos. 1-2, p. 119-126. [channel sinuosity related to slope, other params.]

Dade, W.B., 2001, Multiple scales in river basin morphology: American Journal of Science, v. 301, no.1, p. 60-73. [quant. relations among area, relief, & steepness suggest influence of multiplespatial scales]

D'Alessandro, Leandro, Del Monte, Maurizio, Fredi, Paola, Lupia Palmieri, E., and Peppoloni, Silvia,1999, Hypsometric analysis in the study of Italian drainage basin morphoevolution: Transactions,Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 20, no. 3, p. 187-202. [mult. regression of H on 5 var.;Adriatic & Tyrrhenian basins differ]

Danielson, J.J., 1998, Delineation of drainage basins from 1 km African digital elevation model, inHuman Interactions with the Environment-Perspectives from Space, Pecora 13, Sioux Falls, SD,August 20-22, 1996, Proceedings: Bethesda, MD, American Society of Photogrammetry andRemote Sensing, CD-ROM; also <http://www.1.gsi-mc.go.jp/gtopo30/papers/danielson.html>.[DEM-to-watershed transform applied to the GTOPO30 DEM]

DARPA, 2002, Geospatial Terrain Analysis and Representation (Geo*): Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency, Defense Sciences Office: http://www.darpa.mil/dso/future/geo/. [WWW info. &forum on math. representation & analysis of geospatial data for military applics.]

Dausse, M.F.B., 1857, Note sur un principe important et nouveau d'hydrologie: Compte Rendus del'Academie sed Sciences, Paris, v. 44, p. 756-766. [his pente de de'équilibre = concept of alimiting slope for fluvial transport]

Dauteuil, Oliver, Blais, Sylvain, Miau, Delphine, Guille, Gérard, and Maury, R.C., 1988, Apports etlimites de l'imagerie SPOT et du modèle numérique de terrain pour l'étude du volcanisme intra-océanique—exemple des îsles de Raiatea et de Tahaa (archipel de la Société, Polynésiefrançaise): Géologie de la France, no. 3, 1998, p. 37-50. [20-m DEM @ +25 m vert. fr 1958 IGNcontours; alt. freq., topo profiles]

Davis, P.T., 1999, Cirque morphometry, pp. 34-39, in Cirques of the Presidential range, NewHampshire, and surrounding alpine areas in the northeastern United States: Géographie physiqueet Quaternaire, v. 53, no. 1, p. 25-45; [12 params. on 44cirques fr 1/20K-1/25K maps, but little stat. analysis; good biblio on prior morphometry]

Davoli, Lina, Del Monte, Maurizio, De Rita, Donatella, and Fredi, Paola, 1999, Geomorphology andtectonics in the Roccamonfina Volcano (Campania - central Italy): Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie,Supplementband 114, p. 11-28. [relief amplitude (i.e. 'relief energy', or local relief) & drainagedensity on 1km squares]

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Davy, Philippe, and Crave, Alain, 2000, Upscaling local-scale transport processes in large-scale reliefdynamics: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (A), v. 25, no. 6-7, p. 533-541. [broad-scalesurface model based on DEM-driven erosion dynamics]

De Beauclair Seixas, Roberto, de Figueiredo, L.H., da Silva, C.A., and Carvalho, P.C.P., 2000, Umametodologia para geração de modelos de elevação a partir de curvas de nível (in Portuguese; amethod to generate elevation models from contours): Anais do GeoInfo 2000, p. 82–87.[contour-to-DEM interpolation; after Gousie 1998]

De Berg, M., Bose, P., Dobrint, K., van Kreveld, M., Overmars, M., de Groot, M., Roos, T., Snoeyink,J., and Yu, S., 1996, The complexity of rivers in triangulated terrains, in Canadian Conference onComputational Geometry, 8th, Proceedings: p. 325-330. [worst-case edge complexity can bequadratic (i.e., bad) in TIN-to-watershed computations]

De Blasio, F.V., 2002, Note on simulating the size distribution of glacial cirques: Earth SurfaceProcesses and Landforms, v. 27, no. 1, p. 109-114. [narrow size-distr. reproduced fr kinematicstochastic model]

De Chant, L.J., Pease, P.P., and Tchakerian, V.P., 1999, Modelling alluvial fan morphology: EarthSurface Processes and Landforms, v. 24, no. 7, p. 641-652. [diffusive sed. transp. & unsteadyradial flow; sed & flow more importand than climate & lithol.?]

De Floriani, Leila, and Puppo, Enrico, 1992, A hierarchical triangle-based model for terraindescription, in Frank, A.K., Campari, I., & Formentini, U., eds., Theories and Methods of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, v. 63, no. 9, Berlin& Heidelberg, Springer Verlag. p. 236-251. [define DTM as 1 "a partition of the groundplan, & 2 afamily of partially continuous functions, one specified for each part of the partition, & all fncstogether form a continuous surface representing the terrain"]

De Floriani, Leila, and Magillo, Paola, 1999, Intervisibility on terrains, ch. 38, in Longley, P.A.,Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J., and Rhind, D.W., eds., Geographical Information Systems, v. 1,Principles and Technical Issues, 2nd ed.: New York, Wiley, p. 543-556. [reviews geometricmodeling of viewsheds etc.]

De Floriani, Leila, Magillo, Paola, and Puppo, Enrico, 2000, VARIANT—a system for terrain modelingat variable resolution: Geoinformatica, v. 4, no. 3, p. 287-315. [storage, manipulation, analysis, &visualizing costs > w/ DEM resolution & accuracy]

De Scally, F.A., Slaymaker, Olav, and Owens, I.F., 2001, Morphometric controls and basin responsein the Cascade Mountains: Geografiska Annaler, v. 83 A, no. 3, p. 117-130. [moment stats on 9params. for 36 debris torr., 79 avalanche, 45 mixed, & 14 stream basins]

De Smet, Roger, 1951, Principles élémentaires de morphométrie (in French): Rev. Cercle desSciences (Brussels), v. 1, no. 4, p. 13-16. [no info; see his other 1951 paper]

De Villiers, A.B., 1986, A multivariate evaluation of a group of drainage basin variables - a SouthAfrican case study, in Gardiner, V., ed., International Geomorphology 1986, Part II: New York,John Wiley & Sons, p. 21-32. [correl. & Fact. Anal. of 59 var. (167 basins): size (max), relief, soiltype, texture, eros. index, circularity]

Debenham, Frank, 1937, Exercises in Cartography: London, publ. unknown, p. 60. [measuredcontour length by opisometer to calc. clinographic curves]

DeBruin, S., Wielemaker, W.G., and Molenaar, M., 1999, Formalisation of soil-landscape knowledgethrough interactive hierarchical disaggregation: Geoderma, v. 91, nos. 1-2, p. 151-172. [spatialtopologic concepts: containment, adjacency, overlap]

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Deffontaines, Benoît, Chotin, Pierre, Aït Brahim, Lahsen, and Rozanov, Michel, 1992, Investigationof active faults in Morocco using morphometric methods and drainage pattern analysis:Geologische Rundschau, v. 81, no. 1, p. 199-210. [maps of summit levels, morphostruct. blocks,comp. w/ drainage net]

Deffontaines, Benoît, 1997, Quelques reflexions en morphometrie et morphostructurale (in French),in Davy, Philippe, Guillocheau, François, and Hamelin, Bruno, eds., Géomorphologie—Processuset Modélisation: Rennes, Geosciences-Rennes, p. 99-106. [brief examples of DEM-basedanalysis of streams & relief; biblio]

Defourny, P., Hecquet, G., and Philippart, T., 1999, Digital terrain modelling—accuracy assessmentand hydrological simulation sensitivity, Ch. 7 in Lowell, Kim, and Jaton, Annick, eds., SpatialAccuracy Assessment—Land Information Uncertainty in Natural Resources: Chelsea, MI, Ann ArborPress, p. 61-70. [pt elevs > contours, kriged elevs = best DEM, etc.; hydro models v. sensitive toquality]

DeGraff, J.V., 1978, Regional landslide evaluation—two Utah examples: Environmental Geology, v.2, no. 4, p. 203-214. [susceptibility based on bedrock (% area), slope (% area), & aspect]

DeGraff, J.V., and Romesburg, H.C.,1980, Regional landslide-susceptibility assessment for wildlandmanagement—a matrix approach, in Coates, D.R., and Vitek, J.D., eds., Thresholds inGeomorphology: London, George Allen and Unwin, p. 401-414. [large-area mapping by quant.combination of rock type & ground slope & aspect]

Dehn, Martin, Gärtner, Holger, and Dikau, Richard, 1999, Principles of semantic modeling of landformstructures, in International Conference on GeoComputation, 4th, Fredericksburg VA, MaryWashington College, 25-28 July, GeoComputation 99:http://www.geovista.psu.edu/geocomp/geocomp99/Gc99/067/gc_067.htm. [semanticrepresentation must precede DEMs, tools, implementation]

Del Monte, Maurizio, Fredi, Paola, Palmiere, E.L., and Salvini, Francesco, 1997, Fractalcharacterisation of drainage network geometry: Geogr. Fis. Dinam. Quat., Suppl. III, v. 1, p. 144-145. [no info]

Del Monte, Maurizio, Fredi, Paola, Palmiere, E.L., and Salvini, Francesco, 1999, Fractal analysis todefine the drainage network geometry: Bolletino della Società Geologica Italiana, v. 118, no. 1, p.167-177. [D rises with > structural control: dendritic-pinnate-parallel-rectangular]

Delazari, L.S., Vieira, A.J.B., and Dalmolin, Quintino, 1998, Extração automática de canais dedrenagem utilizando modelos digitais de altitude (in Portugese; ... network drainage from DEMs):Boletim Paranaense de Geociências, no. 46, p. 91-96. [DEM-to-watershed mapping using SKELpkg. of Meisels et al. 1995]

Delcaillau, B., Ozouf, J.C., Masiee, D., Laville, E., and Coutard, J.P., 1998, Evolutiongeomorphologique d'un bassin versant cotier; l'exemple de la Touques (Basse-Normandie) (...coastal drainage basin... in French): Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie II.Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes, v. 326, no. 9, p. 609-615. [longitudinal profiles &hypsometric integrals related to basin immaturity]

Delclaux, F., and Depraetère, Christian, 2001, Methodological approach for hydrological landscapedefinition—application of texture measures on West-African watersheds: Actes du 8ème CongrèsEuropéen de Stéréologie et d'Analyse d'Images, Bordeaux, France, (supl 1), p. 590-595. [texturemetrics; see other 2001 citation]

Delclaux, F., and Depraetère, Christian, 2001, Quantitative approach for the determination ofhydrological landscapes, in Falconer, R.A., and Blain, W.R., eds., River Basin Management:

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Southampton UK, Boston MA, WITT Press, p. 283-292. [PCA of 9 texture parameters, 1st PC(overall hom*ogeneity) 58%, 2nd (patch clustering) 26%, 3rd (local heterogeneity) 8%]

DeLoach, S.R., and Leonard, Jeff, 2000, Making photogrammetric history: Professional Surveyor, v,20, no. 4, p. 6, 8, 10. [rather boosterish review of LIDAR as source for topo data]

Demanet, Donat, Pirard, Eric, Renardy, François, and Jongmans, Denis, 2001, Application andprocessing of geophysical images for mapping faults: Computers and Geosciences, v. 27, no. 9, p.1031-1037. [math. morphology; gradient images= topo relief; define crest lines]

Demangeot, Jean, 1939, Le relief de la Haute Ubaye (in French): Annales de Géographie, v. 48, p.343-358. [measured mean elevation, etc.]

Demangeot, Jean, 1943, Notes sur la Haute Vallée de l'Ubaye (in French): Revue de GéographieAlpine, v. 31, no. 4, p. 535-574. [p. 556-563 on mean height & other indices for var. litho-struct.zones]

Demirmen, Ferruh, 1975, Profile analysis by analytical techniques, a new approach: GeographicalAnalysis, v. 7, no. July, p. 245-266. [defines profile types & proposes params = height, relief,length, slope, curv.]

Dengler, Lori, and Montgomery, D.R., 1989, Estimating the thickness of colluvial fill in unchanneledvalleys from surface topography: Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, v. 26, no. 3,p. 333-342. [2 trig. rels. betw. contour spacing & slope; planar & convex slide slopes]

Denizman, C., and Randazzo, A.F., 2000, Post-Miocene subtropical karst evolution, lower SuwanneeRiver basin, Florida: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 112, no. 12, p. 1804-1813.[sinkhole circularity/elev.; terrace growth ratio/elev.; pitting index/distance]

Denness, B., and Grainger, P., 1976, The preparation of slope maps by the moving interval method:Area, v. 8, p. 213-218. [manual method, not obsoleted by computer where detail needed]

Denny, C.S., 1965, Alluvial fans in the Death Valley region, California and Nevada: U.S. GeologicalSurvey Professional Paper 466, 62 p. [early fan morphometry; isometric log-log plots interpr. assteady-state form-process relations]

Denny, C.S., 1967, Fans and pediments: American Journal of Science, v. 265, no. 2, p 81-105.[early fan morphometry; exponential trend (no eqn.) interpr. as steady-state form-process relations]

Densmore, A.L., and Hovius, Niels, 2000, Topographic fingerprints of bedrock landslides: Geology, v.28, no. 4, p. 371-374. [prob. of >40º slope per horiz. distance from channel normalized byhillslope length, fr 30-m & 50-m DEMs]

Desmet, P.J.J., and Govers, G., 1996, A GIS procedure for automatically calculating the USLE LSfactor on topographically complex landscape units: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, v. 51,no. 5, p. 427-433. [automated unit-contributing-area concept extends Foster & Wischmeier 1974approach]

Deutsch, C.V., and Journel, A.G., 1998, GSLIB—Geostatistical Software Library and User's Guide,second edition: New York, Oxford University Press, 369 p. + CD-ROM. [a 'how to' book;FORTRAN 77 code furnished; see Myers review]

Devarajan, Venkat, Fuentes, R.W., and McArthur, D.E., 1996, An approach to multiple levels of detailgeneration from digital terrain elevation data using wavelet transforms: International TrainingEquipment Conference, 7th, Singapore, September 24-26, Proceedings: p. 255-262. [seeMcArthur et al., 2000; no other info]

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Devdariani, A.S., 1967, The profile of equilibrium and a regular regime (fr Voprosy geografii,Quantitative Methods in Geomorphology, no. 63, 1963, p. 33-48): Soviet Geography, Review andTranslation, v. 8, no. 2, p. 168-183. [fit theor. eqn. to longitudinal profile, but had to omit real-world irregularities]

Devdariani, A.S., 1967, A plane mathematical model of the growth and erosion of an uplift (frIzvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, seriya geograficheskaya, 1966, no. 3, p. 7-16): Soviet Geography,Review and Translation, v. 8, no. 2, p. 183-198. [early Russian quant. 2-D model of Davisianlandscape evolution]

Develi, K., Babadagli, T., and Comlekci, C., 2001, A new computer-controlled surface-scanningdevice for measurement of fracture surface roughness: Computers and Geosciences, v. 27, no. 3,p. 265-277. [54 x 54mm area, 1.0mm XY & 0.1mm Z resolution]

Di Stefano, C., Ferro, V., Porto, P., and Tusa, G., 2000, Slope curvature influence on soil erosionand deposition processes: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 2, p. 607-617. [modeledhydraulic-path correction for topo factors of RUSLE; DEM test]

Diener, Carl, 1890, Generalmajor A. v. Tillo's hypsometrische Karte des europäischen Rußland (inGerman): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 36, no. 6, p. 156-158. [detailed discussionof Tillo's 1889 map & its construction; small map shows area over 170 m]

Dierking, Wolfgang, 1999, Quantitative roughness characterization of geological surfaces andimplications for radar signature analysis: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing,v. 37, no. 5, p. 2397-2412. [stationary-radom-process & power-law models for SAR images;several signatures]

Dietrich, W.E., and Montgomery, D.R., 1998a, Hillslopes, channels, and landscape scale, in Sposito,Garrison, ed., Scale Dependence and Scale Invariance in Hydrology: Cambridge, UK, CambridgeUniversity Press, p. 0-60. [processes & thus terrain are scale-invariant; drainage density, slope &relief important; DEM's essential]

Dietrich, W.E., and Montgomery, D.R., 1998b, SHALSTAB a digital terrain model for mapping shallowlandslide potential: http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~geomorph/shalstab/ (to be published as atechnical report by NCASI). [conceptual framework, theory, application, testing, prescriptive use;can download zip file w/ code and documentation for use with ArcView GIS]

Dietrich, W.E., Bellugi, Dino, Heimsath, A.M., Roering, J.J., Sklar, L.S., and Stock, J.D., 2002,Geomorphic transport laws for predicting landscape form and dynamics, in Iverson, R.M., andWilco*ck, P., eds., Geomorphic Modeling: American Geophysical Union Monograph, in press.[wide-ranging study demonstrates via DEMs how GTLs might model real landscapes]

Dietrich, W.E., Wilson, C.J., and Reneau, S.L., 1986, Hollows, colluvium, and landslides in soil-mantled landscapes, in Abrahams, A.D., ed., Hillslope Processes, proceedings of the 16th annualBinghamton symposium in geomorphology: Boston, MA, Allen and Unwin, p. 361-388. [area &gradient inversely log-log related to hollow area & length; leads to basis for formational model]

Dikau, Richard, 1988, Entwurf einer geomorphologisch-analytischen Systematik von Reliefeinheiten(Design of geomorphologic-analytic systematics of relief units, in German): HeidelbergerGeographische Bausteine (Heidelberg geogr Contrib.), no. 5, 45 p. [mapping strategy based onwork of H. Kugler]

Dikau, Richard, 1994, Computergestützte Geomorphographie und ihre Anwendung in derRegionalisierung des Reliefs (in German): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 138, no. 2,p. 99-114. [quant. landform regions in New Mexico (Hammond method) & SW Germany (flowrouting)]

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Dikau, Richard, 1996, Geomorphologische Reliefklassifikation und -analyse (in German with englishabstract): Heidelberger Geographische Arbeiten, v. 104, p. 15-23. [proposes nested landformhierarchies as multi-scale approach to geomorphometry]

Dikau, Richard, and Friedrich, K., 1999, Digitale Reliefmodellierung (in German), in Zepp, H., andMüller, M.J., eds., Landschaftsökologische Erfassungsstandards—Ein Methodenhandbuch:Flensburg, Forschungen zur Deutsche Landeskunde, v. 244, p. 50-68. [another overview ofDikau's systematic approach to terrain representation]

Dikau, Richard, and Saurer, Helmut, eds., 1999, GIS for Earth Surface Systems Analysis andModelling of the Natural Environment: Stuttgart, Borntraeger, 197 p. [many DEM-basedgeomorph. applications]

Dikau, Richard, and Schmidt, Jochen, 1999, Georeliefklassifikation (in German), in Schneider-Sliwa,Rita, Schaub, Daniel, and Gerold, Gerhard, eds., Angewandte Landschaftsökologie—Grundlagenund Methoden: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 217-244. [restated overview of Dikau's systematicapproach to terrain representation]

Dikau, Richard, Hennrich, Kirsten, and Schmidt, Jochen, 1999, Untersuchungen zurcomputergestützten Regionlisierung von geomorphometrischen Reliefmerkmalen und ihreParametrisierung in Niederschlags-Abfluß-Modellen in Einzugsgebieten unterschiedlicherGrößenordnung (in German with English abstract; ... computer-assisted regionalization ofgeomorph. relief features & their parameterizing in rainfall-runoff models in catchment areas ofdifferent orders ..., in Kleeberg, H.-B., Mauser, Wolfram, Peschke, Gerd, and Streit, Ulrich, eds.,Hydrologie und Regionalisierung: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Forschungsbericht, Wiley-VCH, p. 175-189. [hydro models TOPMODEL & SAKE; 35 dimension, form, & relief params. frGRASS & ARC/INFO; spatial taxonomy]

Dikau, Richard, Hennrich, Kirsten, Schmidt, Jochen, Flechtner, Iris, Jung, Petra, and Schroeder,Martin, 1997, Untersuchungen zur computergestützten Regionlisierung von geomorphometrischenReliefmerkmalen und ihre Parametrisierung in Niederschlags-Abfluß-Modellen unterschiedlicherGrößenordnung (in German): Abschlußbericht zum Forschungsantrag im Rahmen des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 'Regionalisierung in der Hydrologie', Universität Bonn, GeographischesInstitut, paging unknown. [see Dikau-Hennrich-Schmidt 1999. also same citation, but Dikau,Schmidt, Schumacher (Thomas), Hennrich, & Schroeder, 1995, Univ. Heidelberg - no info]

Dirichlet, G.L., 1850, Über die reduction der positiven quadratischen formen mit drei unbestimmtenganzen zalen: J. Reine u. Angew. Math., v. 40, p. 209-227. [landmark in spatial analysis; Dirichletstudied geometric tessellation before Voronoi; thus, diagram is sometimes called Dirichlettessellation]

Discoe, Ben, 2001, The Virtual Terrain Project — "tools for easily constructing any part of the realworld in interactive 3D digital form; a set of open-source libraries & applications which enable therapid construction of interactive 3D scenes from geospatial data for anywhere on the planet":<http://www.vterrain.org/>. [as of 02/20002, a comprehensive site with up-to-date info on digitalterrain rendering]

Djokic, Dean, and Maidment, David, eds., 2000, Hydrologic and Hydraulic Modeling Support withGeographic Information Systems: Redlands CA, ESRI Press, 232 p. [5 DEM-related papers fr1999 ESRI users' conference]

Djokic, Dean, and Ye, Zichuan, 2000, DEM preprocessing for efficient watershed delineation, paper 4in Djokic, Dean, and Maidment, David, eds., Hydrologic and Hydraulic Modeling Support withGeographic Information Systems: Redlands CA, ESRI Press, p. 65-84; alsohttp://www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/papers/pap676/p676.htm. [Fast watersheddelineation (FWD) method speeds up pre-proc. the DEM-to-watershed transformation]

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Djokic, Dean, Ye, Zichuan, and Miller, A., 1997, Efficient watershed delineation using ArcView andSpatial Analyst, in 1997 ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, CA, July 8-11,Proceedings: Redlands, CA, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., CD-ROM (can't locatethis reference). [ESRI incorporates the DEM-to-watershed transformation into their software]

Dobija, A., 1979, Correlational analysis of morphometric parameters of drainage basins (in Polish):Zesz. Nauk. Univ. Jagiellon., p. 540ff. [no info]

Dodds, P.S., and Rothman, D.H., 1999, Unified view of scaling laws for river networks: PhysicalReviews E, v. 59, no. 5, p. 4865-4877. [more direct descr. of XY river structure than Horton laws,based on Tokunaga scaling (T & H laws are equivalent if their drainage densities are similar)]

Dodds, P.S., and Rothman, D.H., 2000, Scaling, universality, and geomorphology, in Jeanloz,Raymond, Albee, A.L., and Burke, K.C., eds., Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v.28: Palo Alto CA, Annual Reviews, p. 571-610. [pedagogic rev.; advoc. simple models to expl.steady-state scaling laws for river networks XY & statistical structure of topo. Z; lists 15 scaling laws(Hack's law central; they find exponent = 0.5, not 0.6, for v. large basins); good biblio]

Dodds, P.S., and Rothman D.H., 2001a, Geometry of river networks—scaling, fluctuations, anddeviations: Physical Review E, v. 63, 016115, 13 p. [generalize Hack's Law to a joint PDF & useto reveal that fluctuations fr it > w/ basin size]

Dodds, P.S., and Rothman D.H., 2001b, Geometry of river networks II—distributions of componentsize and number: Physical Review E, v. 63, 016116, 15 p. [Horton's laws extended to includefluctuations in scaling; distr. of stream segment lenghts are exponential]

Dodds, P.S., and Rothman D.H., 2001c, Geometry of River Networks III—characterization ofcomponent connectivity: Physical Review E, v. 63, 016117, 10 p. [self-similar scaling of drainagedensity implies Tokunaga's law, the scaling of side branch abundance along a stream, & a scalinglaw for stream lengths]

Dombrowski, Pierre, 1979, 150 Years After Gauss' "Disquisitiones Generales Circa SuperficiesCurvas" (2nd ed., 1981): Paris, Société Mathématique de France, ser. Astérisque, No. 62, 153 p.[translation of this seminal 1827 work on the geometry of curves surfaces is from Hiltebeitel &Morehead 1902 (reprinted 1965)]

Domogalla, P., Mair, G., and Schmidt, R.-G., 1974, Ein Beitrag zur quantitativen Erfassung desReliefs für die Darstellung in geomorphologischen Karten (A contribution to the quantitative use ofrelief-representation in geomorphologic maps): Kartographische Nachrichten, v. 24, no. 3, p. 99-104. [no info]

Dorey, M.I., Sparkes, A.J., Kidner, D.B., Jones, C.B., and Ware, J.M., 1999, Terrain modellingenhancement for intervisibility analysis, in Gittings, B.M., ed., Innovations in GIS 6: London, Taylor& Francis, p. 169-184. [accuracy nearly doubles by adding topographic features to DEM]

Dornbusch, W.K., Jr., 1963, Quantitative terrain mapping in the humid tropics, Puerto Rico and theCanal Zone, in Military Evaluation of Geographic Areas reports on activities to April 1963:Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, MiscellaneousPaper no. 3-610, p. 73-81. [applies the 4-param. USWES model: plan-profile, slope, spacing,relief]

Doucette, Peter, and Beard, Kate, 2000, Exploring the capability of some GIS surface interpolatorsfor DEM gap fill: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 66, no. 7, p. 881-888.[splining rather better than kriging, inv. dist. weighting, & sfce trend analysis]

Dougherty, D.A., and Moellering, Harold, 1996, Using the 2-dimensional Fourier transform fornumerical terrain analysis, in ASPRS/ACSM Annual Convention & Exposition, 22-25 April,

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Bethesda, MD, ACSM Technical Papers: v. 3, Surveying & Cartography, p. 268-277. ['signaturesfor numerical terrain types'; no other info]

Douglas, D.H., 1983, The XYNIMAP family of programs for geographic information processing andthematic map production, in Wellar, B.S., ed., Auto-Carto Six, International Symposium onAutomated Cartography 6th, Ottawa Canada, Proceedings: v. II, p. 2-14. [interpolates contours;run 8 rays fr each unknown point until hit known pts, then postprocess to smooth surface; basis ofCONSURF contour-to-grid algorithm]

Douglas, D.H., 2000, CONSURF—the Douglas contour to grid methodology:http://www.hig.se/~dds/research/consurf/consur1.htm. [intersection of slope line thru a point &relevant contour lines intractable (both lines are curved); sol'n (based on 1983 XYNIMAP paper)uses slope lines; illustr. by animations]

Dowman, I.J., 2000, Review of Generation of Digital Elevation Models Through Spaceborne SARInterferometry, by D. Small: Photogrammetric Record, v. 16, no. 95, p. 870-871. [hybrid text/Ph.D.thesis; mixed praise & limits; good on DEM analysis]

Doytsher, Yerahmiel, and Hall, J.K., 2001, Simplified algorithms for isometric and perspectiveprojections with hidden line removal: Computers and Geosciences, v. 27, no. 1, p. 77-83.[includes brief review of older hidden-line software]

Drzewiecki, Wojciech, Mularz, Stanislaw, and Pirowski, Tomasz, 1999, Generating slope and aspectmaps using different GIS packages (in Polish with English abstract): Geodezja, v. 5, no. 1, p. 101-122. [IDRISI, SURFER, ARC/INFO GRID, ERDAS, MGE GRID & TERRAIN ANALYST, PCRASTER; results not in English]

Dubois, R.N., 2001, Using a quadratic model to theoretically describe the nature of equilibriumshorerise profiles: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 17, no. 3, p. 599-610. [relief = ax2+bx+c, (x=distance); r2= 0.95-0.99 for 74 profiles]

DuBuat, P.L.G., 1779, Principes d'Hydraulique, vérifiés par un grand nombre d'Expériences faites parordre du Gouvernement (2nd ed. 1786, 3-vol. 3rd ed. 1816): Paris, De l'imprimerie de Monsieur, v.1, 453 p., v. 2, 402 p. [landmark; many quant. experiments suggest dynamic adjustment of formto process re. hydraulic geometry; influenced De La Noë 1888?]

Dubuc, B., and Dubuc, S., 1996, Error bounds on the estimation of fractal dimension: SIAM Journalof Numerical Analysis, v. 33, no. 2, p. 602-626. [re surface roughness; diff. methods, scaleranges & resolutions yield v. diff. estimates]

Duchaineau, Mark, Wolinsky, Murray, Sigeti, D.E., Miller, M.C., Aldrich, Charles, and Mineev-Weinstein, M.B., 1997, ROAMing terrain—Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes: ACM SymposiumVolume Visualization '97, IEEE, 19-24 October, Phoenix AZ, Proceedings: p. 81-88;<http://www.llnl.gov/graphics/ROAM/>. [important paper on terrain rendering using ROAM, acomplex TIN-based algorithm using continuous triangle-bintree meshes to achieve dynamic on-the-fly visualization; good biblio]

Duckson, D.W. Jr., and Duckson, L.J., 2001, Channel bed steps and pool shapes along Soda Creek,Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon: Geomorphology, v. 38, nos. 3-4, p. 267-279. [no lithologic var.by step height h/slope, (L/h)/slope, etc.]

Duh, J.-D., and Brown, D.G., 1999, Local reduction of systematic error in 7-1/2 minute DEMs bydetecting anisotropy in derivative surfaces, Ch. 34 in Lowell, Kim, and Jaton, Annick, eds., SpatialAccuracy Assessment—Land Information Uncertainty in Natural Resources: Chelsea, MI, Ann ArborPress, p. 281-292. [fix DEM 'stripes'; use semivariograms & fractal D; local better than globalsmoothing; some info loss]

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Dumoulin, C., Doin, M.P., and Fleitout, L., 2001, On the interpretation of linear relationships bwteenseafloor subsidence rate and the height of the ridge: Geophysical Journal International, v. 146, no.3, p. 691-698. [bathymetric spectrum; age/depth; ridge height/seafloor depth autocorrel.]

Dunn, Matthew and Hickey, R.J., 1998, The effect of slope algorithms on slope estimates within aGIS: Cartography (Canberra), v. 27, no. 1, p. 9-15; http://www.mappingsciences.org.au/journal.htm.[tried 4 techniques; max. downhill gradient calcs. are best]

Dunn, R.A., Scheirer, D.S., and Forsyth, D.W., 2001, A detailed comparison of repeated bathymetricsurveys along a 300-km-long section of the southern East Pacific Rise: Journal of GeophysicalResearch, v. 106, no. B1, p. 463-471. [spectral analysis, depth differences, size/height threshold]

Dupuis-Torcy, 1st name unknown, and Brisson, Barnabé, 1808, Sur l'art de projecter les canaux denavigation (in French; on locating canals): Journal de l'Ecole Polytechnique, cah. 14, no. 7, p. 262-288; republished 1829 as Un essai sur l'art de projeter les canaux à point de partage (planningcanals linking different drainage basins) in Brisson, B., Essai sur le système général de navigationintérieure de la France, paging unknown. [remarkable paper; defined watercourses geometricallyas lines of steepest descent which are asymptotically approached by other lines of steepestdescent; cited by Müller 1919 (also 1908/12?), & later Rieger 1997 (& thence López 1997) aspossibly defining drainage lines analytically (altho no math shown) before their mention by Saint-Venant 1852. Shows how best line for any summit level may be laid out from topographic maps(then in infancy), particularly those of Cassini (?), rather than ground surveying. N.B. Francepioneered the engineering of modern canals, which could follow either terrain contours (earlier inthe 1760-1840 Canal Age) or a straight line (later); if contours, few expensive earthworks & lockswere needed, but resulting route was longer & less direct; the descriptive work reported here led tomore accurate cost estimates for cut-&-fill of canals linking different watersheds. See Brisson 1829;Dupuis-Torcy was a civil engineer; a canal he designed in 1804 in Cayenne (Fr. Guyana, wheredied ca. 1808) is named for him]

Durheim, C.J., 1850, Sammlung trigonometrischer oder barometrisch-bestimmter absoluter Höhen derSchweiz und ihrer näheren Umgebung. Hypsométrie de la Suisse et des Etats voisins: Bern, Haller,706 p. [big compilation of trig. & barom. heights; hypso. of Switzerland & adjoining States]

Dutton, G.H., 1999, A hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography: Berlin,Springer, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 79, 231 p. [monograph on digital map-generalization;1997-98 Ph.D. diss., U. Zürich]


East, T.J., 1978, Mass movement landforms in Baroon Pocket, south-east Queensland—a study ofform and process: Queensland Geographical Journal, ser. 3, v. 4, July, p. 37-67. [L, W, d, d/L,vol., & slope gradient differ among 5 types (99 landslides); slope map]

Eastman, Ronald, 1992, IDRISI version 4.0, User's Guide: Worcester, MA, ClarkLabs, ClarkUniversity, 178 p. [world's most-used GIS]

Eastman, Ronald, 2002, idrisi32: Worcester, MA, ClarkLabs, Clark University;http://www.clarklabs.org/IdrisiSoftware.asp?cat=2. [major upgrade of world's most-used GIS,$600-$1500]

Ebert, Hermann, 1890, Über die Ringgebirge des Mondes (in German): Sitzungsberichte derPhysikalische-Medizinische Soc., Erlangen, p. 171-191. [major pub. on 'Ebert's Rule'; measuredcrater diams. & depths; computed Schröter's ratio for 92 craters 13 km < D < 150 km (most rim vol.< bowl)]

Ebisemiju, F.S., 1976, Morphometric work with Nigerian topographical maps: Nigerian GeographicalJournal (Ibadan), v. 19, no. 1, p. 65-77. [air photos, drainage patterns, methods, slopes]

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Ebisemiju, F.S., 1986, Environmental constraints on the interdependence of drainage basinmorphometric properties, in Gardiner, V., ed., International Geomorphology 1986, Part II: NewYork, John Wiley & Sons, p. 3-20. [correl. & PCA of 30 var.: texture (max), size, relief, link lengthratio, shape, bifurcation ratio]

Eckhardt, F.D., Wilkinson, M.J., and Lulla, K.P., 2000, Using digitized handheld Space Shuttlephotography for terrain visualization: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 21, no. 1, p. 1-5.[70mm color pic (Namib inselberg) draped on GTOPO30 DEM; res = 50 m ± 5.3m]

Eckis, Rollin, 1928, Alluvial fans of the Cucamonga District, southern Arizona: Journal of Geology, v.36, no. 3, p. 224-247. [early quant. obs., concavity & slope diminish w/ increasing fan size]

Economic Planning Agency, 1969, Topographic relief of Japan (in Japanese): map scale1/1,160,000. [relief energy defined on 1' x 1.5' lat.-lon. grid]

Edwards, R., and Durkin, J., 1969, Computer prediction of service areas for V.H.F. mobile radionetworks: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE, UK), v. 116, no. 9, p. 1493-1500. [early advocates of regular-grid DEMs fr topo maps for intervisibility & radio-path lossalgorithms]

Edwards, S.F., and Wilkinson, D.R., 1982, The surface statistics of a granular aggregate:Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, v. A381, no. 1780, p. 17-31. [acc. to Pastor-Satorras & Rothman 1998a, adds uncorrel. noise to diffusion eqn. to get true self-affine surface]

Ehrenburg, Karl, 1891, Studien zur Messung der horizontalen Gliederung von Erdräumen (inGerman; ... measuring spatial arrangement of areas on the Earth): Würzburg, Verhandlungen derPhysikalisch-Medicinischen Gesellschaft zu Würzburg, v. 25, no. 2, 44 p. [reviews the problem frRitter 1828 to C. Rohrbach 1890; considers geometry of var. shape-meas. in great detail]

Elkie, P.R., Rempel, R.S., and Carr, A.P., 1999, Patch Analyst User’s Manual—a tool for quantifyinglandscape structure: Thunder Bay, Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, NorthwestScience and Technology, Technical Manual TM–002, 16 p. +Appendix;http://sevilleta.unm.edu/technology/reference/esri/patch_habitat/nwtm002.pdf. [program canimplement FRAGSTATS in grid format; http://flash.lakeheadu.ca/~rrempel/patch/]

Ellenberg, Ludwig, 1969, Versuch der numerischen Erfassung des Reliefcharakters (in German;Attempt at numerical expression of relief character): Geographica Helvetica (Bern), v. 24, no. 1, p.13-15. [slope, relief energy, stream density, contour density]

Elliott, F.E., 1953, A technique of presenting slope and relative relief on one map: Surveying andMapping, v. 13, no. 4, p. 473-477. [G-H Smith relief on 2.5' squares & 3 Raisz-Henry slope bins]

Elorza, M.G., and Martínez, V.H. Sesé, 2001, Multiple talus flatirons, variations of scarp retreat ratesand the evolution of slopes in Almazán Basin (semi-arid central Spain): Geomorphology, v. 38, nos.1-2, p. 19-29. [math. fcns. for 12 concave slope profiles at 5 diff. evol. stages]

Embleton, Clifford, and Hamann, C., 1988, A comparison of cirque forms between the Austrian Alpsand the Highlands of Britain: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 70, p. 75-93. [n=302 fr 1/25K maps; L/h, wall/floor & closure angles, azimuth; results not clear-cut]

Emery, K.O., 1958, Shallow submerged marine terraces of southern California: Bulletin of theGeological Society of America, v. 69, no. 1, p. 39-60. [chart (Plate I) stores/displays depths fordiscontinuous terrace profiles]

Endreny, T.A., and Wood, E.F., 2001, Representing elevation uncertainty in runoff modelling andflowpath mapping: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 12, p. 2223-2236. [var. sensitivity of D8,MF, DEMON-e & -b, D-Infinity, & DEMON-bI to DEM error]

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Endreny, T.A., Wood, E.F., and Lettenmaier, D.P., 2000, Satellite-derived digital elevation modelaccuracy—hydrogeomorphological analysis requirements: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, no. 1, p.1-20. [overall SPOT/USGS' differences <3%, but USGS 7.5' better at scales <100m]

Endreny, T.A., Wood, E.F., and Hsu, Ann, 2000, Correction of errors in SPOT-derived DEM's usingGTOPO30 data: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 38, no. 3, p. 1234-1241. [coarser GTOPO30 useful in error-analysis of finer satellite-derived DEM]

Engelen, G.B., and Huybrechts, Willy, 1981, A comparison of manual and automated slope maps:Catena, v. 8, no. 2, p. 239-249. [made a DEM; manual (moving interval) method better wheredetail required]

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc., 1997, Watershed Delineator Application —User's Manual: Redlands, CA, ESRI, paging unknown. [the DEM-to-watershed transformation isincorporated into ESRI software]

Etzelmüller, Bernd, and Björnsson, Helgi, 2000, Map analysis techniques for glaciologicalapplications: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, v. 14, no. 6, p. 567-581.[calc. basal shear stress, vel., drains, & water vol. fr DEM of Iceland ice cap]

Etzelmüller, Bernd, Ødegård, R., Berthling, I., and Sollid, J.L., 2001, Terrain parameters and remotesensing data in periglacial research: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, v. 12, no. 1, p. 79-92.[if spatial relations scale-independent within certain range, info can be scaled up & down]

Evans, I.S., 1999, Was the cirque glaciation of Wales time-transgressive or not?: Annals ofGlaciology, v. 28, p. 33-39. [no; regression eqns. show floor altitude increases to N or NE, asexpected fr present conditions]

Evans, I.S., and Cox, N.J., 1998, Relations between land surface properties—altitude, slope andcurvature, in Hergarten, Stefan, and Neugebauer, H.J., eds., Process Modelling and LandformEvolution (Lecture Notes in Earth Science, 78): Berlin, Springer, p. 13-45. [complements Evans1998; more evidence that the land surface is not fractal]

Evans, K.G., and Willgoose, G.R., 2000, Post-mining landform evolution modelling 2. Effects ofvegetation and surface ripping: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms: v. 25, no. 8, p. 803-823.[SIBERIA models changes to radioactive tailings pile that must remain undisturbed for 1000s ofyears]

Everard, C.E., 1956, Erosion platforms on the borders of the Hampshire Basin: Transactions andPapers of the Institute of British Geographers, no. 22, p. 35. [elaborated the height-rangediagram of Sparks 1949]

Eyles, R.J., 1971, Mass movement in Tangoio Conservation Reserve, northern Hawkes Bay: EarthScience Journal (NZ), v. 5, no. 2, p. 79-91. [52 valley-side profiles & 29 landslide scars; profilerelief, L, slope gradient (3-m segments), concavo-convexity]

Eyton, J.R., 1991, Rate-of-change maps: Cartography & GIS, v. 18, p. 87-103. [calc. related elev.derivatives from finite differences]


fa*gherazzi, Sergio, Bortoluzzi, Annalisa, Dietrich, W.E., Adami, Attilo, Lanzoni, Stefano, Marani,Marco, and Rinaldo, Andrea, 1999, Tidal networks 1. Automatic network extraction and preliminaryscaling features from digital terrain maps: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 12, p. 3891-3904.[topo data from marsh & tidal flats: threshold elev & curvature; see also parts 2 and 3. p. 3905-3917 and 3919-3929]

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Fair, T.J.D., 1947, Slope form and development in the interior of Natal: Transactions of theGeological Society of South Africa, v. 50 (publ. 1948), p. 105-119. [profiles fr Abney level,readings to nearest 10'; slope segments 1°-35°]

Farabegoli, Enzo, and Agostini, Cecilia, 2000, Identification of Calanco, a badland landform in thenorthern Apennines, Italy: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 25, no. 3, p. 307-318.[contour crenulation ratio (LO/LF) = true length/length smoothed; hypso. integral]

Fardin, N., Stephansson, and Jing, Lanru, 2001, The scale dependence of rock joint surfaceroughness: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, v. 38, no. 5, p. 659-669.[fractal D & amplit. A vary over 3-D laser-scanned windows 100mm-1000mm]

Farr, Tom, and Kobrick, Mike, 2000, Shuttle radar topography mission produces a wealth of data:Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 48, p. 583 & 585. [how the SRTMdata were gathered]

Farrenkopf, Dorothee, 1987, Das Relief als steuernder Parameter der Abflußdynamik—ein Beitrag zurfluvialen Prozeßforschung (Relief as controlling parameter of discharge dynamics—a contribution tofluvial process research): Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 66, p. 73-82. [meanvalues don't predict high flows well]

Fatale, L.A., 1992, DCAC examines impact of DTED Levels 1- and 2 resolution on terrainvisualization: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Topographic Engineering Center, Digital Data Digest,v. 2, no. 4, p. 1-4. [field photo/DEM images compared; Level 1 useless in gentle terrain, OK inmany rough areas]

Favilli, Massimiliano, Innocenti, Fabrizio, Pareschi, M.T., Pasquarè, Giorgio, Mazzarini, Francesco,Branca, Stefano, Cavarra, Luciano, and Tibaldi, Alessandro, 1999, The DEM of Mt.Etna—geomorphological and structural implications: Geodinamica Acta (Paris), v. 12, no. 5, p. 279-290. [ca. 30X40km; 5m grid @ ± 1m height accuracy; slope map & histogram @ 1° bins; 106input elevs.; shaded relief image]

Favis-Mortlock, David, 1998, A self-organizing dynamic systems approach to the simulation of rillinitiation and development on hillslopes: Computers and Geosciences, v. 24, no. 4, p. 353-372;http://soilerosion.net/rillgrow/. [RillGrow, a simple DEM-based model using discrete packets formicrotopo]

Favis-Mortlock, D.T., Boardman, John, Parsons, A.J., and Lascelles, Bruce, 2000, Emergence anderosion—a model for rill initiation and development: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p.2173-2205. [improved self-organizing DEM model, Rillgrow 2, applied to 4 soil surfaces]

Fedoseev, Yu.E., and Korolev, O.B., 1987, Determining the position of structural lines of topographyby an analytic method (in Russian): Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnyh Zavedeny, Geodesiya iAerophotosyemka, no. 1, p. 10-15. [no info]

Fekete, B.M., Vörösmarty, C.J., and Lammers, R.B., 2001, Scaling gridded river networks formacroscale hydrology—development, analysis, and control of error: Water Resources Research, v.37, no. 7, p. 1955-1967. [algorithm rescales fine-resolution nets (fr HYDRO1k) to coarser res.;results for Europe]

Feldner, Hermann, 1902, Die Flussdichte und ihre Bedingtheit im Elbsandsteingebirge (drainagedensity & its limitations ... ; in German): Mitteilungen des Vereins für Erdkunde zu Leipzig, p. 1-55.[early dd work post-Neumann 1900; describes 3 methods; x = A/n; A = basin area & n = number ofsegments]

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Felpeto, A., Araña, V., Ortiz, R., Astiz, M., and García, A., 2001, Assessment and modelling of lavaflow hazard on Lanzarote (Canary Islands): Natural Hazards, v. 23, nos. 2-3, p. 247-257. [usednumber density of emission centers & flowpaths fr 50m DEM]

Ferrarese, Francesco, Sauro, Ugo, and Tonello, Christian, 1998, The Montello Plateau—Karstevolution of an alpine neotectonic morphostructure: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie,Supplementband 109, p. 41-62. [22 topo. parameters; got 2 groups of sub-units]

Ferretti, Alessandro, Prati, Claudio, and Rocca, Fabio, 1999, Multibaseline InSAR DEMreconstruction—the wavelet approach: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v.37, no. 2, p. 705-715. [selects weights in combining many uncorr. topo. profiles]

Fiedler, Bruno, 1890, Vergleich Orometrischer Methoden (Comparison of orometric methods asapplied to the Thuringen Forest, in German): Friedrichs-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Inaugural-Dissertation (Ph.D.), 39 p, 5 plates. [Sonklar, Koristka, Penck, etc. for volume (Simpson's Rulebest) & ave. crest height & uplifted mass]

Fielder, Gilbert, 1962, The measurement of lunar altitudes by photography—I. Estimating the truelengths of shadows: Planetary and Space Science, v. 9, p. 917-928. [discusses all known errorsources]

Fiilinskas, Gintautas, 1997, Baltijos Jüros Lietuvos kranto ilgis bei jo nustatymo problemos (inLithuanian with English summary; length of the lithuanian shore of the Baltic Sea): GeografijosMetrastis (Geographical Yearbook; Vilnius. Lith.), v. 30, paging unknown. [used regression eqns.& data fr maps, airphotos. field, cartometry (Volkov 1950 method); cites Keber 1864]

Fils, A.W., 1859, Die Centralgruppe des Thüringer Waldes oder die Gegend zwischen Ilmenau andOberhof (in German): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 5, no. 6, p. 256-271, & plate 10(1/60,000 scale). [typical of Major Fils many careful surveys; detailed list describs each height;100' contours over hachures]

Finlayson, Brian, and Statham, Ian, 1980, Slope forms, chap. 6, in Sources and Methods inGeography: London UK & Boston MA, Butterworths, p. 147-185. [slope freq. & other quant.topics]

Finlayson, D.P., Montgomery, D.R., and Hallet, Bernard, 2002, Spatial coincidence of rapid inferrederosion with young metamorphic massifs in the Himalayas: Geology, v. 30, no. 3, p. 219-222.[geomorphic modeling; rate-of-erosion index, EI, fr area, slope & precip., fr GTOPO30 for 16 majorbasins]

Fioole, A., Houwing, E.J., and van der Heijdt, L.M., 1997, SURFIS—a tool for designing andoptimizing dredging schemes: Water Science and Technology, v. 37, p. 103-107. [allows DTM'sto be produced with mapped random errors]

Fisher, P.F., 1994, Probable and fuzzy models of the viewshed operation, in Worboys, M.F., ed.,Innovations In GIS I: London, Taylor & Francis, p. 161-176. [DEM-based calculations]

Fisher, P.F., 1998, Improved modeling of elevation error with geostatistics: Geoinformatica, v. 2, no.3, p. 215-233. [stat & spatial distr. of error; variograms of 50-m UK DEM]

Fleishmann, Erica, and Mac Nally, R.M., 2002, Topographic determinants of faunal nestedness inGreat Basin butterfly assemblages—applications to conservation planning: Conservation Biology, v16, no. 2, p. 422-429. [no details other than terrain complexity is used]

Fleming, M.D., and Hoffer, R.M., 1979, Machine processing of Landsat MSS data and DMAtopographic data for forest cover type mapping: West Lafayette, IN, Purdue, University, Laboratory

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for Applications of Remote Sensing, LARS Technical Report 062879, paging unknown. ['bestmethod' (K.H. Jones, 1998) for computing slope fr DEM]

Flint, J.J., 1974, Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude and discharge: Water ResourcesResearch, v. 10, no. 5, p. 969-973. [link slope = 1/link magnitude]

Florinsky, I.V., 2000, Relationships between topographically expressed zones of flow accumulationand sites of fault intersection—analysis by means of digital terrain modeling: EnvironmentalModelling Software, v. 15, no. 1, p. 87-100. [apply Shary 1995 DEM-based technique to betterpredict soil salinization]

Florinsky, I.V., 2002, Errors of signal processing in digital terrain modelling: International Journal ofGeographical Information Science, v. 16, no. 5, p. 475-501. [3 types; Gibbs phenom., noise frDEM differentiation, & displacement of grid]

Florinsky, I.V., Eilers, R.G., and Lelyk, G.W., 2000, Prediction of soil salinity risk by digital terrainmodelling in the Canadian prairies: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, v. 80, no. 3, p. 455-463.[accum. & dissipat. zones fr DEM curvature used to improve predictive maps]

Florinsky, I.V., Eilers, R.G., Manning, G., and Fuller, L.G., 2002, Prediction of soil properties by digitalterrain modelling: Environmental Modelling and Software, v. 17, p. 295–311. [DEM slope, aspect,curv., basin A, topo. & stream power indices & correl. of soil and topo.]

Florinsky, I.V., and Kuryakova, G.A., 2000, Determination of grid size for digital terrain modelling inlandscape investigations—exemplified by soil moisture distribution at a micro-scale: InternationalJournal of Geographical Information Systems, v. 14, no. 8, p. 815-832. [experimental methoduses correlation analysis to optimize spacing]

Flowers, G.E., and Clarke, G.K.C., 1999, Surface and bed topography of Trapridge Glacier, YukonTerritory, Canada—digital elevation models and derived hydraulic geometry: Journal of Glaciology,v. 45, no. 149, p. 165-174. [upstream area fr. DEM fr. ice-penetrating radar & statist.'preconditioning']

Fluck, Rudolf, 1925, Die Flussdichte im schweizerisch-französischen Jura (in German): Inaugural-Dissertation, Univ. Basel, 89 p., Verhandlungen der Naturf. Gesellschaft, in Basel, Emil Birkhäuser& Cie., v. 37, p. 120-218. [1:500K maps of Jura Mtn. drainage density & mean stream spacing frtopo map data; dd values of all 4086 2-km squares tabulated as XY array]

Flückiger, Otto, 1919, Morphologische Untersuchungen am Napf (in German), article 6, inGeologische Struktur der Schweizeralpen, Sammelband von 7 Schriften from 1889-1919: Zürich,34 p. [calculated relative relief for (topographic) basins?]

Focardi, P., Garzonio, C.A., Sedda, E., and Vannocci, P., 1992, Relationship between morphometricparameters and lithological and geotechnical characteristics of unstable slopes in the UpperValdarno basin, Tuscany, Italy, in Bell, D.H., ed., Landslides, International Symposium 6th, 10-14February, Christchurch NZ, Proceedings: Rotterdam, Balkema, v. 2, p. 943-946. [180 slopeprofiles; freq. distr. & 18 statistics on ea. lith. zone]

Fochler-Hauke, Gustav, 1941, Die Mandschurei (Manchuria, in German): Heidelburg, map 9.[1/1.7M relative-relief map (after Tada 1937); 10 relief intervals]

Fok, Yu-Si, 1971, Law of stream relief in Horton's stream morphological system: Water ResourcesResearch, v. 7, no. 1, p. 201-203. [mean relief = semilog fnc. of stream order; eval. for 4 rivers]

Foster, G.R., and Wischmeier, W.H., 1974, Evaluating irregular slopes for soil loss prediction:Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v. 17, no. 2, p. 305-309.[attempts to adapt LS factor in USLE to irreg. topo; segments w/ diff. slope]

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Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi, and Sapozhnikov, Victor, 2001, Scale invariances in the morphology andevolution of braided rivers: Mathematical Geology, v. 33, no. 3, p. 273-300. [philosophy,methods, & examples from 4 rivers]

Fourneau, R., 1960, Contribution à l'étude des versants dans le sud de la Moyenne Belgique etdans le Nord de l'entre Sambre et Meuse. Influence de la nature du substratum (in French):Annales Société Géologique de Belgique, v. 84, p. 123-151. [10 areas; correl. valley depth &mean slope; 5m slope-sampling interval]

Fournier, F., 1960, Climat et Erosion (in French): Paris, P.U.F., 201 p. [pp. 139-150: 'orographiccoefficient'; also, diff. hypso. curves can have same mean elev.]

Fraisse, C.W., Sudduth, K.A., and Kitchen, N.R., 2001, Delineation of site-specific managementzones by unsupervised classification of topographic attributes and soil electrical conductivity:Transactions, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v. 44, no. 1, p. 155-166. [TAPES-Gpkg.; elev., slope (D8), plan & profile curv., CTI; mapped PCs]

Francis, B., Green, M., and Payne, C., 1993, GLIM4—the statistical system for generalized linearinteractive modeling: Oxford, Clarendon Press, 82 p. [pkg. combines continuous & categoricalvariables in same analysis]

Francou, Bernard, and Manté, Claude, 1990, Analysis of the segmentation in the profile of alpinetalus slopes: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, v. 1, no. 1, p. 53-90. [35 slopes at 0.5 deg.precision, 10-m segments; new bi-phase model]

Franklin, W.R., 1973, Triangulated irregular network program:ftp://ftp.cs.rpi.edu/pub/franklin/tin73.targz. [early TIN algorithm]

Franklin, W.R., 1995, Compressing elevation data, in Egenhofer, M.J., and Herring, J.R., eds.,Advances in Spatial Databases, Symposium on Spatial Data (SSD) 4th, Portland, ME, 6-9 August,Proceedings; Lecture Notes in Computer Science, v. 951: Berlin, Springer, p. 385-404;http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/p/compress.pdf. [compares 24 techniques onone USGS 1:24K DEM, 5 on 24 DEMs, & 3 on 10 ETOPO5 samples]

Franklin, W.R., 2000, Applications of analytical cartography: Cartography and Geographic InformationSystems, v. 27, no. 3, p. 225-237;http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/gisapps/gisapps.pdf. [examples include terrainvisibility, map overlay, mobility, interpol. & approx. of curves & terrain, etc.]

Franklin, W.R., 2000, Approximating visibility: International Conference on Geographic InformationScience 1st, GIScience 2000, Savannah, GA, 28-31 Oct., Abstracts, p. 126;http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/approxvis/index.html. [rel. importance of var.factors in visibility computation; vis. index sensitive to radius of interest & is Poisson distr.; test on24 USGS DEMs]

Franklin, W.R., 2002, GeoSpatial terrain—algorithms and representations: unpublished paper;http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/geospatial.pdf; &http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/geospatial-talk-402/index.html. [explores var.grid DEM processing & attempts at a unified philosophy]

Franklin, W.R., 2002, Siting observers on terrain: Spatial Data Handling 2002 Symposium, Ottawa,July 9, http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/sitetalk/index.html; text athttp://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/site.pdf. [new algorithm synth. fast viewshed &LOS visibility index for mult. observers on level-1 DEM]

Franklin, W.R., and Gousie, M.B., 1999, Terrain elevation data structure operations, in InternationalCartographic Conference 19th & General Assembly of the International Cartographic Association

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(ICA) 11th, Ottawa, Canada, Proceedings: v. 2, p. 1011-1020;http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/ica99/. [several programs; grid-TIN, visibility,compression, contour-grid interp.]

Franklin, W.R., and Said, Amir, 1996, Lossy compression of elevation data, in Kraak, M.-J., Molenaar,Martien and Fendel, E.M., eds., International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, 7th, Delft,Neth., Proceedings: Edinburgh, Taylor & Francis, v. 2, p. 519-531;http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/p/compress.pdf. [image compr. algorithm maybe better & simpler for DEMs than TIN; test on 24 USGS DEMs]

Franklin, W.R., Ray, C.K., and Mehta, Shashank, 1994, Geometric algorithms for siting of air defensemissile batteries: Columbus OH, Battelle Inc., Contract no. DAAL03-86-D-0001, Technical Report,129 p.; http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/p/tec_report.pdf. [eval. 3 viewshedalgorithms & 4 visibility indices; algorithm for viewsheds better than simplistic sightline analysis]

Franz, J., 1899, Hohenschichten-Karte des Mondes (in German; contour map of the Moon): Astron.Beobacht. d. Königsburg, Sternwarte, v. 38, no. 75, paging unknown. [five 1200-m intervals; lastsuch map until that of Ritter in 1934]

Franzen M., 1992, Das Digitale Geländehöhen-Modell von Österreich im Bundesamt für Eich- undVermessungswesen (in German; DEM of Austria in the Federal Office for Calibration andSurveying): Vermessung, Photogrammetrie, Kulturtechnik (VPK/MPG), v. 90, p. 89-91. [theAustrian national DEM]

Frey, Herbert, Sakimoto, S.E.H., and Roark, J.H., 1998, The MOLA topographic signature at thecrustal dichotomy boundary zone on Mars: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, no. 24, p. 4409-4412. [8 profiles; Elev. & slope for different terrains; boundary = 2-4km step fcn.]

Frey, Herbert, Sakimoto, S.E.H., and Roark, J.H., 1999, Discovery of a 450 km diameter, multi-ringbasin on Mars through analysis of MOLA topographic data: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 26,no. 12, p. 1657-1660. [2km deep; fit rings to slope breaks in profiles; est. diams est. 350, 455, &670 km]

Fried, J.S., Brown, D.G., Zweifler, M.O., and Gold, M.A., 2000, Mapping contributing areas forstormwater discharge to streams using terrain analysis, in Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., eds.,Terrain Analysis—Principles and Applications, New York, John Wiley and Sons, p. 183-203. [var.results, parameters & images from the TAPES software]

Friedrich, Klaus, 1996, Digitale Reliefgliederungsverfahren zur Abteilung bodenkundlich relevanterFlächeneinheiten (in German with English abstract; Digital relief classification methods for localizingsoils-relevant units: Frankfurt an Main, Frankfurter Geowissenchaftliche Arbeiten, Serie D(Physische Geographie), no. 21 (Univ. Diss. 1995), 258 p. <http://www.rz.uni-frankfurt.de/~relief/fga21/start.html>. [methods fr simple to multivar. stats. using slope, aspect,plan & profile curv. fr Hesse DEM]

Friedrich, Klaus, 1998, Multivariate distance methods for geomorphographic relief classification, inHeineke H.J., Eckelmann W., Thomasson A.J., Jones R.J.A., Montanarella L., and Buckley B.,eds., Land Information Systems—Developments for planning the sustainable use of landresources: Luxembourg, Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities, EuropeanSoil Bureau Research Report No. 4., EUR 17729 EN, p. 259-265.<http://www.bgr.de/N2/PROCEED/4_4.pdf>. [exemplifies methods fr simple to multivar. stats.using slope, aspect, plan & profile curv. fr Hesse DEM]

Friesz, R.R., 1963, Desert terrain effects on vehicle performance, in Military Evaluation of GeographicAreas reports on activities to April 1963: Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S. Army Corps of EngineersWaterways Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Paper no. 3-610, p. 60-72. [params. for testcourses: cell size, relief, slope, elongation, parallelism, profile area, peakedness]

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Frisch, W., Székely, Kuhlemann, J., and Dunkl, I., 2000, Geomorphological evolution of the EasternAlp in response to Miocene tectonics: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 44, no. 1, p. 103-138.[elev. mean & freq., slope map & freq., R map (10km window) for diff. domains fr DEM]

Fu, Bojie, and Chen, Liding, 2000, Agricultural landscape spatial pattern analysis in the semi-arid hillarea of the Loess Plateau, China: Journal of Arid Environments, v. 44, no. 3, p. 291-303. [patchsize, fractal D, elong., diversity, dominance, relative richness, & fragm. fr. land-use map]

Fujita, Takashi, 1984, Slope analysis of landslides of the soft rock type in Kinki, southwest Japan, inInternational Symposium on Landslides, 4th, 16-21 September, Toronto, Proceedings: Rexdale,Ont., Canadian Geotechnical Society, v. 2, p. 75-80. [spatial freq. of inventory rel. to slope; mostdeposits at 5°-20°]

Furdada, Glòria, and Vilaplana, J.M., 1998, Statistical prediction of maximum avalanche run-outdistances from topographic data in the western Catalan Pyrenees (northeast Spain): Annals ofGlaciology, v. 26, p. 285-288. [regression eqns. for 3 profile classes fr 216 flow paths fr 1:50Kmap data]


Gallant, J.C., and Wilson, J.P., 2000, Primary topographic attributes, in Wilson, J.P., and Gallant,J.C., eds., Terrain Analysis—Principles and Applications: New York, Wiley, p. 51-85. [var. elev,aspect, slope, area, length, curv. fr DEMS & TAPES software]

Gallant, J.C., Hutchinson, M.F., and Wilson, J.P., 2000, Future directions for terrain analysis, inWilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., eds., Terrain Analysis—Principles and Applications: New York,Wiley, p. 523-527. [brief concluding remarks & predictions, focused on TAPES]

Ganas, Athanassios, and Athanassiou, Evangelos, 2000, A comparative study on the production ofsatellite orthoimagery for geological remote sensing: Geocarto International, v. 15, no. 2, p. 51-59.[DEM fr SPOT images much like reference DEM fr 1/50,000 contours]

Gandolfi, C., and Bischetti, G.B., 1995, Il valore dell'area di supporto nella generazione automaticadella rete di drenaggio dai DEM: Idrotechnica, v. 3, p. 157-174. [criticizes DEM-to-watershedalgorithms that use constant threshold area]

Gannett, Henry, collator & arranger, 1877, Lists of Elevations Principally in That Portion of the UnitedStates West of the Mississippi River, 4th ed.: U.S. Department of the Interior, MiscellaneousPublications no. 1, Washington, D.C., 167 p. + map. [topo. results of the western surveys; largefolding hypsometric map of U.S.]

Gao, Jay, 1997, Resolution and accuracy of terrain representation by grid DEMs at a micro-scale:International Journal of Geographic Information Science, v. 11, no. 2, p. 199-212. [spatial res.affects DEM's kriged from contours < threshold]

Garbrecht, Jurgen, Goodrich, D., and Martz, L.W., 1999, Methods to quantify distributedsubcatchment properties from digital elevation models, in American Geophysical Union AnnualHydrology Days, 19th, 16-20 August, Fort Collins, CO: Proceedings, p. 149-160. [est. basinlength & slope directly fr DEM, not maps]

Garbrecht, Jurgen, and Martz, L.W., 2000, Digital elevation model issues in water resourcesmodeling, paper 1 in Djokic, Dean, and Maidment, David, eds., Hydrologic and Hydraulic ModelingSupport with Geographic Information Systems: Redlands CA, ESRI Press, p. 1-28, alsohttp://www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/papers/pap866/p866.htm. [reviews DEM-to-watershed transformation state-of-art, esp. data quality & sub-catchment properties]

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Garbrecht, Jurgen, Ogden, F.L., DeBarry, P.A., and Maidment, D.R., 2001, GIS and distributedwatershed models. I—data coverages and sources: Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, v. 6, no. 6,p. 506-514. [1st of 2-part GIS tutorial for practicing engineers]

Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel, 2002, Interplay between lithospheric flexure and river transport inforeland basins: Basin Research, v. 14, no. 2, p. 89-104. [3-D quant. model of various processesalong drainage net]

García-Ruiz, J.M., Gómez-Villar, Amelia, Ortigosa, Luis, and Martí-Bono, Carlos, 2000, Morphometryof glacial cirques in the central Spanish Pyrenees: Geografiska Annaler, v. 82 A, no. 4, p. 433-442.[elev., aspect, lithology A, W, L, L/W. etc.; elev. explains most of variance]

Garcia-Zuniga, F., and Parrot, J.-F., 1998, Tomomorphometric analysis of a recent volcaniccone—Misti (Peru): C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), v. 327, p. 457-462. [pattern-recognition extraction of asurface feature from DEM]

Gardner, J.V., Mayer, L.A., and Hughes Clark, J.E., 2000, Morphology and processes in Lake Tahoe:Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 112, no. 5, p. 736-746. [L, W, H, & dist. fr headwall of113 avalanche blocks on & off debris apron]

Gardner, J.V., Dartnell, Peter, Mayer, L.A., and Hughes Clarke, J.E., 2000a, Bathymetry andselected perspective views of sea floor north and west of Maui, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey,Water-resources Investigations Report 00-4046, map scale 1/100,000. [superior visualization at20 m/pixel, <http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/outreach/seamap/>]

Gardner, J.V., Dartnell, Peter, Mayer, L.A., Hughes Clarke, J.E., and Stone, J.C., 2000b, Bathymetryand selected perspective views of central San Francisco Bay, California: U.S. Geological Survey,Water-resources Investigations Report 00-4146, map scale 1/15,000,<http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/outreach/seamap/>. [superb visualization detail at 4 m/pixel]

Gardner, W.H., 1948, Determination of the critical stream for various slopes: Soil Science, v. 66, no.3, p. 205-215. [experiments confirm soil erosion = fcn (irrigating stream size & surface slope)]

Gardoll, S.J., Groves, D.I., Knox-Robinson, C.M., Yun, G.Y., and Elliott, N., 2000, Developing thetools for geological shape analysis, with regional- to local-scale examples from the KalgoorlieTerrane of Western Australia: Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 47, no. 5, p. 943-953.[general XY shape analysis, also applic. to landforms]

Garnett, Alice, 1935, Insolation, topography, and settlement in the Alps: Geographical Review, v. 25,no. 4, p. 601-617. ['intensity maps' fr terrain, Sun, & Sun/valley-axis angles fr 4 mm grid on topomap]

Garrison, W.L., and Marble, D.F., eds., Quantitative Geography, Part I—Economic and CulturalTopics, and Part II—Physical and Cartographic Topics: Evanston, Ill., Northwestern UniversityStudies in Geography, nos. 13 and 14, 288 p. and 324 p. [unconscionably delayed publicationof 17-paper proceedings of seminal ONR/NAS/NRC-sponsored May 1960 symposium that shouldhave had far greater impact than it did. (this meeting closely followed the AAAS-sponsored Dec.1959 symposium on Quantitative Terrain Studies, which failed to result in a proceedings)]

Garvin, J.B., and Frawley, J.J., 1998, Geometric properties of Martian impact craters—preliminaryresults from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, no. 24, p. 4405-4408. [n=98; simple/complex: d=0.14D0.90 & d=0.25D0.49; also X-sect.]

Garvin, J.B., Sakimoto, S.E., Frawley, J.J., and Schnetzler, C., 2000, Geometric properties of Martianimpact craters—an assessment from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital elevationmodel (abs.): Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI, Abstract 1619, CD-ROM. [7km< D < 100km;

complex, d=0.33D0.53±0.03]

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Gasparini, N.M., Tucker, G.E., and Bras, R.L., 1999, Downstream fining through selective particlesorting in an equilibrium drainage network: Geology, v. 27, no. 12, p. 1079-1082. [simulationswith GOLEM model of landscape evolution (Tucker & Slingerland, 1997)]

Gatto, Francesco, and Marocco, Ruggero, 1994, Morfometria e geometria idraulica dei canali dellaLaguna di Grado (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) (in Italian; Morphometry and hydraulic geometry of channelsof the Grado Lagoon, Friuli-Venezia Giulia): Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria (Torini), v. 16,no. 2, p. 107-119. [channel geometry, drainage pattern, lagoons, morphometry]

Gay, S.P., 1962, Origen, distribucíon y movimiento de las arenas eólicas en el área de Yauca aPalpa: Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica del Perú, v. 37, p. 37-58. [good early quant. obs. onairphotos. buried in obscure journal]

Gay, S.P., Jr., 1999, Observations regarding the movement of barchan sand dunes in the Nazca toTanaca area of southern Peru: Geomorphology, v. 27, nos. 3-4, p. 279-293. [transl. 1962 paper;quantified Bagnold's size/speed deduction. etc.; 3 h meas.: h/w not 1/10]

Gee, M.D., 1992, Classification of hazard zonation methods and a test of predictive capability, in Bell,D.H., ed., Landslides, International Symposium 6th, 10-14 February, Christchurch NZ, Proceedings:Rotterdam, Balkema, v. 2, p. 947-952. [18 types of zonation; quant. index for 9 diff. schemesfinds similar susceptibilities in test]

Geikie, Archibald, 1868, On denudation now in progress: Geological Magazine, v. 5, p. 249-254.[used Humboldt's mean continental heights; argued landforms were recent; see Vacher 1999]

Geldern-Crispendorf, Günther von, 1932, Reliefenergie, in Geisler, W., ed., Wirtschafts- undVerkehrsgeogr. Atlas von Schlesien: Breslau, 1/750K map. [map of relief 'energy'; 8 relative-reliefintervals]

Gens, Rüdiger, 1999, SAR interferomtry—software, data format, and data quality: PhotogrammetricEngineering and Remote Sensing, v. 65, no. 12, p. 1375-1378. [helpful state-of-art summary,esp, on DEM quality]

Gerber, Paul, 1927, Morphologische Untersuchungen am Alpenrand zwischen Aare und Saane(Freiburger-Stufenlandschaft) (in German): Univ. Freiberg (Switz.), Dissertation, 66 p., Mitteilungender Naturforschenden Gesellschaft des Kantons Freiberg, Série Géologie et Géographie, v. 10, no.2, p. 125-197. [char. valley shape using incremental surface curves (elev. vs area), orFlächenzuwachskurve, for 41 areas betw 570m & 2160m]

Gerrard, A.J. and Gardner, R.A.M., 2000, The role of landsliding in shaping the landscape of theMiddle Hills, Nepal: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 122, p. 47-62. [maps ofslope (6 classes), & slope-morphology (the 9 classes); failure V, W, slope]

Gesch, D.B., 1998, Accuracy assessment of a global elevation model using Shuttle Laser Altimeterdata, in IEEE International Geoscience and Remore Sensing symposium (IGARSS), Seattle WA,July 6-10, Proceedings: Piscataway NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, CD-ROM.[365,000 SLA points; overall vertical RSME = (only) 70 m for GTOPO30]

Gesch, D.B., 1999, The effects of DEM generalization methods on derived hydrologic features, Ch.31 in Lowell, Kim, and Jaton, Annick, eds., Spatial Accuracy Assessment—Land InformationUncertainty in Natural Resources: Chelsea, MI, Ann Arbor Press, p. 255-262. [breakline emphasishelps preserve topo structure when generalizing]

Gesch, D.B., and Larson, K.S., 1998, Techniques for development of global 1-kilometer digitalelevation models, in Pecora Thirteen, Human Interactions with the Environment-Perspectives fromSpace, 13th, Sioux Falls, SD, August 20-22, 1996, Proceedings: Bethesda, MD, American Societyof Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, CD-ROM; also

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<http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/gtopo30/papers/geschd3.html>. [details on GTOPO30source datasets and processing]

Gesch, D.B., Oimoen, M.J., Greenlee, S.K., Nelson, Charles, Steuck, Michael, and Tyler, Dean,2002, The National Elevation Dataset: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 68,no. 1, p. 5-11; http://gisdata.usgs.net/ned/default.htm. [NED, seamless & continually upgraded30m DEM fr all 1:24K USGS quads eliminates tiling & preprocessing]

Gesch, D.B., Verdin, K.L., and Greenlee, S.K., 1999, New land surface digital elevation model coversthe Earth: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 80. no. 6, p. 69-70;http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/gtopo30/README.html#h9. [GTOPO30, @ ~1km grid spacing, replacesETOPO5]

Gessler, P.E., 1996, Statistical soil-landscape modelling for environmental management: Centre forResource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 228p. [no info]

Ghosh, Parthasarathi, 2000, Estimation of channel sinuosity from paleocurrent data—A methodusing fractal geometry: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 70, no. 3, p. 449-455. [meander-pattern sinuosity related to dispersion of segment orientations]

Giese, B., Oberst, J., Roatsch, T., Neukum, G., Head, J.W., and Pappalardo, R.T., 1998, The localtopography of Uruk Sulcus and Galileo Regio obtained from stereo images: Icarus, v. 135, no. 1, p.303-316. [Ganymede fr. Galileo mission: DEMs @ 0.5 &1.0 km; topo profiles; primitive simple-crater d/D]

Giglierano, J.D., 1999, Shaded relief map of Iowa: Iowa Geology, no. 24, p. 14-15. [color; quitegood portrayal of putatively 'flat' state]

Gilbert, G.K., 1877, Land Sculpture, p. 99-150 in Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains:U.S. Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, Washington, D.C., U.S.Govt. Printing Office, 160 p.; p. 93-144 in 2nd ed., 1880 (170 p.). [seminal; establishes what tomeasure; Gilbert's 'law of divides' (116-17,110-11)—'... profile of a river (is) a curve concave upwardwith the greatest curvature at the upper end' Fig. 54 is logarithmic-like profile; 'declivity bears aninverse relation to quantity of water' (113-14,108)—i.e., not sediment size as asserted by Sternberg1875]

Gilbert, G.K., 1914, The transportation of debris by running water: U.S. Geological Survey,Professional Paper 86, 263 p. [measured slope of sediment in flume & related it to other data]

Giles, P.T., 2001, Remote sensing and cast shadows in mountain terrain: Photogrammetricengineering and Remote Sensing, v. 67, no. 7, p. 833-839. [algorithm to delineate shadowsautomatically is 86% effective]

Giles, P.T., and Franklin, S.E., 1996, Comparison of derivative topographic surfaces of a DEMgenerated from stereoscopic SPOT images with field measurements: Photogrammetric Engineeringand Remote Sensing, v. 60, no. 10, p. 1165-1171. [raw DEM not good; test used slope,incidence (from aspect), & profile curvature]

Gilg, A.W., 1973, A note on slope measurement techniques: Area (London), v. 5, no. 2, p. 114-117.[inclined-angle tacheometry, using theodolite & staff; need common test areas]

Gimel'farb, G.L., Schmidt, Jochen, and Braunmandl, A., 1999, Gibbs fields with multiple pairwiseinteractions as a tool for modelling grid-based data, in Hergarten, St., and Neugebauer, H.J., eds.,Process Modelling and Landform Evolution, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 78: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 47-73. [complex DEM processing reproduces Hammond types in 2 areas; inconclusive]

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Giusti, E.V., and Schneider, W.J., 1965, The distribution of branches in river networks U.S.Geological Survey Professional Paper 422-G, p. G1-G10. [found unexpected variability inanalysis of bifurcation ratios]

Glagolev, A.A., 1933, On geometrical methods of quantitative mineralogic analysis of rocks (inRussian): Transactions of the Institute of Econ. Mineralogy, Moscow, v. 59, p. 1-47 (not p. 147?).[simplifies Rosiwal 1898 approach to area sampling by replacing lines with grid points]

Glanz, James, 1999, Physicists invading geologists' turf: New York Times SCIENCE, November 23, p.D1, D4. [layman's summary of math./theor. approach to geomorph. by Rinaldo, Rodriguez-Iturbeetc.]

Glazyrin, G.Ye., 1978, Identification of surging glaciers by morphometric characteristics: Mater.Glyatsiologicheskikh Issled. Khronika, v. 33, p. 136-138. [univariate analysis only]

Glezer, V.L., 1988, Development of methods and techniques for derivation and application of digitalterrain model to generation of special agricultural maps (abs, Ph.D. thesis; in Russian): MoscowInstitute of Engineers for Land Management, Moscow, 24 p. [no info]

Glock, W.S., 1931, The development of drainage systems—a synoptic view: The GeographicalReview, v. 21, no. 4, p. 475-482. [uniform drainage density implies constant mean river-spacing,which suggests channel network has reached max. extension into an area]

Gloriod, A., and Tricart, Jean, 1952, Étude statistique de vallées asymétriques sur la feuille Saint-Polau 1/50 000 (in French): Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique, v. 3, no. 2, p. 88-98.[constructed rose diagram showing valley asymmetry]

Goldie, H.S., and Cox, N.J., 2000, Comparative morphometry of limestone pavements in Switzerland,Britain and Ireland: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 122, p. 85-112. [freq. ofclint (block) L & W & L/W, grike (pit) W & d & d/W]

Goller, A., Gelautz, M., and Leberl, F., 1999, Parallel image processing applied to radar shape-from-shading: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 65, no. 3, p. 259-267. [handleslarge images; 14 processors speed up s-f-s by 13X]

Gong, Jianya, Li, Zhilin, Zhu, Qing, Sui, Haigang, and Zhou, Yi, 2000, Effects of various factors onthe accuracy of DEMs—an intensive experimental investigation: Photogrammetric Engineering andRemote Sensing, v. 66, no. 9, p. 1113-1117. [accuracy = f(sampling interval, specific features,relief, data model, capture method)]

Gönnenwein, M.-L., 1931, Untersuchungen über die Flußdichte schwäbischer Landschaften:Erdgesch. u. landeskdl. Abh. aus Schwaben u. Franken, Öhringen, Schwend, v. 13, 66 p.[drainage density, calc. fr. topo maps, shown by density of dot patterns]

Goodchild, M.F., Steyaert, L.T., Parks, B.O., Johnston, Carol, Maidment, D.R., Crane, Michael, andGlendinning, Sandi, eds., 1996, GIS and Environmental Modeling—Progress and Research Issues:New York, Wiley, 504p. [many brief applications papers, some incorporating morphometry]

Goovaerts, P., 1999, Using elevation to aid the geostatistical mapping of rainfall activity: Catena, v.34, nos. 3-4, p. 227-242. [DEM helps materially; good results from co*kriging]

Goovaerts, P., 2000, Geostatistical approaches for incorporating elevation into the spatialinterpolation of rainfall: Journal of Hydrology. v. 228, nos. 1-2, p. 113-129. [DEM, multivariategeostatistics, Kriging]

Gordon, D.L., 1960, A morphometric analysis of selected Iowa drainage basins: Iowa City, IA,University of Iowa, unpublished MA thesis, 193 p. [drainage basins, patterns, var. morphometry]

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Goudie, A.S., 1978, Colonel Julian Jackson and his contribution to geography: GeographicalJournal, v. 144, p. 264-270. [more on the J.R. Jackson 1834 stream ordering, etc.]

Goudie, Andrew, Stokes, Stephen, Cook, James, Samieh, S., and El-Rashidi, O.A., 1999, Yardanglandforms from Kharga Oasis, south-western Egypt: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie,Supplementband 116, p. 97-112. [L, W, H, azimuth, V stats & histogr.; H/w, L/H, V/H, V/W eqn.]

Gousie, M.B., 1998, Contours to digital elevation models—grid-based surface reconstructionmethods: Ph.D. thesis, Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Dept., RensselaerPolytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, paging unknown. [improves representation over 'thin-plate'model?]

Gousie, M.B., and Franklin, W.R., 1998, Converting elevation contours to a grid, in Spatial DataHandling '98 Conference, 11-15 July, Vancouver, BC, Proceedings: p. 647-656;http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/wrf/research/p/contour.pdf. [new methods; 1st repeatedlyinterpolates lines betw. orig. contours; 2nd starts w any interp. or approx. surface, gets gradientlines, & does spline interp.]

Gout, Christian, and Komatit*ch, Dimitri, 2000, Surface fitting of rapidly varying data using rankcoding—application to geophysical surfaces: Mathematical Geology, v. 32, no. 7, p. 873-888.[scale transformation w/ pre- & post-processing = superior to splines; volcano DEM]

Grabau, W.E., 1958, Derivation of a numerical description of the generalized plan and profile: officememorandum to Chief, Geology Branch, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station,Vicksburg, unpublished manuscript, 14 July, 7 p. [the char. PPL (here GPPL) was defined in Dec.1957 'Resumé' doc.; this memo revised as appendix to Van Lopik & Kolb 1959]

Graff, L.H., 1997, State-of-the-art terrain analysis capabilities for today’s army: ACSM/ASPRS AnnualConvention and Exposition, Seattle, WA, 7-10 April, Technical Papers, v. 3, p. 716-725. [no info]

Graham, L.C., 1980, Stereo radar for mapping and interpretation, in Radar geology—an assessment,report of the Radar Geology Workshop, Snowmass, CO, 16-20 July 1979, Jet PropulsionLaboratory Publication 80-61, p. 336-350. [introduction to radargrammetry for terrain heights]

Graham, S.E., and Pike, R.J., 1998a, Elevation maps of the San Francisco Bay region, California—adigital database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-625, 17 p., scale 1:125,000;http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of98-625/index.html. [data & printer plots fr new DEM of ca. 24M elevs spaced at 30 m & mosaicked from 1:24K quad. DEMs]

Graham, S.E., and Pike, R.J., 1998b, Slope maps of the San Francisco Bay Region, CA: U.S. Geol.Survey, Open-file Report 98-766, 17 p.; http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of98-766/. [data &printer plots computed fr ca. 24 M elevs spaced at 30 m]

Graham, S.T., Famiglietti, J.S., and Maidment, D.R., 1999, Five-minute, 1/2°, and 1° data sets ofcontinental watersheds and river networks for use in regional and global hydrologic and climatemodeling studies: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 2, p. 583-587. [ult. DEM-to-watershed;fr. TerrainBase 5' Global DTM & CIA World Data Bank II]

Graniero, P.A., and Price, J.S., 1999, The importance of topographic factors on the distribution ofbog and heath in a Newfoundland blanket bog complex: Catena, v. 36, no. 3, p. 233-254. [DEMparams.—esp. substrate area, slope & plan curv—explain 22% variance]

Granö, J.G., 1929, Relative height classification, in Reine Geographie: Acta Geographica, v. 2, no. 2(202 p.), p. 70-72. [0-5m flat, 5-10m hillocks, 10-20m etc.; 1st Finnish quant. work?]

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Grayman, W.M., Males, R.M., Gates, W.E., and Hadder, A.W., 1975, Land-based modeling systemfor water quality management studies: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, v. 101, p. 567-580. [TIN system, ADAPT, developed independently of Peucker's concept]

Grayson, R.B., and Blöschl, Günter, 2000, Spatial modelling of catchment dynamics, Chap. 3, inGrayson, R.B., and Blöschl, Günter, eds., Spatial Patterns in Catchment Hydrology: Cambridge(UK) Univ. Press, p. 51-81. [pp. 56-70 good on model structure, discretisation, element size &linkage]

Grayson, R.B., Moore, I.D., and McMahon, T.A., 1992, Physically based hydrologic modelling, I. Aterrain-based model for investigative purposes: Water Resources Research, v. 28, no. 10, p. 2639-2659. [parses terrain by steepest upslope lines search; yields better ridges than channels]

Green, J.F.N., Bull, A.J., Gossling, F., Hayward, H.A., Turner, E.A., and Wooldridge, 1934, The riverMole—its physiography and superficial deposits: Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, v. 45,part 1, p. 35-69. [measured long. profiles of trunk & tributaries; fit eqn. to upstream data &terraces to est. former profile]

Griffin, M., Beasley, D., Fletcher, J., and Foster, G., 1988, Estimating soil loss on topographicallynonuniform field and farm units: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, July/August, p. 326-331.[making slope-length calc. biggest problem in applying USLE]

Gritzner, M.L., Marcus, W.A, Aspinall, Richard, and Custer, S.G., 2001, Assessing landslide potentialusing GIS, soil wetness modeling and topographic attributes, Payette River, Idaho:Geomorphology, v. 37, nos. 1-2, p. 149-165. [Bayes model; small slides; slope & elev. bestpredictors; aspect, plan & profile curv., upslope A, flowpath L, moisture index not significant]

Grout, B.W., Jr., 1994, A history of digital elevation model production at RMMC: Rocky MountainBenchmark (USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center, Denver Federal Center, CO), v. 3, no. 3,paging unknown. [incl. description of manual profiling technique that generated striped artifacts inearly (Level 1) USGS DEMs]

Günther, S., 1875, Die Küstenentwicklung, ein mathematischer Beitrag zur vergleichenden Erdkunde(coastal convolution, a mathematical contribution to comparative geography, in German): GrunertsArchiv der Math. und Physik, v. 57, p. 277-284. [the area/perimeter relation; quoted by Rohrbach,1890]

Günther, S., 1882, Die wahre Definition des Begriffes 'Küstenentwicklung' (the true definition of theterm 'coastal convolution', in German): Verh. d. II, Deutschen Geograpentages zu Halle, p. 141-146, plus comments on the lecture by Keber, Zöppritz, & Breusing on p. 146. [the area/perimeterrelation; see review by Rohrbach, 1890]

Gupta, V.K., and Mesa, O.J., 1988, Runoff generation and hydrologic response via channel networkgeomorphology—recent progress and open problems: Journal of Hydrology, v. 102, no. 1-4, p. 3-28. [must add terrain height to planimetric network models]

Guráu, Lidia, 2000, The Correlation of Sanded Wood Surface Roughness to Wood Structure andFinish Quality: Dept. of Forest Products Technology, Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College,UK, Ph.D. thesis; for research proposal, seehttp://www.bcuc.ac.uk/technology/FPRC/TRAINING/LidiaGurau.htm. ["to improve understandingof how process variables influence surface roughness of sanded solid wood"; excellent intro &biblio on morphometry of finished wood]

Gustafson, E.J., 1998, Quantifying landscape spatial pattern—what is the state of the art?:Ecosystems, v. 1, p. 143-156. [indices, spatial heterogeneity, patchiness, scale, geostatistics,autocovariation, spatial models]

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Gustafson, E.J., Murphy, N.L., and Crow, T.R., 2001, Using a GIS model to assess terrestrialsalamander response to alternative forest management plans: Journal of EnvironmentalManagement, v. 63, p 281-292. [position on slope between ridge crest and valley bottom fr 30 mDEM]

Guth, P.L., 1999a, Quantifying topographic fabric—eigenvector analysis using digital elevationmodels, in Merisko, R.J., ed., Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition: Applied Imagery PatternRecognition (AIPR) Workshop, 27th, Washington DC, 14-16 October 1998, Proceedings: SPIE (Intl.Soc. Optical Engrg.) v. 3584, p. 233-243. [adapts Woodco*ck's 1977 eigenvector method;ln(S1/S2) or 'flatness' & ln(S2/S3) or 'organization' to DEMs]

Guth, P.L., 1999b, Quantifying and visualizing terrain fabric from digital elevation models, in Diaz, J.,Tynes, R., Caldwell, D., and Ehlen, J., eds., International Conference on GeoComputation, 4th,Fredericksburg VA, Mary Washington College, 25-28 July, GeoComputation 99: CD-ROM ISBN 0-9533477-1-0; http://www.geovista.psu.edu/geocomp/geocomp99/Gc99/096/gc_096.htm. [DEM-based classific. on elev., 'ruggedness', & topo fabric (fr. eigen-analysis)]

Guth, P.L., 1999c, Contour line 'ghosts' in USGS Level 2 DEMs: Photogrammetric Engineering andRemote Sensing, v. 65, no. 3, p. 289-296. [3 ways to show bias in contour-to-grid comp.; Lev. 2still better than Lev. 1]

Guth, P.L., 2001, Quantifying terrain fabric in digital elevation models, in Ehlen, Judy, and Harmon,R.S., eds., The environmental legacy of military operations: Geological Society of America Reviewsin Engineering Geology, v. 14, p. 13-25. [continues work on terrain fabrics in two 1999 papers toautomate the SSO diagram of Chapman 1951 & 52]

Guzzetti, Fausto, Malamud, B.D., Turcotte, D.L., and Reichenbach, Paola, 2000, Power-lawcorrelations of Italian landslide areas (abs.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union,v. 81, no. 48 (Supplement, NG62C-19), p. F566. [area/freq. scaling statistics independent oftrigger mech.]

Gvin, V.Ya., 1963, Application of morphometry in structural studies of the Upper and Middle Volgaand Kama Regions (in Russian), in Problems of Geography, no. 63, Quantitative Methods inGeomorphology: Geographizdat, Moscow, p. 64-80. [no info]

Gwinner, Klaus, Hauber, Ernst, Jaumann, Ralf, and Neukum, Gerhard, 2000, High-resolution, digitalphotogrammetric mapping—a tool for Earth science: Eos, Transactions, American GeophysicalUnion, v. 81, no. 44, p. 513, 516, & 520. [state-of-art technique to get DEMs & ortho-images]


Haas, C., Liu, Q., and Martin, T., 1999, Retrieval of Antarctic sea-ice pressure ridge frequencies fromERS SAR imagery by means of in situ laser profiling and usage of a neural network: InternationalJournal of Remote Sensing, v. 20, no. 15 & 16, p. 3111-3123. [large area; 30% error; Fisher-Kstats + half width & tail-to-mean ratio]

Hack, J.T., 1965, Geomorphology of the Shenandoah Valley Virginia and West Virginia and origin ofthe residual ore deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 484, 84 p. [map of relief /sq. mi.; hypso. curves; quant. slope-profile analysis; long. stream profiles; azimuthal asymmetry ofslope]

Hack, J.T., and Goodlett, J.C., 1960, Geomorphology and forest ecology of a mountain region in theCentral Appalachians: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 347, 66 p. [early postwarUSGS quant.; var. relations, long. profile, slope asymmetry, etc.; recaps G.K. Gilbert concepts; 1st?assoc. of concave-straight-convex slopes w/ var. in vegetation & moisture content]

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Hadley, R.F., 1961, Some effects of microclimate on slope morphology and drainage basindevelopment, in Geological Survey research 1961, short papers in the geologic and hydrologicsciences, articles 1-146: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 424-B, art. 16, p. 32-34.[Slope/aspect rose diagram (n= 50); rekated to drainage density & veg.]

Hagen, J.O., Etzelmüller, Bernd, and Nuttall, A.-M., 2000, Runoff and drainage pattern derived fromdigital elevation models, Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard: Annals of Glaciology, v. 31, p. 147-152.[surging glacier; difference 1970 & 1990 DEMs; flowpaths fr DEM]

Hagood, M.J., 1943, Statistical methods for delineation of regions applied to data on agriculture andpopulation: Social Forces, , v. 21, p. 287-297. [early use of principal-components analysis inregional classification]

Hann, R.A., 1957, A method of quantitative topographic analysis of wood surfaces: Forest ProductsJournal, v. 7, no. 12, p. 448-452. [need for roughness QC for machined wood surfaces &conformance to prescribed standards, as on metals]

Hall, D.B., 1998, Using digital elevation models to calculate a time-averaged landscape denudationrate: Physical Geography, v. 19, no. 4, p. 341-349. [subtr. pre- fr. post-erosion surface to getbasin vol. (age interval known]

Halsey, T.C., 2000, Diffusion-limited aggregation—a model for pattern formation: Physics Today, v.53, no. 11, p. 36-41. [topologic scaling of rivers = one example; shows importance of geomorph.processes in the physical sciences]

Hamilton, G.S., and Dowdeswell, J.A., 1996, Controls on glacier surging in Svalbard: Journal ofGlaciology, v. 42, no. 140, p. 157-168. [univariate analysis of 615 glac.: signif. diff. geom.; L isdominant]

Hanco*ck, G.R., and Willgoose, G.R., 2001, The production of digital elevation models forexperimental model landscapes: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 26, no. 5, p. 475-490.[slope/A plots fr 6.0mm±2.0mm-grid DEM of mini-terrain]

Hanco*ck, G.R., and Willgoose, G.R., 2001, Use of a landscape simulator in the validation of theSIBERIA catchment evolution model—declining equilibrium landforms: Water Resources Research,v. 37, no. 7, p. 1981-1992. [model OK, but DEM error critical to derived statistics]

Hankley, Chip, 1999, Quaternary landforms in Wisconsin—how hillshading can be used toaccentuate topographic features, in Soller, D.R., ed., Digital Mapping Techniques '99, WorkshopProceedings: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-386, p. 205-209,http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/of99-386/hankley.html. [adapts Haugerud/Greenberg color Arc/Info AMLalgorithm to WI 30m DEM]

Hansen, M.F., 1984, Strategies for classification of landslides, chap. 1 in Brunsden, Denys, and Prior,D.B., eds., Slope Instability: London, Wiley, p. 1-25. [reviews morphometric approaches ofSkempton 1953, Brunsden 1973, Blong 1973, Crozier 1973]

Hanssen, R.F., 2001, Radar Interferometry—data interpretation and error analysis:Dordrecht/Boston/London, Kluwer, 308 p. [useful historical background & review]

Hardy, R.J., Bamber, J.L., and Orford, S., 2000, The delineation of drainage basins on theGreenland ice sheet for mass-balance analyses using a combined modelling and geographicalinformation system approach: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p. 1931-1941. [10 'icebasins' by Arc/Info GIS from 2.5-km DEM (ERS-1 data) & 'balance flux']

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Harrison, A.R., and Dunn, R., 1993, Problems of sampling the landscape, in Haines-Young, R.H.,Green, D.R., and Cousins, S.H., eds., Landscape Ecology and Geographic Information Systems:London, Taylor and Francis, p. 101-109. [spatial sampling must accommodate 2D & 3D variables]

Harrison, K., and Thackeray, A.D., 1940, On the direction of certain valleys: Geological Magazine, v.77, no. 2, p. 82-88. [azimuth-freq. diagrams (25-ft river segments; 150<n<1110) related to joints,not glaciation]

Hartshorne, James, 1997, Assessing the influence of digital terrain model characteristics on tropicsslope stability analysis, in Kemp, Z.A., ed., Innovations in GIS 4: London, Taylor and Francis, p.198-214. [DEM resolution & quality significantly affect hazard-zonation models]

Haruyama, M., and Kitamura, R., 1984, An evaluation method by the quantification theory for the riskdegree of landslides caused by rainfall in active volcanic area, in International Symposium onLandslides, 4th, 16-21 September, Toronto, Proceedings: Rexdale, Ont., Canadian GeotechnicalSociety, v. 2, p. 435-440. [Eigenvector analysis of elev., contour & stream density, rel. relief,slope form, geology, & land use]

Harvey, C.A., and Eash, D.A., 1996, Description, instructions, and verification for BASINSOFT, acomputer program to quantify drainage-basin characteristics: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4287, 25 p. [27 morphometric parameters fr Arc/Info AMLmacro compare well w/ manually derived measures]

Hasbargen, L.E., and Paola, Chris, 2000, Landscape instability in an experimental drainage basin:Geology, v. 28, no. 12, p. 1067-1070. [lab analog model 1 m across; ridge density @ 1 cm2resolution]

Hassan, M.M., 1988, Filtering digital profile observations: Photogrammetric Engineering and RemoteSensing, v. 54, no. 10, p. 1391-1394. [low-pass filtering of white noise to reduce error in level-1USGS DEMs]

Haxby, W.F., 1985, Gravity field of world's ocean (color map): Boulder, CO, National GeophysicalData Center, NOAA, Reporty MGG-3. [Seasat radar altimetry; important precursor to Smith &Sandwell 1997 map & DEM]

Hayakawa, N., et al. (no author info), 1995, Study on extracting drainage network from square-gridDEM (in Japanese): Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE, v. 39, p. 127-132. [pits inDEM & flat areas pose big problems]

Hayashi, M., and van der Kamp, G., 2000, Simple equations to represent the volume-area-depthrelations of shallow wetlands in small topographic depressions: Journal of Hydrology, v. 237, nos.1-2, p. 74-85. [also profiles & % hypsometric curves]

Hayes, Brian, 2000, Dividing the continent: American Scientist, v. 88, no. 6, p. 481-481. [computerscientist discovers terrain—watersheds, divides, Cayley & Maxwell, DEMs, & image analysis]

Haynes, V.M., 1968, The influence of glacial erosion and rock structure on corries in Scotland:Geografiska Annaler, v. 50A, no. 4, p. 221-234. [curves y= of form k(1-x)e-x better fit longitudinalprofiles of cirques than circles]

Head, J.W. III, Hiesinger, Harald, Ivanov, Mikhail, Kreslavsky, M.A., Pratt, Stephen, and Thomson,B.J., 1999, Possible ancient oceans on Mars—evidence from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data:Science, v. 286, no. 5447, p. 2134-2137. [elev & slope maps, relief shading, flooding-vol. est.]

Head, J.W. III, Kreslavsky, Mikhail, Hiesinger, Harald, Ivanov, Mikhail, Pratt, Stephen, and Seibert,Nicole, 1998, Oceans in the past history of Mars—test for their presence using Mars Orbiter Laser

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Altimeter (MOLA) data: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, no. 24, p. 4401-4404. [Elev. &slope; poss. shoreline @ lowland plains; slope/scale-length relation]

Head, J.W. III, Yuter, S.E., and Solomon, S.C., 1981, Topography of Venus and Earth—a test forthe presence of plate tectonics: American Scientist, v. 69, no. 6, p. 614-623. [topo profiles &whole-planet % hypso. curves for both; Venus elevs (Pioneer altimetry) not bimodal]

Heikkinen, Olavi, 1975, A trend-surface analysis of relief in Sipoo, southern Finland: Fennia, v. 141,p. 1-54. [valley, mean, & summit heights fr. 1/20K & 50K topo maps]

Hemenway, D.D., 1995, An efficient analytical approach for generating digital elevation models:Alberta, University of Edmonton, M.Sc. thesis, paging unknown. [DEM fr digitized random elevsby a multiquadric technique, QSURF]

Henkel, L., 1900, Berechnung der Dichte des Eisenbahnnetzes (calc. density of railroad networks; inGerman): Geographische Zeitschrift, v. 6, p. 220-221. [adapted to drainage density; x = 2A/L; P= unit-cell area & L = total length]

Hennrich, Kirsten, Schmidt, Jochen, and Dikau, Richard, 1999, Regionalization of geomorphometricparameters in hydrological modelling using GIS, in Diekkrüger, Bernd, Kirkby, M.J., and Schröder,Ulrich, eds., Regionalization in Hydrology: Conference, Technical University of Braunschweig,Germany, 10-14 March, 1997, Proceedings: IAHS Publication no. 254, p. 181-191. [morphparams correl. w/ hydro indices is scale dependent & better at fine scales]

Herrick, R.R., and Lyons, S.N., 1998, Inversion of crater morphometric data to gain insight on thecratering process: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 33, p. 131-143. [complex crater d, d/Dthreshold, onset D for peaks, terraces, & peak rings.; acoustic fluidization model (Melosh 1982) &nonproportional growth (Schultz 1988) in published forms do not reproduce morph. data. Mostdata consistent w/ linear dependence on crustal strength / hydrostatic pressure, c/rg.]

Herrick, R.R., and Sharpton, V.L., 2000, Implications from stereo-derived topography of Venusianimpact craters: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105/E8, p. 20,245-20,262. [Venusian craters50% deeper than complex craters on Earth; other quant. results]

Herzfeld, U.C., and Overbeck, Christoph, 1999, Analysis and simulation of scale-dependent fractalsurfaces with application to seafloor morphology: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 9, p.979-1007. [methods capture roughness & anisotropy, & extrapolate to other scales & locations]

Herzfeld, U.C., Kim, I.I., Ocutt, J.A., and Fox, C.G., 1993, Fractal geometry and seafloortopography—theoretical versus data analysis for the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the East PacificRise: Annales Geophysicae, v. 11, no. 6, p. 532-541. [seafloor fractal, but neither self-similar,self-affine, nor multifractal in usual sense]

Hevelius, Johannes, 1647, Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio, atque accurata tam macularumejus, quam motuum diversorum, aliarumque omnium vicissitudinum phasiumque telescopi opedeprehensarum, delineatio. Addita est nova ratio lentes expoliendi, telescopia construendi, ethorum adminiculo varias observationes exquisite instituendi (in Latin): Danzig, Hünefeld for theauthor, 563 p. + 111 engravings. [1st good atlas of Moon, not surpassed for 100 yrs.; a fewrelative-height determinations from shadow lengths were later compared by Schröter (1791) withhis]

Hickey, R.J., 2000, Slope angle and slope length solutions for GIS: Cartography (Canberra), v. 29,no. 1, p. 1-8. [updates 1994 Hickey et al. computations for USLE]

Hill, J.M., Graham, L.A., and Henry, R.A., 2000, Wide-area topographic mapping and applicationsusing airborne LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technology: Photogrammetric Engineering

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and Remote Sensing, v. 66, no. 8, p. 908-909, 911-914, 927. [nontechnical intro./review; goodbiblio]

Hilley, George, and Arrowsmith, Ramon, 2001, Santa Cruz Mountains and San Francisco BayPeninsula Morphometry: http://activetectonics.la.asu.edu/scm/morphometry/morphometry.html.[envelope, sub-envelope, & elev. residuals maps fr 1/24K DEMs by Arc/Info macro]

Herdt, K.N., Rodhe, Allan, Seibert, Jan, and McDonnell, J.J., 1998, Testing DTM-based spatial soilmoisture predictions with peat mapping in forested central Sweden (abs.), Transactions of theAmerican Geophysical Union, v. 79, no. 45, supplement, p. F249. [new 'drainage efficiency index'outperformed TOPMODEL by 20%]

Hochstöger, F., 1995, Verwaltung landesweiter Geländehöhendaten (in German; Administration ofcountry-wide land-height data): Salzburger Geographische Materialien, no. 22, p. 98-106;http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/veroeffentlichungen/fh_p_agit95.html#ZF. [managing the Austrian250-m DEM; oblique relief-shaded image]

Hodgson, M.E., and Gaile, G.L., 1996, Characteristic mean and dispersion in surface orientations fora zone: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, v. 10, no. 7, p. 817-830. [circ.stats.]

Hodgson, M.E., and Gaile, G.L., 1999, A cartographic modeling approach for surface orientation-related applications: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 65, no. 1, p. 85-95.[bi-directional angles in DEMs as Hemisph. vectors using linear algebra]

Hoffmann, Klaus, Fleck, W., Gündra, H.I., and Dikau, Richard, 1993, ComputergestützteModellierungen zu Relief-Bodenbeziehungen in Lößgebieten Nord-Baden-Württembergs(computer-aided modelling to resolve relief-soil relations in no. Bavaria & Wurtt.): Mitteilungen derDeutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft, v. 72, p. 935-938. [10 params.: slope; aspect; plan &prof. curv.; up- & downslope flowlengths, height diffs.; upslope area & slope]

Holmes, K.W., 1999, Calculation of error in a USGS 30-meter digital elevation model and its effectson terrain attributes and environmental modeling: Santa Barbara, University of California, M.A.thesis, 91 p. [see Holmes et al. 2000]

Holmes, K.W., Chadwick, O.A., and Kyriakidis, P.C., 2000, Error in a USGS 30-meter digital elevationmodel and its impact on terrain modeling: Journal of Hydrology, v. 233, nos.1-4, p. 154-173.[used GPS data; several params. eval.; geostat. modeling; propagation error worst in drains &along streamlines]

Hook, J.C., 1954, The quantification of Landform Characteristics: Iowa City, State University of Iowa,mimeographed, unpublished, 17 p. [discusses 18th German & later morphometry (frNeuenschwander 1944); seminar paper and/or part of 1955 thesis?]

Hooke, R.LeB., 1968, Steady-state relationships on arid-region alluvial fans in closed basins:American Journal of Science, v. 226, no. 8, p. 609-629. [log-log fan/basin area; basin slope/area;fan slope/basin area]

Hooke, R.LeB., 2000, Toward a uniform theory of clastic sediment yield in fluvial systems: GeologicalSociety of America Bulletin, v. 112, no. 12, p. 1778-1786. [elev., relief, slope angle & length]

Horton, R.E., 1941, Sheet erosion—present and past: Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v.22, pt. 2, p. 299-305. [measured large river-basins are 'pear-shaped ovoids' in plan, as arebasins modeled fr parabolic cross & long. sections]

Hoss, H., 1996, DTM Derivation with laser scanner data: Geomatics Information Magazine, v. 10 , no,10, p. 28–31. [addresses caveats & quality control as well as flow of procedural steps]

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Hoss, H., 1997, Einsatz des Laserscanner-Verfahrens beim Aufbau des digitalenGeländehöhenmodells DGM in Baden-Württemberg (in German): Photogrammetrie FernerkundungGeoinformation, v. 2, p. 131–142. [a procedure for DEM generation from laser-scanned heights]

Houbolt, J.C., Walls, J.H., and Smiley, R.F., 1955, On spectral analysis of runway roughness and ladsdeveloped during taxiing: Washington, D.C., NACA Technical Note 3484, 9 p. [summarizes PSDmaterial, e.g. Walls et al. 1954]

Hovius, Niels, 1996, Regular spacing of drainage outlets from linear mountain belts: Basin Research,v. 8, no. 1, p. 29-44. [important neo-orometry! char. stream spacing (n= 205, 1/250K-1/1000Ktopo maps) for 10 orogens = 2.07±0.16 the half-width of the mtn. belt (median= 2.13); Himalayasthe exception (spacing ratio= 1.17); no explanation; related to Hack's law?]

Howard, Alan D., 1989, Morphometry of planimetric landforms: Reports of Planetary Geology andGeophysics Program - 1988: NASA Technical Memorandum 4130, p. 313-315. ['path-cutting' &'convex-stepping' metrics for scarps & fluvial systems]

Howarth, P.J., and Bones, J.G., 1972, Relationships between geometric form and process on highArctic debris-slopes, southwest Devon Island, Canada, in Price, R.J., and Sugden, D.E., eds., PolarGeomorphology: Institute of British Geographers, Special Publication 5, p. 139-153. [measuredprofiles of talus slopes]

Hrnciarová, Tatiana, and Miklós, Ladislav, 1991, Morphometric indices in the interpretation of waterand material motion dynamics illustrated on the example Dolná Malanta: Ecology (CSFR), v. 10, no.2, p. 187-221. [no info]

Hsia, J.-S., and Newton, Ian, 1999, A method for the automated production of digital terrain modelsusing a combination of feature points, grid points, and filling back points: PhotogrammetricEngineering and Remote Sensing, v. 65, no. 6, p. 713-719. [digital photogrammetry]

Hsu, M.-L., and Robinson, A.H., 1970, The fidelity of isopleth maps, an experimental study:Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 92 p. [depends on character of source distribution(i.e. topo), size & shape of mapping units (pixels), & the number of control points]

Huang, C., 1998, Quantification of soil microtopography and surface roughness, in Baveye, Phillipe,Stewart, B.A., and Parlange, J.-Y., eds., Fractals in Soil Science: Berlin, Springer Verlag, p. 153-168. [used 2-D laser scanner to make DEM]

Huang, Y.D., 2000, Evaluation of information loss in digital elevation models with digitalphotogrammetric systems: Photogrammetric Record, v. 16, no. 95, p. 781-791. [uses rmsdifferences betw. candidate DEM & a much denser DEM 'standard']

Hubbard, Bryn, Siegert, M.J., and McCarroll, Danny, 2000, Spectral roughness of glaciated bedrockgeomorphic surfaces—implications for glacier sliding: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105, no.B9, p. 21,295-21,303. [micro- & macro-profiles combine in 5-order PSD's that yield 2 bed-roughness indices]

Huber, William, 1825, Considérations générales sur les Alpes centrales (in French): Bulletin de laSociété Géographique de Paris, v. 5, p. 105ff. [refined Humboldt's quant. comparison of ridge &summit mean heights by averaging all summits rather than just a sampling]

Huggett, R.J., 1975, Soil landscape systems—a model of soil genesis: Geoderma, v. 13, no. 1, p. 1-22. [added flow lines to Troeh's 1964 four concave-convex elements to segment land-surfaceform by slope & curvature; 4 block diagrams; crude computer result]

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Huggins, K.H., 1935, The Scottish Highlands—a regional study: Scottish Geographical Magazine, v.51, p. 296-306. [delimited by relief (> 700') on 2-mi. grid (O.S. maps); used 800' contour &summits >1500']

Huggins, L.F., and Monke, E.J., 1966, The mathematical solution of the hydrology of smallwatersheds: Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN, Water Resources Research Center, TechnicalReport No. 1, 130 p. [one of 1st true distributed-parameter hydrologic models; basis ofANSWERS model]

Hughes, D.A., 1981, An approach to the quantification of floodplain form: Area (London), v. 13, no.4, p. 285-291. [no info]

Hughes, L.A., Smith, D.H., and Ryley, A., 2001, Robust data compression for digital elevation models(ext. abs.), in Kidner, D.B., and Higgs, G., eds., GIS Research UK 9th, Annual Conference(GISRUK 2001), University of Glamorgan, Wales, 18-20 April 2001, Proceedings: p. 462-467. [noinfo]

Hughes, R.J., Jr., 1959, Volume estimates from contours: Economic Geology, v. 54, no. 4, p. 730-737. [exemplified by cut-and-fill grading of an area]

Humâ, Io., and Râdulescu, D., 1978, Automatic production of thematic maps of slope stability:Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, no. 17, p. 95-99. [earlycomputer map fr quant. coding of variables incl. slope & aspect]

Humboldt, Alexander von, 1808, et ann. suiv., Nivellement barométrique fait dans les régionséquinoxiales du Nouveau Continent 1799-1804 (in French; barometric surveying in equatorialregions of the Americas), published as a separate from Recueil d'observations astronomiques,d'opérations trigonométriques et de mesures barométriques, Partie 4, 2 vol. (v. 21 & 22) Paris, F.Schoell, Treuttel & Würtz, in Alexandre de Humboldt et Aimé Bonpland, 1805-34, Voyage auxrégions équinoxiales du nouveau continent fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804, 30 v.,paging unknown. [500 heights calculated by Jabbo Oltmanns fr Humboldt's measurements,Laplace's formula, & Ramond's barometric coeff. It may have been here (otherwise in anunspecified 1807 work) where Humboldt complained that heights of only 62 of the world'smountains were measured and he had accounted for half]

Humboldt, Alexander von, 1817, De distributione geographica plantarum secundum coeli temperiemet altitudinem montium, Prolegomena (in Latin; on the geogr. distr. of plants in the new world,temperatures, & heights of mountains): Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris & Lubeck, 250 p., hand-coloredengraved foldout map. [footnote to p. 112 in Edinb. New Phil. Jour., (1845, v. 39) says p. 81 &182 (82?) of the 1817 work mention 'the distinction which is so important to climatology & humancivilization, of continents having uniform, and those having indented coasts; .... the relation of theextent of coasts to the area of the continent, which is ... the measure of the accessibility of theinterior' This is the (later) much-pursued quantification of continental area/perimeter, or 'coastaldevelopment' (Küstenentwicklungen i.e. 'convolution'). The concept, attributed by Humboldt toStrabo & evidently 1st quantified by Ritter (1826, 1828), claims that highly indented coasts, e.g.Europe, lead to more advanced cultures]

Humboldt, Alexander von, 1835, article title unknown: Berghaus' Annalen der Erdkunde, v. 12, p.490ff. [contains material on '... the relation of the extent of coasts to the area of the continent,which is ... the measure of the accessibility of the interior ...' (ref. = Edinb. New Phil. Jour., 1845, v.39, p. 112 footnote is early mention in English of the (later) much-pursued quantification ofcontinental area/perimeter, or 'coastal development' (i.e. Küstenentwicklungen or 'convolution').The concept, attributed by Humboldt to Strabo & evidently 1st quantified by Ritter (1826, 1828),claims that highly indented coasts, e.g. Europe, lead to more advanced cultures]

Humboldt, Alexander von, 1843c, An attempt to determine the height of continents: Edinburgh NewPhilosophical Journal, v. 34, art. 12, p. 326-337. [measured heights refute Laplace's 1825

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deduced mean height of Earth's continents of 1000 m (3028'); see several other A. von H. refs. tothis work]

Hunt, C.B., 1950, Military geology, in Paige, Sidney, ed., Application of Geology to EngineeringPractice: Geological Society of America, p. 295-327. ['scopograph' instrument projected contourmaps into landing-craft-level visualizations of terrain; basic descr. of terrain (incl. map units) forobservation, concealment, cover, trafficability; WW II experience]

Hurtrez, J.-E., Lucazeau, F., Lavé, J., and Avouac, J.-P., 1999, Investigation of the relationshipsbetween basin morphology, tectonic uplift, and denudation from the study of an active fold belt inthe Siwalik Hills, Nepal: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. B6, p. 12,779-12,796. [of27 params (17 basins), only basin elev & hyps. int. correl signif. w/ uplift rate; re-derives hypsometricintegral (no ref. to Pike & Wilson 1971)]

Hutchinson, M.F., 2001, ANUDEM version 4.6.3: Canberra, Centre for Resources and EnvironmentalStudies, Australian National University; http://cres.anu.edu.au/outputs/anudem.html. [successfulsoftware package; yields accurate DEMs with sensible drainage properties fr ~small, but wellchosen, elev. & stream line data]

Hutchinson, M.F., and Gallant, J.C., 1999, Representation of terrain, ch. 9, in Longley, P.A.,Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J., and Rhind, D.W., eds., Geographical Information Systems, v. 1,Principles and Technical Issues, 2nd ed.: New York, Wiley, p. 105-124. [state-of-art review ofDEMs & modeling, supplants Weibel & Heller, 1991]

Hutchinson, M.F., and Gallant, J.C., 2000, Digital elevation models and representation of terrainshape, in Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., eds, Terrain Analysis—Principles and Applications: NewYork, Wiley, p. 29-50. [review, emphasizing ANUDEM software package]

Hutchinson, M.F., Stein, J.L., and Stein, J.A., 2001, Upgrade of the 9 second Australian digitalelevation model—A joint project of CRES and AUSLIG: CRES, ANU,http://cres.anu.edu.au/dem/index.html. [intro, sample images, purchase, GEODATA 9" DEM hist& descr, revised source data, ANUDEM gridding algorithm, accuracy est., refs]


Ibbit, R.P., Willgoose, G.R., and Duncan, M.J., 1999, Channel network simulation models comparedwith data from the Ashley River, New Zealand: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 12, p. 3875-3890. [250-m DEM; OCN & SIBERIA tested-neither satisfactory; used hypso. int.]

Ijjasz-Vasquez, E.J., Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio, and Bras, R.L., 1992, On the multifractalcharacterization of river basins: Geomorphology, vol. 5, nos. 3-5, p. 297-310. [developsmultifractal spectra of various parameters]

Inamdar. S.P., and Dillaha, T.A., 2000, Relationships between drainage area, slope length, andslope gradient for riparian slopes in Virginia: Transactions of the American Society of AgriculturalEngineers, v. 43, no. 4, p. 861-866. [contributing areas computed fr 1-m DEMs; infer fine-scale Afr coarser-scale params.]

Inbar, M., and Risso, C., 2001, A morphological and morphometric analysis of a high density cindercone volcanic field—Payun Matri, south-central Andes, Argentina : Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie,v. 45, no. 3, p. 321-343. [summ. 120 cones & 8 groups; params. Hco, Wco, ratio, slope, Dcr]

Inkpen, R.J., Collier, Peter, and Fontana, Dominic, 2000, Close-range photogrammetric analysis ofrock surfaces: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 120, p. 67-81. [DEMs &variograms of weathered vs. unweathered surfaces]

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Iri, M., Shimakawa, Y., and Nagai, T., 2000, Extraction of invariants from digital elevation data withapplications to terrain topography (in Japanese): Symposium on Integrated GeographicalInformation Systems, Proceedings: v. 5, p. 33-46. [peaks, bottoms (pits), & cols (passes) = criticalpoints]

Ivanov, S.S., 1994, Global relief—evidence of fractal geometry, in Kruhl, J.H., ed., Fractals andDynamic Systems in Geoscience: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 221-230. [1975 revised Scripps topodata on 1° global grid; gets D = 1.37]

Ivanov, M.A., and Head, J.W., 2001, Altitude distribution of units, §3.4 in Geology ofVenus—mapping of a global geotraverse at 30ºN latitude: Journal of Geophysical Research, v.106, no. E8, p. 17,544-17,546. [hypsograms suggest 3 groups of geologic units]

Iwahashi, Junko, and Kamiya, Izumi, 1995, Landform classification using digital elevation model bythe skills of image processing—mainly using the Digital National Land Information: Joho Chish*tsu(Geoinformatics; Osaka), v. 6, no. 2, p. 97-108. [no info; probably related to Iwahashi 1994?]

Iwahashi, Junko, Watanabe, Shiaki, and Furuya, Takahiko, 2001, Landform analysis of slopemovements using DEM in Higashikubiki area, Japan: Computers & Geosciences, v. 27, no. 7, p.851-865. [spatial freq. ≈ failure proclivity; slope dist. ~ normal on slides, but not stable terrain]


Jackson, C.R., and Sturm, C.A., 2002, Woody debris and channel morphology in first- and second-order forested channels in Washington's coastal ranges: Water Resources Research, v. 38, no. 9,p. 16-1 to 16-14. [step-pool freq., step height / channel slope; streams probl. 'step-riffle' not 'step-pool']

Jäger, Stefan, 1993, Computergestützte Erzeugung und Anwendung umweltrelevanter Basisdatender Reliefgeometrie (Computer-assisted production and use of environmentally relevant basic dataof relief geometry), in Barsch, Dietrich, and Karrasch, Heinz, eds. Geographie und Umwelt:Tagungsbericht und wissenschaftl. Abhandlungen, 48, Deutscher Geographentag 1991,Wiesbaden, Steiner Verlag, p. 153-158. [no info]

Jäger, Stefan, and Wieczorek, G.F., 1994, Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, FingerLakes region, New York: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 94-615, one sheet, 1/50,000scale. [fr. logistic regr. of 90-m DEM slope, old lake levels & pres./abs. of clays]

Jakobsson, Martin, Cherkis, Norman, Woodward, John, Macnab, Ron, and Coakley, Bernard, 2000,New grid of Arctic bathymetry aids scientists and mapmakers: Eos, Transactions, AmericanGeophysical Union, v. 81, no. 9, p. 89, 93, & 96;http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/arctic.html. [new standard: IBCAO (2.5km DBM grid),compiled fr diverse sources, incl. declassified & Russian]

Jakobsson, Martin, 2002, Hypsometry and volume of the Arctic Ocean and its constituent’s seas:Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, v. 3, 10.1029/2001GC000302. [2.5km Intl. Bath. ChartArct. Oc. DBM reveals broad shallow shelves]

Jankowski, D.G., and Squyres, S.W., 1991, Sources of error in planetary photoclinometry: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 96, no. E4, p. 20,907-20,922. [quant. anal. of at least 7, fr spacecraftimage, the planet imaged, & scan-line orientation; good biblio]

Janoo, V.C., 1998, Quantification of shape, angularity, and surface texture of base course materials:Hanover, NH, US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory,CRREL Special Report 98-1, 22 p.;http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/techpub/CRREL_Reports/reports/SR98_01.pdf. [reviews direct &indirect morphometric methods, incl. Wright 1955]

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Jansma, Pamela, Mattioli, Glen, Matias, Audeliz, and Harding, David, 1999, Northeastern Caribbeantopography gets a digital upgrade from laser altimetry: Eos, Transactions, American GeophysicalUnion, v. 80, no. 43, p. 511. [SLICER (Scanning LIDAR Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery)data corrects DEMs by removing vegetative cover]

Jayko, A.S., 1997, Digital geomorphic investigation, in U.S. Geological Survey, Investigation of theSan Bruno Fault near the extension of the Bay Area Rapid Transit line from Colma to SanFrancisco International Airport, San Mateo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-fileReport 97-429, p. 26-55. [15-m DEM from 4 mid-19th C. topo maps; shaded relief, slope, curv.,profiles]

Jayko, A.S., 2000, Digital analysis, p. 7-8 in Bonilla, M.G., Jachens, R.C., Jayko, A.S., Wentworth,C.M., and McGarr, A.F., The demise of the San Bruno Fault: California Geology, v. 53, no. 2, p. 4-19. [15-m DEM from 4 mid-19th C. topo maps; shaded relief, curv., profiles]

Jelinek, H.F., Jones, C.L., and Warfel, M.D., 1998, Is there meaning in fractal analysis?, in Standish,Russell, and seven others, eds., Complex Systems '98, Complexity Between the Ecos—FromEcology to Economics, 30 Nov.-3 Dec., Univ. NSW, Sydney, Australia, Proceedings: ComplexityInternational (ANU, Canberra), v. 6; http://www.csu.edu.au/ci/vol06/jelinek/jelinek.html. [clarifiessemantics of 'fractal', often used ignoring principles of scaling theory; need linguistic template tocommunicate across disciplines]

Jenco, Marián, 1993, The morphometric analysis of georelief in terms of a theoretical conception ofthe complex digital elevation model of georelief: Universitas Comeniana, Univerzita Komenského,Bratislava, Geographica Nr. 33, p. 133-153. [Krcho-type analysis of topo. as a random field]

Jennings, P.J., and Siddle, H.J., 1998, Use of landslide inventory data to define the spatial locationof landslide sites, South Wales, UK, in Maund, J.G., and Eddleston, Malcolm, eds., Geohazards inEngineering Geology: London, The Geological Society, Engineering Geology Special Publicationno. 15, p. 199-211. [shallow slides: slope >24°, nr. coal, 1 ha, 90 m long; deep-seated harder tochar.; >10ha, whole hillside, longer than 250m]

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997, DEM auxiliary datasets preparation plan—digital elevation mappingsupport to the EOS/AM-1 platform: Pasadena, CA, California Institute of Technology, JPL D-13508,release 2. 65 p. [30' GTOPO30 spacing met requirements set up here]

Jezek, K.C., Liu, Hongxing, Zhao, Zhiyuan, and Li, Biyan, 1999, Improving a digital elevation modelof Antarctica using radar remote sensing data and GIS techniques: Polar Geography, v. 23, no. 3,p. 185-200. [successful upgrade, but more remains to be done]

Jiao, K.Q., 1981, Cross-section of glacial valley at the head of Urumqi River, Tian Shan (in Chinese):Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, v. 3, p. 92-96. [fits power-law model]

Jimenez, J.A., Maia, L.P., Serra, Jordi, and Morais, Jader, 1999, Aeolian dune migration along theCeará coast, north-eastern Brazil: Sedimentology, v. 46, no. 4, p. 689-701. [h/W & L/W relations(largest barchans yet) are linear]

Jiskoot, Hester, Boyle, Paul, and Murray, Tavi, 1998, The incidence of glacier surging inSvalbard—evidence from multivariate statistics: Computers and Geosciences, v. 24, no. 4, p. 387-399. [logit regr. on 13 var. n= 504; glacier length, sfce slope & lithology best pred.]

Johansson, Magnus, 1999, Analysis of digital elevation data for paleosurfaces in south-westernSweden: Geomorphology, v. 26, no. 4, p. 279-295. [3 surfaces interpr. fr. DEM trend-srfce & rel &abs relief]

Johansson, Magnus, Olvmo, Mats, and Söderström, Mats, 1999, Application of digital elevation andgeological data in studies of morphotectonics and relief—a case study of the sub-Cambrian

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peneplain in south-western Sweden: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 43, no. 4, p. 505-520.[trend-surface & distance-weight. moving ave. for 50-m National DEM]

Johns Hopkins University, 1952, The effects of terrain on battlefield visibility (SECRET): OperationsResearch Office, Technical memorandum ORO-T-161, paging unknown. [no info; likely is earlyquant. line-of-sight research]

Johns Hopkins University, 1955, Limitations imposed by topography on line-of-sight surveillence andcommunication (CLASSIFIED): Operations Research Office, Technical memorandum ORO-T-332,paging unknown. [LOS; no details]

Jomelli, Vincent, 1997, Géodynamique des dépôts d'avalanches—analyses morphométriques etsédimentologiques (in French): doctoral thesis, Univ. Denis Diderot de Paris 7, 252 p. [longitud.profiles, slope, concavity index, distance from apex; 20 deposits]

Jomelli, Vincent, 1999, Dépôts d'avalanches dans les Alpes Françaises—géométrie, sédimentologieet géodynamique depuis le Petit âge Glaciaire (in French w English abstract & fig. captions):Géographie Physique et Quaternaire, v. 53, no. 2, p. 199-209. [longitud. profiles, slope,concavity index, distance from apex; 20 deposits]

Jomelli, Vincent, and Francou, Bernard, 2000, Comparing the characteristics of rockfall talus andsnow avalanche landforms in an Alpine environment using a new methodological approach—Massifdes Ecrins, French Alps: Geomorphology, v. 35, nos. 3-4, p. 181-192. [slope freq.;slope/distance; clast fabric & sorting]

Jones, C.B., 1997, Surface modeling and spatial interpolation, Chapter 12 in GeographicalInformation Systems and Computer Cartography: Harlow, UK, Addison Wesley Longman, p. 197-213. [textbook; DEM-based examples; good summary]

Jones, C.B., Kidner, D.B., and Ware, J.M., 1994, The implicit triangulated irregular network andmultiscale databases: The Computer Journal, v. 37, no. 1, p. 43-57. [can retrieve contours & formlines from multi-scale line tree (MSLT) edge file]

Jones, J.A.A., 1978, The spacing of streams in a random-walk model: Area (London), v. 10, no. 3, p.190-197. [no info]

Jones, K.H., 1998, A comparison of algorithms used to compute hill slope as a property of the DEM:Computers and Geosciences, v. 24, no. 4, p. 315-323. [Fleming-Hoffer (1979) & Horn (ARC/INFOGRID) best of 8 methods; max. slope = worst]

Jones, N.L., Kennard, M.J., and Zundel, A.K., 2000, Fast algorithm for generating sorted strings:Computers and Geosciences, v. 26, no. 7, p. 831-837. [randomly sorts contour segments; fasterthan contour tracing]

Jones, Richard, 2002, Algorithms for using a DEM for mapping catchment areas of stream sedimentsamples: Computers and Geosciences, v. 28, no. 9, p. 1051-1060. [efficient 'priority-first-searchweighted-graph' algorithm enforces drainage continuity for both pits & flat terrain & improves onothers (reviewed)]

Jordan, M.-E.-C., 1872a, Sur les lignes de faîte et de thalweg (in French; on ridge & drainage lines):Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, v. 74, no. 23, p.1457-1459. [mathematician; his contribution, a series of discussions with Boussinesq,summarized by López 1997: at a valley bottom, the only way to identify the terrain slope-line whereothers converge is to observe its origin—at a saddle point or a double inflection point of the levelcurves, taking into account channels along ravines; see also Rieger 1997, who prefers Jordan'sdef. to Rothe 1915]

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Jordan, M.-E.-C., 1872b, Sur les lignes de faîte et de thalweg; réponse aux observations de M.Boussinesq (in French; on ridge & drainage lines; reply to ... M. B.): Comptes RendusHebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, v. 75, no. 11, p. 625-627. [responseto Boussinesq's 1872b criticism; see remarks for Jordan 1872a]

Jordan, M.-E.-C., 1872c, Nouvelles observations sur les lignes de faîte et de thalweg (in French; newobs. on ridge & drainage lines): Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie desSciences, v. 75, p. 1023-1025. [see remarks for Jordan 1872a]

Jorgeson, Jeff, Freeman, G.E., Johnson, B.E., and, Nelson, Jim, 1998, Hydrologic modeling of WestFork Cedar River Watershed using GEOSHED automated drainage analysis (abs.), in Hallam, C.A.,and Salisbury, J.M., eds., GIS Applications in Water Resources Research—American waterResources Annual Meeting, Chicago Ill, November 6-10, 1994: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-fileReport 98-751, p. 8. [DEM-to-watershed transformation on 3' DEM in GRASS]

Journel, A.G., Kyriakidis, P.C., and Mao, Shuguang, 2000, Correcting the smoothing effects ofestimators—a spectral postprocessor: Mathematical Geology, v. 32, no. 7, p. 787-813. [resultsfrom DEM verify theory of spatial interpolation by autocovariance]

Jovanovíc, P.-S., 1940, Les profils fluviatiles en long, leurs formes et leurs génèses. Essai deméthodes morphogénétiques nouvelles (in French): Skopje and Paris (Armand Colin), 196 p.[statistical study of longitudinal stream profiles]

Judge, E.K., and Overton, M.F., 2001, Remote sensing of barrier island morphology—evaluation ofphotogrammetry-derived digital terrain models: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 17, no. 1, p. 207-220. [101 surveyed dune & beach profiles compare well w/ DEM profiles]

Junkins, J.L., Jancaitis, J.R., and Miller, G.W., 1972, Smooth Irregular Curves: PhotogrammetricEngineering, v. 38, p. 565-573. [probably still the best method to interpolate along a line pastsimple linear interpolation]


Kaikko, Johann, 1934, Die Höhenunterschiede (height differences), in Streifigkeit der Landschaft inLadoga-Karelien mit besonder Berücks. ihrer Abhängigkeit vom Felsuntergrund: Fennia, v. 58, no.4, p. 24, map 6, 1/1M. [5 km squares, 15 10-m relief intervals]

Kaitanen, Veijo, 1975, Composition and morphotectonic interpretation of the Kiellajohka drainagebasin, Finnish Lapland: Fennia, v. 140, 54 p. [applies new quant. methods to analysis of fluvial-relief evolution]

Kammerer, Peter, 1986, Verbesserung der morphometrischen Erfassung des Reliefs mit Hilfe desDigitalen Geländemodells (in German; Improved morphometric understanding of relief with the aidof DEMs): Mitt. der Geographischen Gesellschaft in München, v. 71, p. 57-79. [no info]

Kammerer, Peter, 1990, Die Verarbeitung von Geländehöhendaten des BayerischenLandesvermessungsamtes auf dem PC (in German; processing Bavarian Office for LandSurveying's DEM on the PC): Mitt. der Geographischen Gesellschaft in München, v. 75, p. 21-29.[no info]

Kane, Phillip, 1978, Origins of valley asymmetry at Sarah Canyon, California: Yearbook of theAssociation of Pacific Coast Geographers, v. 40, p. 103-115. [microclim. & veg. type & density;topo. diffs. incl. drainage area, density, bifurc. ratio, max. slope gradient, mean slope & channelgradient]

Kanisawa, Satoshi, and Yokoyama, Ryuzo, 1999, Extraction of geologic information from digitalelevation map of 50m-mesh—application of slope and openness maps to the Kitakami Mountains

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(in Japanese): Chisitsu News, no. 542, p. 31-38. [reticulate structure of joint pattern revealedclearly for 1st time by 'openness']

Kant, Immanuel, 1802, Physische Geographie (in German), F.T. Rink, ed.: Königsberg, Göbbels &Unzer, v. 1, 312 p., v. 2, 248 p.; republished 1923 as Kant's Gesammelte Schriften, in Akad. derWissenschaften zu Berlin, v. 9, p. 151-436. [among earliest quant. geomorph., see notes forKant 1803; the only edition authorized by Kant; contents of lectures date to 1775 (v. 1) and 1759(v. 2)]

Kant, Immanuel, 1803, Physische Geographie (in German): Mainz & Hamburg, ed. Gottfried Vollmer,v. 3 (of 6, v. 1 in 1801), section 1, p. 18. [one of earliest morphometric observations, namely,tributaries normally meet main river at 45° (p. 18); cf Playfair 1802, p. 113-14; Kant among 1st toadvocate land quantification beyond mere listing surface extent, height, & depth; Kant nevertraveled but his collected geographic observations by others (he constantly entertained intellectualguests) were highly influential. Kant also infl. J.H. Schröter 1791, 1802. Defects of Vollmer's editionof Kant (only Rink 1802 ed. is authoritative; see Hartshorne 1939, The Nature of Geography,Annals AAG, 29/3 & 4, p. 38-39) do not necessarily invalidate attribution of the 45° 'rule' (angle isvariable) to Kant; lectures on which books were based date to mid-1700's.]

Kao, R.C., 1963, The use of computers in the processing and analysis of geographic information:Geographical Review, v. 53, p. 530-547. [early advocate of automated spatial data handling]

Kar, Amal, 1998, Present-day mobile crescentic dunes in the Thar desert, India, in Alsharhan, A.S.,Glennie, K.W., Whittle, G.L., and Kendall, C.G.St.C., eds., Quaternary Deserts and ClimaticChange: Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 155-164. [1 barchan; shape changes w/ season & degree ofdevelopment]

Kar, Amal, Tsunekawa, Atsushi, and Miyazaki, Tadakuni, 1998, Potentiality of global positioningsystem in sand dune measurement—a case study from the Thar desert, India, in Alsharhan, A.S.,Glennie, K.W., Whittle, G.L., and Kendall, C.G.St.C., eds., Quaternary Deserts and ClimaticChange: Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 433-438. [1st -ever landform from GPS?; 9122 good elevs for 1parabolic dune; took 6 hrs.; 1-m CI map from DEM]

Kargel, J.S. 1986, Morphologic variations of Martian rampart crater ejecta and their dependenciesand implications, in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference,17th, March, Houston, TX, The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XVII,p. 410-411. [the old area/perimeter relation (see Woronow & Mutch 1980); calc. 'lobateness' =P/(4�A)0.5 for 538 craters]

Karlekar, S.N., 1995, Keskar, Umesh, The quantitative assessment of a few landslides aroundChiplun and Sangameshwar (Maharashtra): Geographical Review of India, v. 57, no. 1, p. 1-19.[PCA: 26 attributes & 15 sites; major var.= height, 'spread' & 'ground length']

Kastrop, J.E., 1949, Sun Oil Company's mobile elevation meter: World Oil, v. 128, no. 13, p. 76-80.[3-wheel trailer; electro-mechanical slope integratin system; elev. accuracy is fraction of a foot overseveral miles; less acc. in rough terrain]

Kasugaya, Nobumasa, 1981, A method of the morphometry by the application of the mechanicalquadratures (in Japanese with English abstract): Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union,v. 1, no. 2, p. 135-149. [8-point terrain-ruggedness index: true area/map area?]

Kasugaya, Nobumasa, and Chikatsu, Hirofumi, 1981, Some examples of the application of themechanical quadratures to morphometry (in Japanese with English abstract): Transactions,Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 1, no. 2, p. 151-164. [n=10; ruggedness index: landformvolume, evenness]

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Katsube, Keiichi, 2000, Morphometry of mountains based on a 50-m DEM (in Japanese), in Sugimori,H., Aoki, T., Suzuki, Y., and Oguchi, T., eds., Integration of digital measurement methods for theGIS analyses of hilly lands: Nagoya, Chunichi Shinbun, p. 35-37. [similar height/slope relationsfor diff. rock types in diff. ranges]

Katsube, Keiichi, and Oguchi, Takashi, 1999, Altitudinal changes in slope angle and profile curvaturein the Japan Alps—a hypothesis regarding a characteristic slope angle: Geographical Review ofJapan, v. 72 (Ser. B), no., 1, p. 63-72. [50m DEM; 3 alt. zones in 3 ranges:<1 km, 1-2.8 km, >2.8km]

Kaufmann, Victor, 1998, Geomorphometric monitoring of active rock glaciers in the Austrian Alps (inGerman), in International Symposium on High Mountain Remote Sensing and Cartography 4th(HMRSC-4), 19-29 August 1996, Proceedings: University of Karlstad, Austria, Research Report97/3 Natural Sciences / Technology, p. 97-113. [chapter 6 is on morphometry]

Kaulfuss, W., 1975, Darstellungsmethode und Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten eines Kartogramms derReliefenergie fuer den Bezirk Dresden (in German; Representation methods & applicability of arelative-relief map of the Dresden area: Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 119, no. 4, p.317-319. [no info; late use of obsolete term 'reliefenergie']

Kavouras, Marinos, 1989, Vectorization of scanned contour data: Technical Chronicles Á (in Greek),v. 9, no. 3, p. 127-149. [no info]

Kawabata, Daisaku, Oguchi, Takashi, and Katsube, Keiichi, 2001, Effects of geology on slopeangles in the southern Japanese Alps—a GIS approach: Transactions, JapaneseGeomorphological Union, v. 22, n5. 3, p. 827-836. [height/slope relations for 24 rock types fr 55mDEM; some rel. to landsliding]

Kawakami, H., and Saito, Y., 1984, Landslide risk mapping by a quantification method, inInternational Symposium on Landslides, 4th, 16-21 September, Toronto, Proceedings: Rexdale,Ont., Canadian Geotechnical Society, v. 2, p. 535-540. [weighted freqs. of valley density, elev.,slope, formation, geol. structure]

Keane, C.M., 1997, Terrain texture and its potential for landform classification in western Piedmont ofMaryland: College Park, University of Maryland, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 222 p. [no info]

Keber, Dr., 1882, comments (in German) in Günther (1882), p. 146. [the area/perimeter problem]

Keefer, D.K., 1984, Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes—source characteristics: Science, v.223, no. 4642, p. 1288-1290. [source slope-height (min.= 150 m) vs. gradient (min.= 25°) for n=23]

Kennelly, P.J., and Kimerling, A.J., 2001, Modifications of Tanaka's illuminated contour method:Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, v. 28, no. 2, p. 111-123. [aspect varies bycolor, slope by contour width]

Kennedy, F.E., Brown, C.A., Kolodny, J., and Sheldon, B.M., 1999, Fractal analysis of hard disksurface roughness and correlation with static and low-speed friction: Transactions of the ASME, v.121, no. 4, p. 968-974. [2 parameters (by patchwork method) sensitive to surface-finishingprocesses]

Kenny, F.M. (compiler), 1998, Digital elevation model of the Greater Toronto and Oak Ridges Moraineareas, southern Ontario (chromo-stereo enhancement): Geological Survey of Canada, Open-FileReport 3423, 1 sheet, map scale 1:200,000. [paper map from DEM released on CD-ROM a yearlater]

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Kenny, F.M, Paquette, J., Russell, H.A.J., Moore, A., Hinton, M.J., 1999, Digital elevation model,greater Toronto area, southern Ontario, and Lake Ontario bathymetry: Geological Survey ofCanada, Open-File Report 3678, 1 CD-ROM, containing Arc/Info E00, USGS DEM, and VerticalMapper files. [hydrol. OK DEM fr 1/50 000 database; ARC/INFO TOPOGRID; 30 m grid, +3 mvert.]

Kerenyi, A., 1977, Kulonbozo reliefenergia-abrazolasok es az erozio kapesolata a tokaji Kopasz-hegy peldajan (in Hungarian; Methods for presentation of relative relief and erosion on the exampleof the Kopasz Mt. in Tokaj: Foldrajzi Ertesito (Geographical Bulletin; Budapest), v. 26, nos. 3-4, p.289-304. [no info]

Kertész, Àdam, 1979, Application of morphometric methods to geomorphological research, in Marosi,S., ed., Applied Geographical Research in the Geographical Research Institute of the HungarianAcademy of Sciences: Abstract no. 21, p. 51-62. [p. 54 & 62, defines microrelief by no. contourscrossing sample circle]

Kertész, Àdam, and Szilárd, Jenö, 1979, Some problems of slope development reflected in slope-profile investigations: Geographia Polonica, v. 41, no. 1, p. 21-26. [geomorph. interpr. of detailedfield slope-profile char.]

Kervyn, François, 2001, Modelling topography with SAR interferometry—illustrations of a favourableand less favourable environment: Computers and Geosciences, v. 27, no. 9, p. 1039-1050.[obtained usable InSAR DEM from one area but not another (vegetation too dense)]

Kheyfets, B.S., 1958, The use of polynomials for mathematical characterization of topographiccomplexity (in Russian): Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnyh Zavedeny, Geodesiya i Aerophotosyemka,no. 1, p. 79-86. [no info]

Kidner, D.B., 1991, Digital terrain models for radio path loss calculations: Ph.D. Thesis, ThePolytechnic of Wales, 269 p. [results differ by type of DEMs & its accuracy]

Kidner, D.B., Eynon, Christopher, and Smith, D.H., 2001, Multiscale terrain databases (ext. abs.), inKidner, D.B., and Higgs, G., eds., GIS Research UK 9th, Annual Conference (GISRUK 2001), 18-20 April 2001, University of Glamorgan, Wales, Proceedings: p. 151-153. [hierarch. encodes 131-million-point Great Britain DEM by implicit quadtree pyramid]

Kidner, D.B., and Smith, D.H., 1997, Data compression for digital elevation models, in Hodgson, S.,Rumor, and Harts, J.J., eds., Joint European Conference on Geographical Information, 3rd,Vienna, Austria, Proceedings: Amsterdam, IOS Press, v. 1, p. 96-105. [review; predictionpreprocessing improves performance over GZIP, etc.]

Kidner, D.B., and Smith, D.H., 1997, Storage-efficient techniques for representing digital terrainmodels, in Kemp, Z.A., ed., Innovations in GIS 4: Edinburgh, Taylor and Francis, p. 25-41. [largedatasets are forcing efficiencies in storage]

Kidner, D.B., and Smith, D.H., 1998, Storage-efficient techniques for handling terrain data, in SpatialData Handling '98 Conference, 11-15 July, Vancouver, BC, Proceedings: p. 373-385. [largedatasets are forcing greater efficiencies in storage]

Kidner, D.B., Dorey, M.I., and Smith, D.H., 1999, What's the point? Interpolation and extrapolationwith a regular grid DEM, in International Conference on GeoComputation, 4th, Fredericksburg VA,Mary Washington College, 25-28 July, GeoComputation 99:http://www.geovista.psu.edu/geocomp/geocomp99/Gc99/082/gc_082.htm. [high-ordertechniques > linear ones; bicubic interpol. = min. for DEMs]

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Kidner, D.B., Sparkes, A.J., Dorey, M.I., Ware, J.M. and Jones, C.B., 2001, Visibility analysis with themultiscale implicit TIN: Transactions in GIS, v. 5, no. 1, p. 19-37. [storage-reduction methodapplied to viewsheds]

Kidner, D.B., Ware, J.M., Sparkes, A.J. and Jones, C.B., 2000, Multiscale terrain and topographicmodelling with the implicit TIN: Transactions in GIS, v. 4, no. 4, p. 361-378. [reduces size needs alot by storing only vertices & constraining features at var. scales]

Kieffer, Hugh, Kargel, J.S., and 40 others, 2000, New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and icesheets: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 24, p. 265, 270-271.[DEMs fr ASTER stereo coverage will quantify glacier topo. changes]

Kieniewicz, J.M., Chappelow, J.E., and Sharpton, V.L., 2000, Properties of Martian surfaces from themorphology of small impact craters (abs.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v.81, no. 48 (Supplement, P62B-03), p. F780. [use depth/diam. ratios to infer substrate character]

Killian, K., and Kraus, K., 1992, Punkte in topographischen Flächen mit gleicher Geländeneigung (inGerman; points in topographic surfaces with same slope (?)): Österreichische Zeitschrift fürVermessungswesen und Photogrammetrie, v. 80, no. 1, p. 20-24. [technique to assess & modelcontour accuracy]

Kim, Sanghyun, Kim, Kyunghyun, and Jung, Sunhee, 2001, A digital elevation analysis—spatiallydistributed flow apportioning algorithm (in Korean with English abstract): Journal of Korea WaterResources Association, v. 34, no. 3, p. 241-251. [spatially varied flow-apport. to accomm. A frupslope cells; channel init. threshold; topography index]

King, D., Bourennane, H., Isambert, M., and Macaire, J.J., 1999, Relationship of the presence of anon-calcareous clay-loam horizon to DEM attributes in a gently sloping area: Geoderma, v. 89, nos.1-2, p. 95-111. [20X20m DEM; gradient & aspect dominant; wind, not H2O, = major process]

King, G.Q., 1982, Morphometry of Great Basin playas: Salt Lake City, UT, University of Utah,unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 137 p. [drainage basins, morphometry, statistical analysis]

Kirby, Eric, and Whipple, Kelin, 2001, Quantifying differential rock-uplift rates via stream profileanalysis: Geology, v. 29, no. 2, p. 415-418. [differences in channel concavity (Nepal) matchpredictions of stream-power model]

Kirkby, M.J., 1971, Hillslope process-response models based on the continuity equation, inBrunsden, Denys, ed., Slopes, Form and Process: London, Institute of British Geographers,Special Publication no. 3, p. 15-30. [formal introduction of the continuity eqn. into geomorp.modeling]

Kirkby, M.J., 1984, Modelling cliff development in South Wales—Savigear re-reviewed: Zeitschrift fürGeomorphologie, v. 28, no. 4, p. 405-426. [continuum eqn. for mass-balance model, incl.landsliding; results agree w/ Savigear 1952]

Kirkby, M.J., 1993, Long term interactions between networks and hillslopes, in Beven, Keith, andKirkby, M.J., eds., Channel Network Hydrology: New York, Wiley, p. 255-293. [state-of-artprogress report, esp. flood forecasting]

Kirkby, M.J., 1997, TOPMODEL—a personal view: Hydrological Processes, v. 11, no. 9, p. 1087-1098. [future variants may have to sacrifice simplicity for added realism]

Kirkby, M.J., 1999, Translating models from hillslope (1 ha) to catchment (1000 km2) scales, inDiekkrüger, Bernd, Kirkby, M.J., and Schröder, Ulrich, eds., Regionalization in Hydrology,Conference, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, 10-14 March, 1997, Proceedings:

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IAHS Publication no. 254, p. 1-12. [current methods primitive; uses DEM elev. in 'flowstrips' toscale up all other params.]

Klein, Micha, 1981, A quantitative approach to the analysis of slope roughness and effective slopeangle: Catena, v. 8, p. 281-284. [3 micro-profiles on 3 gravelly field plots; SDC freq.]

Kling, Johan, 1998, The difference between sorted circle and polygon morphology and theirdistribution in two alpine areas, northern Sweden: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 42, no. 4, p.439-452. [n=700; circles smaller, width/length higher, & @ higher elev.]

Klinkenberg, Brian, and Clarke, K.C., 1992, Exploring the fractal mountains, in Palaz, I., andSengupta, S.K., eds., Automated Pattern Analysis in Petroleum Exploration: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 201-212. [fractal modeling of terrain (variogram method); see Clarke, 1993]

Klostermann, Henning, 1970, Zur geomorphometrischen Kennzeichnung kleiner Einzugsgebiete (inGerman; morphometric characterization of small catchment areas): Petermanns GeographischeMitteilungen, v. 114, no. 4, p. 241-260. [watershed morphometry, German examples]

Knighton, A.D., 2000, Profile form and channel gradient variation within an upland drainage basin -River Noe, Derbyshire: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 122, p. 149-164. [7streams; exponential fcn fits better than linear, log, or power]

Kobrick, Michael, 2002, Planetary phrenology—the lumps and bumps of the Earth: Engineering andScience (California Institute of Technology), v. 65, no. 1, p. 22-31. [the 2000 SRTM presented toa general audience]

Koch, Helge von, 1905, Une méthode géométrique élémentaire pour l'étude de certaines questionsde la théorie des courbes planes (in French; simple geometric method to study certain theoreticalissues on planar curves): Acta mathematica (Stockholm), v. 30, Octobre, p. 145-174. [origin offractal theory; not content with the geometric formulation of Weierstrass]

Kochel, R.C., and Piper, J.F., 1986, Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii—evidence forgroundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys: Journal of Geophysical Research, v.91, no. B13, p. E175-E192. [PCA (13 parameters x 53 basins) separates runoff valleys fr.sapping val.]

Koenderink, J.J., and Doorn, A.J. van , 1993, Local features of smooth shapes—ridges and courses,in Geometric Methods in Computer Vision II, v. 2031, SPIE, p. 2-13. [disputesmathematical correctness of contour-to-watershed algorithms]

Koenderink, J.J., and Doorn, A.J. van, 1994, Two-plus-one-dimensional differential geometry: PatternRecognition Letters, v. 15, no. 5, p. 439-443. [historical overview of ridge detectors 1st proposedin early 19th C. to define watersheds]

Koenderink, J.J., and Doorn, A.J. van, 1998, The structure of relief, in Advances in Imaging &Electron Physics, v. 103, p. 65-150. [review scalar fields on 2D manifolds (relief—contour & fallcurves, ridges & courses) for computer vision]

Kok, A.L., Blais, J.A.R., and Rangayyan, R.M., 1987, Filtering of digitally correlated Gestalt elevationdata: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 53, no. 5, p. 535-538. [attempt (notwholly successful) to fix striped artifacts in Level-1 USGS DEMs]

Konovalov, N.E., 1974, Digital modelling of topographic conditions of a terrain for design of linearconstructions (in Russian), in Vasilyev, A.P., ed., Transactions of GiprodorNII, no. 8, Survey andDesign of Highways: GiprodorNII, Moscow, p. 21-33. [no info]

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Kophstahl, E., 1988, Automationsgestütztes Erfassen, Verarbeiten und Darstellen topographischerDaten für die Herstellung der Deutschen Grundkarte 1/5000 - Höhe in Niedersachsen (in German;automated entry, processing & representation of topo. data for making the German 1/5000 basemap - height in Lower Saxony): Nachr. Karten- u. Vermessungswesen, I, v. 92, p. 55-59. [no info]

Koristka, Karel, 1861, Bericht über einige im niederen Gesenke und im Marsgebirge ausgeführtehöhenmessungen (... on height meas. in the low sinks (sic) & the Marsgebirge; in German): Vienna,F.B. Geitler, 20 p. [obtaining elev. data; no other info]

Koristka, Karel, 1863, Hypsometrie von Mähren und Österreichisch Schlesien (hypsometry of Moravia& Austrian Silesia; in German): Brünn, Im commission bei E. Hölzel in Olmütz, 160 p., map.[measurements, quantitative terrain description]

Kossinna, Erwin, 1933, Die Erdoberfläche (in German), in Gutenberg, Beno, ed., Handbuch derGeophysik, v. 2: Berlin, Bornträger, p. 869-954. [broad-scale post-Humboldt hypsometry, etc.]

Kostaschuk, R.A., MacDonald, G.M., and Putnam, P.E., 1986. Depositional process and alluvial fan-drainage basin morphometric relationships near Banff, Alberta, Canada: Earth Surface Processesand Landforms, v. 11, p. 471-484. [found 2 types of fans; relations differ by type]

Köthe, Rüdiger, 1988, Versuch einer computergesteuerten morphographisch-prozeßorientiertenReliefanalyse für die bodenkunliche Kartierung (in German): unpublished Dipl. Arb. Lehrstuhl Phys.Geogr., Univ. Hannover, paging unknown. [SARA software package prototype?]

Köthe, Rüdiger, and Lehmeier, Friedmut, 1993, SARA, ein System zur Automatischen Relief-Analyse(in German): Standort, Zeitschrift für Angewandte Geographie (Köln), v. 4, p. 11-21. [softwareSARA for DEM-based fluvial modeling]

Köthe, Rüdiger, Gehrt, Ernst, and Böhner, Jürgen, 1996, Automatische Reliefanalyse fürgeowissenschaftliche Kartierungen—derzeitiger Stand und Weiterentwicklungen des ProgrammsSARA (Automatic relief analysis for geoscientific mapping—present status and progress of SARA):Arbeitshefte Geologie (Hannover), v. 1, p. 31-37. [DEM-based package for terrain modeling &mapping]

Koutaniemi, Leo, 1982, The relationship between relative height and microrelief—Three case studiesfrom northern Finland: Fennia, v. 160, no. 2, p. 277-294. [1/20K maps; n=3439; microrelief = no.contour-crossings on sample circle]

Kraak, M.-J., and Ormelling, Ferjan, 1996, Relief (Sect. 5.5), in Cartography—Visualization of SpatialData: Harlow, UK, Addison-Wesley Longmans, p. 100-108. [textbook; gen'l. info on DEM's &applics. esp. carto/viz.]

Krabill, W., Frederick, E., Manizade, S., Martin, C., Sonntag, J., Swift, R., Thomas, R., Wright, W., andYungel, J., 1999, Rapid thinning of parts of the southern Greenland ice sheet: Science, v. 283, p.1522-1524. [1993 & 1998 laser altimetry (70-m planes) differenced; error eval.]

Krabill, W., Abdalati, W., Frederick, E., Manizade, S., Martin, C., Sonntag, J., Swift, R., Thomas, R.,Wright, W., and Yungel, J., 2000, Greenland ice sheet—high-elevation balance and thinning,Science, v. 289, p. 428-430. [color map from airborne laser altimetry & GPS]

Kramrisch, F., 1935, Zur Rauhigkeitsbestimmung von Gesteinbruchsflächen (in German; roughnessgrading of stone aggregate surfaces): Geologie und Bauwesen, v. 7, no. 2, p. 33-59. [industrialmorphometry; profiles from sectioned casting; roughness = length of fine-scale profile / length ofcoarse-scale profile; see Wright 1955]

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Kraus, K., 1994, Visualization of the quality of surfaces and their derivatives: PhotogrammetricEngineering and Remote Sensing, v. 60, no. 4, p. 457-462. [graphic means for assessing DEMaccuracy & error]

Kraus, K., and Pfeifer, N., 1998, Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laserscanner data: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, v. 53, no. 4, p. 193-203.[better than photogramm., but derived contours not good enough for geomorph.]

Krcho, Jozef, 1983, Theoretical conception and interdisciplinary application of the complex digitalmodel of relief in modelling bidimensional fields (in Slovak with English abstract): GeografickyCasopis., v. 35, p. 265-291. [terrain segmentation by pos. & neg. DEM curvature]

Krcho, Jozef, 1986, Geometric forms of the georelief and their hierarchic levels (in Slovak, withEnglish abstract): Geograficky Casopis, v. 38, p. 210-235. [no info, but undoubtedly related toknown works]

Krcho, Jozef, 1987, Mathematical properties of the topographical surface of georelief from theviewpoint of morphometric analysis as well as modelling by means of a complex digital model (inSlovak, with English abstract): Geograficky Casopis, v. 39, p. 169-204. [no info, but undoubtedlyrelated to known works]

Krcho, Jozef, 1989, Mathematical properties of the georelief from the viewpoint of geometric formsand its modelling by approximating functions of two variables (in Slovak, with English abstract):Geograficky Casopis, v. 41, no. 1, p. 23-47. [no info, but undoubtedly related to known works]

Krcho, Jozef, 1999, Landscape as a spatially organized system and georelief as a subsystem oflandscape—the influence of georelief on spatial differentiation of landscape proceses:http://www.mpsr.sk/slovak/dok/gn/book/45kap/45kap.htm. [online treatise on his random-fieldapproach to geomorphometry, with illustrations & biblio]

Krebs, Norbert, 1923, Süddeutschland: Leipzig & Berlin, p. 6 (map), 1/4.5M scale. [2nd relative-relief map of So. Germany; 5 intervals]

Krebs, Norbert, 1928, Karte der Reliefenergie, in Die Ostalpen und das heutige Österreich, v. 1:Stuttgart, plate 5, 1/2M. [7 relative-relief intervals]

Kreslavsky, M.A., and Head, J.W. III, 1999, Kilometer-scale slopes on Mars and their correlation withgeologic units—initial results from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data: Journal of GeophysicalResearch, v. 104, no. E9, p. 21,911-21,924. [med. slope @ lengths 0.4-25 km; S/L comp. w/GTOPO30 (slope same)]

Kreslavsky, M.A., and Head, J.W. III, 1999, Morphometry of small shield volcanoes onVenus—implications for the thickness of regional plains: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104,no. E8, p. 18,925-18,932. [arithmet. height/diameter stats; small domes; cf Bulwer &]

Kreslavsky, M.A., and Head, J.W. III, 2000, Kilometer-scale roughness of Mars—results from MOLAdata analysis: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105, no. E11, p. 26,695-26,711. ['differentialslope' vs. 0.6-20 km base length]

Krumbein, W.C., 1978, Some recent developments in the mathematical geology of stream-channelnetworks, in Merriam, D.F., ed., Geomathematics—Past, Present, and Prospects: Syracuse, NY,Syracuse University Geology Contributions, No. 5, p. 37-56. [excellent review of Shreve's &others' topological model 1967-78]

Krümmel, O., 1979, Versuch einer vergleichenden Morphologie der Meeresräume (attempt at acomparative morphology of sea areas, in German): Leipzig, publ. & paging unknown.

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[area/perimeter relation; Küstengliederung (coastal arrangement) in %, e = (100/U)(U-K); for K seeRohrbach, 1890]

Krupnik, Amnon, 2000, Accuracy assessment of automatically derived digital elevation models fromSPOT images: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 66, no. 8, p. 1017-1023.[good overall, some problems in agricultural land & moutains; ref. DEM 1-2m elev. acc.]

Krzyszkowski, Dariusz, and Stachura, Renata, 1993, Morphologic effects of neotectonic movementsin the Walbrzych foothills, Middle Sudety Mountains, SW Poland (in Polish with English summary &figure captions): Folia Quaternaria, v. 64, p. 71-81. [relative-relief & slope maps]

Kudrnovská, O., 1975, Morfometricke metody a jejich aplikace pri fyzickogeograficke regionalizaci (inCzech; morphometric methods & their application to physico-geographical regionalization): StudiaGeographica (Brno), v. 45, 182 p. [86 refs, landform description, quant. geomorph.]

Kuenen, Ph.H., 1935, Geological interpretation of the bathymetrical results, in The SnelliusExpedition in the Eastern Part of the Netherlands East Indies 1929-1930: Leyden, E.J. Brill, v. 5,Geological Results, pt. 1, p. 62-69. [submarine slopes of composite andesite cones average 25º]

Kugler, Hans, 1965, Aufgaben, Grundsätze und methodische Wege für großmaßstabigesgeomorphologisches Kartieren (in German): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 109, no.4, p. 241-257. [slope & relief as components of large-scale geomorphologic maps]

Kühni, A., and Pfiffner, O.A., 2001a, Drainage patterns and tectonic forcing—a model study for theSwiss Alps: Basin Research, v. 13, no. 2, p. 169-197. [broad-scale SPM (surface-processmodeling) of mtn. topography on 100x100 1-km grid cells yields var. relief & drainage patterns]

Kühni, A., and Pfiffner, O.A., 2001b, The relief of the Swiss Alps and adjacent areas and its relationto lithology and structure—topographic analysis from 250-M DEM: Geomorphology, v. 41, no. 4, p.285-307. [broad-scale neo-orometry fr GTOPO30; rel. to erosion patterns; compare elev., relief, &slope; summit-level map]

Kumar, Muneendra, 2000, A WGS'84 orthometric height of Mount Everest: GPS World, v. 11, no. 10,p. 46-48. [29,028' / 8850m ± 2m, 1 sigma uncertainty]

Kumar, Praveen, Verdin, K.L., and Greenlee, S.K., 2000, Basin level statistical properties oftopographic index for North America: Advances in Water Research, v. 23, no. 6, p. 571-578.[params of TOPMODEL wetness index for 5020 NA basins fr. GTOPO30 DEM]

Kusumayudha, S.B., Zen, M.T., Notosiswoyo, Sudarto, Gautama, R.S., 1997, Analisis fraktal aliranKali Oyo di Pegunungan Selatan Jawa Tengah, kendali litologi dan struktur geologi: J. TeknolMineral, v. 4, no. 2, p. 71-86. [see same authors, 2000]

Kusumayudha, S.B., Zen, M.T., Notosiswoyo, Sudarto, Gautama, R.S., 2000, Fractal analysis of theOyo River, cave systems, and topography of the Gunungsewu karst area, central Java, Indonesia:Hydrogeology Journal, v. 8, no. 3, p. 271-278. [D (Oyo r.) = 1.0-1.5, cave rivers = 1.04-1.08,topo. = 1.5-1.7]

Kweon, I.S., and Kanade, Takeo, 1994, Extracting topological terrain features from elevation maps:Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing / Image Understanding, v. 59, no. 2, p. 171-182. [definition of ridges & valleys based on 3 derivatives of elev.; 'topographic change trees' (3types) descr. surface 'connectability']

Kyriakidis, P.C., Shortridge, A.M., and Goodchild, M.F., 1999, Geostatistics for conflation andaccuracy assessment of digital elevation models: International Journal of Geographical InformationScience, v. 13, no. 7, p. 677-707. [used higher-resolution DEM as 'ground truth']

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La Barbera, P., and Lanza, L.G., 2000, Comment on 'A physical explanation of the cumulative areadistribution curve' by Hemantha Perera and Garry Willgoose: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no.3, p. 815-817. [gets different value of phi for CAD based on Tokunaga stream numbering]

La Barbera, P., and Lanza, L.G., 2001, On the cumulative area distribution of natural drainagebasins along a coastal boundary: Water Resources Research, v. 37, no. 5, p. 1503-1509.[Horton analysis of independent conterminous basins outlet to the sea]

Lado Liñares, M., Taboada Castro, M.M., and Dieguez Villar, A., 1998, Relación entre índices derugosidad—tortuosidad, pendiente límite, distancia límite y rugosidad aleatoria (Relations betweenroughness indices—tortuosity, limiting slope, limiting difference, and random roughness, inSpanish): Cadernos do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe (Univ. Coruña), v. 23, p. 151-164.[microtopo of cultivated fields; pinmeter; slope & difference most highly correlated]

Lague, D., Davy, Philippe, and Crave, Alain, 2000, Estimating uplift rate and erodability from thearea-slope relationship—examples from Brittany (France) and numerical modelling: Physics andChemistry of the Earth (A), v. 25, no. 6-7, p. 543-548. [spatially averaged uplift ratio computed fr250-m DEM]

Lake, Philip, 1928, On hill slopes: Geological Magazine, v. 65, no. 3, p. 108-116. [early detailedslope profiles (n=9) for geomorph.; arcs fit circle or parabola]

Lancaster, Nicholas, 1981, Aspects of the morphometry of linear dunes of the Namib Desert: SouthAfrican Journal of Science, v. 77, no. 8, p. 366-368. [orientation statistics]

Lancaster, S.T., and Bras, R.L., 2002, A simple model of river meandering and its comparison tonatural channels: Hydrological Processes, v. 16, no. 1, p. 1-26. [based on planform sinuosity;more like cellular models; yields compound bends & multibend loops]

Lane, S.N., 2000, The measurement of river channel morphology using digital photogrammetry:Photogrammetric Record, v. 16, no. 96, p. 937-961. [review & progress rept.; now underutilized;data qual. a problem]

Lane, S.N., James, T.D., and Crowell, M.D., 2000, Application of digital photogrammetry to complextopography for geomorphological research: Photogrammetric Record, v. 16, no. 95, p. 793-821.[detailed quality & error analysis, not geomorph. applics. per se]

Langbein, W.B., 1964, Profiles of rivers of uniform change: U.S. Geological Survey, ProfessionalPaper 501-B, 4 p. [concavity = 2A/F; F, fall; A, height diff. of straight line & profile in middle]

Laplace, P.S. de, 1825, no title for entry (in French), in Traité du Mécanique Céleste: J.B.M. Duprat,Paris, v. 5, book 11, chap. 1, p. 13, 14, 16 (var. cit.); see also, 4-v Engl. transl. by NathanielBowditch, 1829-39, Boston MA. [Assuming conditions of equilibrium, deduced mean ocean depth= mean height (asl) of continents (3280 ft); this error inspired von Humboldt's (& others') calc. ofmean height of continents]

Larsen, M.C., and Parks, J.E., 1998, Map showing landslide susceptibility in the Comerío Municipality,Puerto Rico: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file Report 98-566, scale 1/20,000.[slope+elev.+aspect+land use+debris-flow meas. = 3 classes]

Lastochkin, A.N., 1987, Morphometrical investigations in geomorphology. I. Classification ofmorphometric constructs and characteristics (in Russian, v. brief English summary): VestnikLeningradskogo Universiteta; Geologiia, Geografii, Serie 7, 1987, no. 3, p. 44-53. [proposedclassification; long table; 36 refs. incl. Krcho & Pal]

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Lastochkin, A.N., 1988a, Morphometrical investigations in geomorphology. II. Studies ofmorphological features of the Earth's surface (in Russian, v. brief English summary): VestnikLeningradskogo Universiteta; Geologiia, Geografii, Serie 7, 1988, no. 1, p. 37-50. [reviews rangeof morph. attributes; cites Krcho; 27 refs.]

Lastochkin, A.N., 1988b, Morphometrical investigations in geomorphology. III. Studies of themorphology of constituent parts of the Earth's surface (in Russian, v. brief English summary):Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta; Geologiia, Geografii, Serie 7, 1988, no. 3, p. 50-64.[further? reviews range of morph. attributes; 36 refs.]

Lazarevich, K.S., 1992, The hypsometric map as a special geomorphological map: Mapping Sciencesand Remote Sensing, v. 29, p. 163-171. [transl. fr. Russian in Geomorfol., no. 2, p. 38-45, 1991]

Leberl, F.W., 1980, Application of imaging radar to mapping, in Radar geology—an assessment,report of the Radar Geology Workshop: Snowmass, CO, 16-20 July 1979, Jet PropulsionLaboratory Publication 80-61, p. 307-335. [reviews topographic mapping fr. radargrammetry;large biblio.]

Leberl, F.W., 1998, Radargrammetry, Chapter 4 in Henderson, F.M., and Lewis, A.J., eds., Manual ofRemote Sensing (3rd ed.), v. 2, Principles and Applications of Imaging Radar: New York, JohnWiley & Sons, p. 183-269. [state-of-art review; refs occupy p. 252-269]

Leblanc, F., 1842, Observations sur le maximum d'inclinaison des talus dans les montagnes (inFrench): Bulletin de la Société Géologique de la France, v. 14, p. 85-98. [126 values from var.sources; among earliest systematic measurements of slope]

Lecce, S.A., 1991, Influence of lithologic erodibility on alluvial fan area, western White Mountains,California and Nevada: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 16, no. 1, p. 11-18. [powerfunctions relating fan to basin area]

Lee, Jay, 1994, Digital analysis of viewshed inclusion and topographic features on digital elevationmodels: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 60, no. 4, p. 451-456. [definespixel dominance in intervisibility; contrasts peaks, pits, ravines, ridges]

Lee, J.I., and Kim, S.H., 2000, Application of topographic index calculation algorithm consideringtopographic properties (in Korean with English abstract): Journal of Korea Water ResourcesAssociation, v. 33, no. 3, p. 279-288. [test TOPMODEL by DEM's at 20, 30, 40, 50 m grids]

Leech, M.L., Egger, A.E., and Howell, D.G., 2002, A guided inquiry approach to learning the geologyof the U.S. (abs.): Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, 27-30 October,paper no. 154-12; http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_37904.htm.[pedagogic applic. of broad-scale computer visualization combining shaded relief & geology]

Legates, D.R., and Wilmot, C.J., 1986 Interpolation of point values from isoline maps: AmericanCartographer, v. 13, no. 4, p. 308-323. [D.H. Douglas' contour to grid method CONSURF betterthan prior algorithms]

Legendre, Pierre, and Legendre, Louis, 1998, Spatial analysis, Ch. 13 in Numerical Ecology (2ndEnglish ed., 853 p.): Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 707-785. [statistics, well explained; 'practicalhandbook & ref. text']

Lehmann, J.G., 1831, On situation, or the guide for correct representation of the landsurface ontopographic maps and plans (in Russian, transl. fr. German): St. Petersburg, 74 p. [no info; maybe transl. of Lehmann 1799, who invented hachuring, the basis of analytical (i.e. quant.) hill-shading; used slope hachures & later shadow hachures]

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Lehmann, Otto, 1934, Über die morphologischen Folgen der Wandwitterung (in German; morph.consequences of cliff weathering): Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 8, p. 93-99. [refinement ofFisher's 1866 theory; added effects of cliff & scree angles, rock/scree V ratio]

Lehmeier, Friedmut, 1993, Auszug des Symbolschlussels Geomorphologie (DARG) (in German:extract from the Geomorphology Data Code (DARG)): Geologisches Jahrbuch, v. F26, no. 2, p. 47-135. [see Roeschmann & Lehmeier 1993; fleshes out detailed system of relief char. in plan &profile; Kugler, Demek infl.]

Leith, A.C., and McKinnon, W.B., 1991, Terrace width variations in complex Mercurian craters and thetransient strength of cratered Mercurian and lunar crust: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96,no. E4, p. 20,923-20,931. [after Pearce & Melosh 1986; uses some Pike 1988 D & d data;discusses peak recoil vs rim slumping]

Lemmens, M.J.P.M., 1999, Uncertainty in automatically sampled digital elevation models, Ch. 47 inLowell, Kim, and Jaton, Annick, eds., Spatial Accuracy Assessment—Land Information Uncertaintyin Natural Resources: Chelsea, MI, Ann Arbor Press, p. 399-407. [DEM uncertainty poorly known& sources complex; manual capture breaklines best]

Leopold, L.B., 1970, Review of studies of hillslopes – U.S.A.: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie,Supplementband 9, p. 57-66. [summarizes some 1960's morphometry]

Lessing, Peter, and Erwin, R.B., 1977, Landslides in West Virginia, in Coates, D.R., ed., Reviews inEngineering Geology, Geological Society of America, v. 3, Landslides: p. 245-254. [summarizes1976 work; slope concavity & proximity to other slides assoc. w/ slides, no preferred azimuth]

Lessing, Peter, Kulander, B.R., Wilson, B.D., Dean, S.L., and Woodring, S.M., 1976, Landslidecorrelations and statistics, pp. 31-40, in West Virginia Landslides and Slide-prone Areas:Morgantown, WV, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Environmental Geology BulletinNo. 15, 64 p. & 28 landslide-susceptibility maps, scale 1:24,000. [slope concavity & proximity toother slides assoc. w/ slides, no preferred azimuth; analysis of R- & Q-mode clustering of 39variables & 100 slides not well handled]

Lessing, Peter, Messina, C.P., and Fonner, R.F., 1983, Landslide risk assessment: EnvironmentalGeology, v. 5. no. 2, p. 93-99. [2416 W.VA slides; summary diagram incl. bedrock, dip dir., slope,aspect. area, est. curve., proximity other slides, etc.]

Leverington, D.W., Teller, J.T., and Mann, J.D., 2002, A GIS method for reconstruction of lateQuaternary landscapes from isobase data and modern topography: Computers and Geosciences,v. 28, no. 5, p. 631-639. [interpolated isobases subtracted from present topo. & bathymetry]

Lex, Franz, 1925, Karte der relativen Höhen in Kärnten (in German): Vienna, Kärntner Heimatlas,map 4, 1/1.75M. [5-km separation of points; 7 intervals]

Li, Rongxing, Liu, J.-K., and Felus, Yaron, 2001, Spatial modeling and analysis for shoreline changedetection and coastal erosion monitoring: Marine Geodesy, v. 24, no. 1, p. 1-12. [computes DEMsurfaces of water & lake bottom to get shoreline]

Li, Xin, Lu, Ling, Cheng, Guodong, and Xiao, Honglang, 2001, Quantifying landscape structure ofthe Heihe River Basin, north-west China using FRAGSTATS: Journal or Arid Environments, v. 48,no. 4, p. 521-535. [6 ecoregions delimited fr 9 metrics; technique could be applied to shaded-relief, other topo data?]

Li, Yingkui, Liu, Gengnian, and Cui, Zhijiu, 2001a, Glacial valley cross-profile morphology, Tien ShanMountains, China: Geomorphology, v. 38, nos. 1-2, p. 153-166. [quadratic eqns better thanpower law; Rockies differ fr TS; glac. & fluv. valleys differ quant'ly.]

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Li, Yingkui, Liu, Gengnian, and Cui, Zhijiu, 2001b, Longitudinal variations in cross-sectionmorphology along a glacial valley—a case study from the Tien Shan, China: Journal of Glaciology,v. 47, no. 157, p. 243-250. [new, variable width/depth ratio model uses slope & breadth]

Liang, Chaojun, and Mackay, D.S., 1997, Feature-based optimization of flow directions and upslopeareas on grid-based digital elevation models, in GIS/LIS'97, Cincinnati, OH, October, Proceedings:Bethesda MD, ASPRS, p. 45-52. [refined Mackay & Band 1998 approach by adding rule-basedheuristic]

Liang, Chaojun, and Mackay, D.S., 2000, A general model of watershed extraction andrepresentation using globally optimal flow paths and up-slope contributing areas: InternationalJournal of Geographical Information Science, v. 14, no. 4, p. 337-358. ['breadth-first' search +'feature-based global opt.' gives good DEM-based results in flat terrain]

Lidov, V.P., Setunskaya, L.E., and Khmeleva, N.V., 1956, Study of erosion microforms byquantitative methods, in Rihter, G.D., and Dyachenko, A.E., eds., Agricultural Erosion and ItsControl: Soviet Academic Press, Moscow, p. 47-69. [no info]

Lindstrom, Peter, Koller, David, Ribarsky, William, Hodges, L.F., Faust, Nick, and Turner, G.A., 1996,Real-time, continuous level of detail rendering of height fields, in SIGGRAPH'96 Conference, 4-9August, New Orleans LA, Proceedings: p. 109-118;<http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/people/peter.lindstrom/papers/siggraph96/>. [important; dynamicDEM display using regular grid; triangular-bintree mesh & bottom-up vertex-reduction; somesimilarities to later ROAM algorithm]

Link, L.E., 1969, Capability of airborne laser profilometer to measure terrain roughness, inSymposium on remote sensing of environment, 6th, Ann Arbor, MI, Proceedings: v. 1, p. 189-196.[12 varied test sites; may be OK if sources of error eliminated]

Linnett, L.M., Clarke, S.J., Graham, C., and Langhorne, D.N., 1991, Remote sensing of the sea-bedusing fractal techniques: Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, v. 3, no. 5, p.195-203. [classified images of the seafloor by fractal segmentation]

Little, J.J., and Shi, Ping, 1998, Structural lines, TINs, and DEMs, in International Symposium onSpatial Data Handling 8th, 11-15 July, Vancouver BC, Proceedings: p. 627-636. [structural lines,based on local curvature not water flow, are skeleton for TIN]

Little, J.J., and Shi, Ping, 2001, Structural lines, TINs, and DEMs, in van Kreveld, M., ed.,Algorithmica, v. 30, no. 2, Special Issue on Algorithms for Geographic Information, p. 243-263.[structural lines, based on local curvature not water flow, are skeleton for TIN]

Liu, Hongxing, 1999, Generation and refinement of a continental scale digital elevation model byintegrating cartographic and remotely sensed data—a GIS-based approach: Columbus OH, OhioState University, unpublished Ph.D. thesis. [Antarctica; supporting details for Liu et al. 1999 JGRpaper]

Liu, Hongxing, and Jezek, K.C., 1999, Investigating DEM error pattern by directional variograms andFourier analysis: Geographical Analysis, v. 31, no. 3, p. 249-256. [varies; ± 2-100m at 0.2-5kmres.; used their Antarctic data]

Liu, Hongxing, Jezek, K.C., and Li, Biyan, 1999, Development of an Antarctic digital elevation modelby integrating cartographic and remotely sensed data—a geographic information system basedapproach: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. B10, p. 23,199-23,213. [best yet; 0.2-5km res. ± 2-100m.; derived shaded relief & flow lines]

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Liu, Xi-lin, 2000, Approaches to risk assessment of debris flow (in Chinese): Journal of MountainScience, v. 18, no. 4, p. 341-345. [basin A & R, channel L, drainage density, active channelproportion]

López, A.M., 1997, Ridge/valley-like structures—creases, separatrices, and drainage patterns, inCVonline: On-Line Compendium of Computer Vision, R. Fisher, ed., online Oct. 8, 1997;<http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/LOCAL_COPIES/LOPEZ/cvonline.html>. [review ofdescriptive-geometric fundamentals of drainage nets, their 19th C. developmental history, & how &why they relate closely to computer vision & (briefly) to the DEM-to-watershed transformation;English translation from the Spanish]

López, A.M., 1999, Multilocal methods for ridge and valley delineation in image analysis: Ph.D thesis,Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 345 p.<http://www.cvc.uab.es/shared/staff/all_staff/antonio.htm>. [close coupling of imageanalysis/computer vision, here applied to medical imaging, with drainage nets & their extractionfrom DEMs]

López, A.M., 1999, Delineation of drainage patterns in gridded DEMs, Ch. 5 in Multilocal methods forridge and valley delineation in image analysis: Ph.D thesis, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, p.125-167; <http://www.cvc.uab.es/shared/staff/all_staff/antonio.htm>. ['free-flow' algorithm usesflowlines rather than pixel-to-pixel routing]

López, A.M., Lumbreras, F., Serrat, Joan, and Villanueva, J.J., 1999, Evaluation of methods for ridgeand valley detection: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), v.21, p. 327-335. [descriptive geometry of drainage nets in machine vision; see López 1997]

López, Carlos, 2002, An experiment on the elevation accuracy improvement of photogrammetricallyderived DEM: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, v. 16, no. 4, p. 361-375.[technique to identify elevation outliers]

López-Blanco, Jorge, and Villers-Ruiz, Lourdes, 1995, Delineating boundaries of environmental unitsfor land management using a geomorphological approach and GIS—a study in Baja California,Mexico: Remote Sensing of the Environment, v. 53, no. 2, p. 109-117. [DEM & other ingredients;32 landscape units fr. overlay comparison]

Lopéz-Santoyo, A., 1978, Structural relief interpretation through profile analysis, in Davis, J.C., ed.,Computer Mapping for Resource Analysis, a CoGeoData Conference, Kansas Geological Survey,University of Kansas, and Instituto de Geografía de la UNAM, Mexico, Proceedings: p. 168-182.[no info]

Loveland, T.R., and Ramey, Ben, 1986, Applications of U.S. Geological Survey Digital CartographicProducts, 1979-1983: U.S. Geol. Survey, Bulletin 1583, 44 p. [several use 7.5' DEM's, DigitalTerrain Tapes, & Arc-second DEM's]

Lu, Zhong, Mann, Dörte, Freymueller, J.T., and Meyer, D.J., 2000, Synthetic aperture radarinterferometry of Okmok volcano, Alaska—radar observations: Journal of Geophysical Research, v.105, no. B5, p. 10,791-10,806. [high-accuracy DEM fr tandem images better than 90m DEM fr1/250K map]

Lukas, K., and Weibel, Robert, 1995, Assessment and improvement of methods for analyticalhillshading, in International Cartographic Conference, 17th, Barcelona, Proceedings: p. 2231-2240.[no info]

Luo, Wei, 2000, Quantifying groundwater-sapping landforms with a hypsometric technique: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 105, no. E1, p. 1685-1694. [5 parameters of the hyps. curvedifferentiate fluvial fr. sapping basins]

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Luo, Wei, 2000, Review of RiverTools, version 2.0, Research Systems, Inc., 4990 Pearl East Circle,Boulder, CO 80301: Computers and Geosciences, v. 26, no. 2, p. 237-238. [easy to use,excellent visualiz.; needed improvements typical of early version software]

Luo, Wei, 2001, LANDSAP—a coupled surface and subsurface cellular automata model for landformsimulation: Computers and Geosciences, v. 27, no. 3, p. 363-367. [based on model of Chase1992 to model Martian channel devel.]

Luo, Wei, 2002, Hypsometric analysis of Margaritifer Sinus and origin of valley networks: Journal ofGeophysical Research. v. 107E, no. E10, 10.1029/2001JE001500. [MOLA data; most basinshave hypso. char. of groundwater sapping, some fluvial]

Luoma-Aho, Seppo, 1982, Landforms and morphostructure in Koillismaa, Finland: Fennia, v. 160,no. 1, p. 1-41. [1/20K elevs etc. gridded at 1 & 2km; made maps of elev, relative relief, formdensity, aspect, geology; correl. matrices]

Lüttig, Gerd, 1953, Eisrand und Reliefenergie: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und PalaeontologieMonatshefte (Stuttgart), v. 1, p. 16-20. [position of Saale ice margin determined fr contrast inrelative relief]

Lynch, Steve, 2002, Digital elevation models and spatial resolution: South African Journal ofScience, v. 98. no. 5/6, p. 219-222. [tutorial; eval. 3 S.A. DEMs; error considerations, etc.]

Lynn, Greg, 1993, Probable geometries—the architecture of writing in bodies: Any (New York, theAnyone Corp.), May-June, v.1 no. 0. p. 44-49;www.lcc.gatech.edu/~xinwei/classes/lcc/6310_ExpressiveMedium/readings/Lynn/LynnProbableGeometries.pdf. [theoretico-philosoph. views on geometry & shapemeasurement, re architecture but describes stereological 'random section model' (Buffon-Delesse-Rosiwal-Glagolev area sampling)]

Lyon, J.G., ed., 2002, in-press?, GIS for Watershed and Water Resource Management: New York,Taylor and Francis, 220 p. [publication much-delayed; at least 6 papers on DEM-basedlandscape analysis]

Lythe, M.B., Vaughn, D.G., and the BEDMAP Consortium, 2001, BEDMAP—a new ice thickness andsubglacial topographic model of Antarctica: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. B6, p.11,335-11,351. [50 yrs worth of data compile new 5-km DEMs; images & ice thickness freq.]


Macar, Paul, 1957-58, Compte rendu de la session extraordinaire de la Société Géologique deBelgique (in French): v. 81, p. 8-13. [more alt.-freq. using only geomorph. signif. 'bench' elevs.from large-scale maps]

Macar, Paul, 1963, Etudes récentes sur les pentes et l'évolution des versants en Belgique: Nachr.Akad. d. Wiss. Göttingen, Math. Phys. Klasse, p. 71-84. [slope-profile analysis from large-scalemaps]

Macar, Paul, and Pissart, A., 1966, Recherches sur l'evolution des versants effectuées a l'Universitéde Liege (in French), p. 278-288 in Earth and Moon, studies presented in homage to ProfessorJ.P. Bakker on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday: Leiden, E.J. Brill, 324 p. [summarizesmethods & results of post-WWII Belgian school of morphometry]

MacGregor, D.R., 1957, Some observations on the geographical significance of slopes: Geography,v. 42, p. 167-173. [links 7 intervals of slope to perceptual cues & observer position]

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MacGregor, K.R., Anderson, R.S., Anderson, S.P., and Waddington, E.D., 2000, Numericalsimulations of glacial-valley longitudinal profile evolution: Geology, v. 28, no. 11, p. 1031-1034.[derive plots of elev.-distance & valley hang & step height]

MacLennan, M.A., Fotheringham, Stewart, Batty, Michael, and Longley, P.A., 1991, Fractal geometryand spatial phenomena—a bibliography: Santa Barbara, CA, National Center for GeographicInformation and Analysis, Report 91-1, 53 p.;http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/Publications/Tech_Reports/91/91-1.pdf. [excellent through 1990]

MacMillan, R.A., 2000, A protocol for preparing digital elevation (DEM) data for input and analysisusing the landform segmentation model (LSM) programs: prepared for the Soil Variability Analysisto Enhance Crop Production (SVAECP) Project, prepared by LandMapper EnvironmentalSolutions, Edmonton, AB. <http://www.infoharvest.ca/SVAECP/docs/DEM_Protocol3.pdf>.[segmentation of land-surface form fr DEM derivatives]

MacMillan, R.A., and Pettapiece, W.W., 1997, Soil landscape models—automated landformcharacterization and generation of soil-landscape models: Lethbridge, AB, Research Branch,Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Technical Bulletin no. 1997-1E. 75 p. [segmentation of land-surface form fr DEM derivatives]

MacMillan, R.A., and Pettapiece, W.W., 2000, Landform segmentation model (LSM) users manual, inCoen, G.M., Pettapiece, W.W., Goddard, T.W., Nolan, S.C., and MacMillan, R.A., eds., Landscapeanalysis for precision agriculture and model application: Lethbridge, AB, Lethbridge ResearchCentre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Final (internal) report, p. 8-46. [segmentation of land-surface form fr DEM derivatives]

MacMillan, R.A., Pettapiece, W.W., Nolan, S.C., and Goddard, T.W., 2000, A generic procedure forautomatically segmenting landforms into landform elements using DEMs, heuristic rules and fuzzylogic, in D. Dubois, D., and Prade, H., eds., Uncertainty in Geographic Information Systems andSpatial Data: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, v. 113, no. 1, p. 81-109. [segmentation of land-surfaceform fr DEM derivatives]

Machín, J., and Navas, A., 1998, Spatial analysis of gypsiferous soils in the Zaragoza province(Spain), using GIS as an aid to conservation: Geoderma, v. 87, nos. 1-2, p. 57-66. [elev & slopefrom 1/200,000-scale DEM]

Mackay, J.R., 1954, Arithmetic-square root graph paper: The Professional Geographer, v. 6, no. 1, p.15-16. [one way to speed up the graphing of ground slope and area curves]

Mackey, B.G., Widdifield, C.A., McKenney, D.W., Lawrence, K.M., Szcyrek, N., and Sims, R.A., 1994,Development of a new digital elevation model for Ontario, in Lee, Y. C. (chairperson), Canadianconference on GIS / Conference Canadienne sur les SIG, Ottawa, 6-10 June, Proceedings: p.633-645. [see 1994 report]

Mackey, B.G., McKenney, D.W., Widdifield, C.A., Sims, R.A., Lawrence, K.M., and Szcyrek, N., 1994,A new digital elevation model of Ontario: Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, Natural Resources of Canadaand Canadian Forest Service–Ontario NODA/NFP Technical Report No. 6, 26 p. + appendices.[200 m DEM; ANUDEM unsuccessful in low relief areas on 100m grid ; got network fr interpretedbase data to enhance ANUDEM]

MacLeod, Norman, 1999, Generalizing and extending the eigenshape method of shape visualizationand analysis: Paleobiology, v. 25, no. 1, p. 107-138. [a special case of 'relative warp analysis(Bookstein 1991) defined over broad variety of phenomena & representational strategies;advocates combining 'landmark' with 'outline' techniques; MAC & Wintel software download athttp://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/]

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MacLeod, Norman, 2002, Geometric morphometrics and geological shape-classification systems:Earth-Science Reviews, v. 59, nos. 1-4, p. 27-47. [reviews & discusses new 'conceptualsynthesis'; distinguishes 'geometry', 'pattern recognition', & 'morphometrics' approaches; re-do ofsed. grain, leaf, & valley shape classifications by eigenshape analysis of 'landmarks'; 8 alpine-valleycross-sections ('V' vs. 'U') fr R.J. Small 1972 geomorph. text]

Madej, M.A., 2001, Development of channel organization and roughness following sediment pulsesin single-thread, gravel bed rivers Water Resources Research, v. 37, no. 8, p. 2259-2272. [stepspacing & A/channel slope; autocorrel.; thalweg-profile analysis]

Maerz, N.H., Chepur, Poornima, Myers, J.J., and Linz, Justin, 2001, Concrete roughnesscharacterization using laser profilometry for fiber-reinforced polymer sheet application: NationalResearch Council, Washington D.C., Transportation Research Record, no. 1775, p. 132-139;http://www.utc.umr.edu/Publications/Proceedings/2001/TRBconc.pdf. ['laser striping', adapt. of'shadow profilometry' devel. fr. princ. of the Schmaltz microscope; 3 roughness params. (all same?,i.e., slope); reveals inconsistency in 1 of 9 CSP standard surfaces]

Maerz, N.H., and Franklin, J.A., 1990, Roughness scale effect and fractal dimension, in Pinta daCunha, A., International Workshop on Scale Effects in Rock Masses, 1st, Loen, Norway June 4-6,Proceedings: Rotterdam, Balkema, p. 121-126. [shadow profilometry after Schmalz 1936; rock-joint surfaces not self-similar]

Magdalene, Suzanne, and Alexander, E.C. Jr., 1995, Sinkhole distribution in Winona County,Minnesota, revisited, in Beck, B.F., ed., Karst Geohazards: Rotterdam, Balkema, p. 43-51.[n=605; nearest-neighbor analysis: clustered distr.]

Mainar, C.V., 2000, Images virtuelles du relief—rupture ou continuité dans les representations durelief? (in French): Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 44, no. 2, p. 165-174. [some thoughts onevolution of relief portrayal]

Maître, Henri, and Pinciroli, Matteo, 1999, Fractal characterization of a hydrological basin using SARsatellite images: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 37, no. 1, p. 175-181.[D fr. image proc.; agree w/ Horton, Strahler, Shreve models]

Majdanowski, Stefan, 1947, Distribution, density and directions of lake-channels of the Polishlowlands (in Polish with long English summary: Przeglad Geograficzny (Polish GeographicalReview), v. 21, nos. 1-2, p. 47-69. [300 100K maps sampled w/ squares; 7 map intervals; density> to E.]

Makkaveev, N.I., 1955, Ruslo reki i eroziya v ee basseine (in Russian): Inst. Geogr., AN SSSR, p. 54-56. [L=cAn, where A=drainage area & L=length of trunk stream; 'Hack's Law']

Malamud, B.D., and Turcotte, D.L., 2001, Wavelet analyses of Mars polar topography: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 106, no. E8, p. 17,497-17,504. [power-law dependence of WTvariance on wavelength, b≈3.5-3.7]

Maling, D.H., 1955, The geomorphology of the Wear Valley: Durham, UK, University of Durham, Ph.D.thesis, paging unknown. [5000 grid squares minimum req. for stat. signif. sample of topography]

Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders, Walmann, Thomas, Jamtveit, Bjørn, Feder, Jens, and Jøssang, Torstein,1999, Simulation and characterization of fracture patterns in glaciers: Journal of GeophysicalResearch, v. 104, no. B10, p. 23,157-23,174. [simple model of scaling relation for circumferentialpattern on Iceland cauldron]

Malzbender, Thomas, Gelb, Daniel, and Wolters, Hans, 2001, Polynomial texture maps, inSIGGRAPH 2001, Los Angeles, CA, 12-17 August, Proceedings: p. 519-528;http://www1.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/graph/383259/p519-malzbender/p519-

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malzbender.pdf. [enhances photorealism by storing coefficients of biquadratic polynomial in eachtexel (texture cell); uses images not DEMs]

Malyavsky, B.K., and Zharnovsky, A.A., 1974, On digital terrain modelling (in Russian): Geodesiya iCartographiya, no. 6, p. 31-38. [no info]

Mandelbrot, B.B., 1985, Self-affine fractals and fractal dimension: Physica Scripta (Sweden), v. 32,no. 4, p. 257-260. [suggests relief profiles are not self-similar, & D of non-fractal objects can becalculated, but it has no theoretical meaning]

Mandelbrot, B.B., 2002, Gaussian Self-Affinity and Fractals—globality, the Earth, 1/F noise, andR/S—selecta (old or new) vol. H: New York, Springer, 663 p. [selected works, reprinted, transl. ornew w annotations & guest contrib.]

Mangold, N., and Allemand, P., 2001, Topographic analysis of features related to ice on Mars:Geophysical Research Letters, v. 28, no. 3, p. 407-410. [topographic profiles, topo. params ofdebris aprons & scarps]

Manning, G., Fuller, L.G., Eilers, R.G., and Florinsky, I.V., 2001, Topographic influence on thevariability of soil properties within an undulating Manitoba landscape: Canadian Journal of SoilScience, v. 81, no. 4, p. 439-447. [apply terrain-segmentation (by R, plan/profile curv., slope,catchment) to get 'landform element complexes']

Mansikkaniemi, Hannu, 1970, The sinuosity of rivers in northern Finland: Publicationes InstitutiGeographici Universitatis Turkuensis, v. 52, p. 16-32. [new method for degree & quality ofsinuosity]

Mansikkaniemi, Hannu, 1972, Regional differences in the sinuosity of rivers in Finland: Fennia, v.118, p. 1-33. [method. critique; applies new index to 81 rivers; 5 gen'l. types]

Margot, J.-L.C., Campbell, D.B., Jurgens, R.F., and Slade, M.A., 1999, The topography of Tychocrater: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. E5, p. 11,875-11,882. [200-m XY/30-m Zres. from radar interferometry; crater dimensions unchanged]

Margot, J.-L.C., Campbell, D.B., Jurgens, R.F., and Slade, M.A., 1999, Topography of the lunar polesfrom radar interferometry—a survey of cold trap locations: Science, v. 284, no. 5420, p. 1658-1660.[150-m XY/50-m Z res. of hard-to-see terrain]

Mark, D.M., 1997, The history of geographic information systems—invention and re-Invention oftriangulated irregular networks (TINS): GIS/LIS'97, Cincinnati, OH, October 28-30, Proceedings:CD-ROM, p. 267-272. ['multiple invention'; precusors (Hormann &), T. Poiker, ADAPT, & C. Gold]

Mark, D.M., and Smith, Barry, 2002?, A science of topography—bridging the qualitative-quantitativedivide, in Shroder, J.F. Jr., and Bishop, M.P., eds., Geographic Information Science (GIScience)and Mountain Geomorphology: Chichester UK, Praxis Scientific Publishing / Springer-Verlag, inpress. <http://wings.buffalo.edu/philosophy/faculty/smith/articles/topography.pdf>. [some basicunderpinnings for morphometry; defining mountains & topo. in the geospatial domain; J.J. Gibsonconcepts]

Mark, D.M., and Smith, Barry, 2002?, Do mountains exist? Ontology of landforms and topography:Environment & Planning B, in-press.<http://wings.buffalo.edu/philosophy/faculty/smith/articles/Mountains.htm>. [more theoreticalbackground for morphometry; defining mtns. & topo. in geospatial domain'; Gibsonian conceptselaborated]

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Marks, Kate, and Bates, Paul, 2000, Integration of high-resolution topographic data with floodplainflow models: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p. 2109-2122. [high accuracy of LIDARdata needed to get good flood-hazard model]

Martinoni, Daria, and Bernhard, Luzi, 1998, A conceptual framework for reliable digital terrainmodelling, in Spatial Data Handling '98 Conference, 11-15 July, Vancouver, BC, Proceedings: p.737-750. [approach to DEM error evaluation & prevention]

Martinoni, Daria, and Schneider, Bernhard, 1999, Pluggable terrain module—moving digital terrainmodelling to a distributed geoprocessing environment, in Vckovski, A., Brassel, K.E., and Schek,H.-J., eds., INTEROP 1999, Interoperating Geographic Information Systems, 2nd, Zürich,Proceedings: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1580, Springer, Heidelberg & Berlin, p. 315-327.[programming software architecture]

Martz, L.W., and Garbrecht, Jurgen, 1999, An outlet breaching algorithm for the treatment of closeddepressions in a raster DEM: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 7, p. 835-844. [alternativeto filling pits; assumes DEM error is over-, not underestimation]

Mason, D.C., Davenport, I.J., Flather, R.A., and Gurney, C., 1998, A digital elevation model of theinter-tidal areas of the Wash, England, produced by the waterline method: International Journal ofRemote Sensing, v. 19, no. 8, p. 1455-1460. [DEM fr. tide-surges on ERS-1 SAR images]

Mason, P.J., Rosenbaum, M.S., and Moore, J.McM., 1998, Digital image texture analysis for landslidehazard mapping, in Maund, J.G., and Eddleston, Malcolm, eds., Geohazards in EngineeringGeology: London, The Geological Society, Engineering Geology Special Publication no. 15, p.297-305. [enhance contrast, etc.; fine res. (10m or better) essential; still need DEM]

Masoud, Alaa, Masumoto, Shinji, Raghavan, Venkatesh, Kajiyama, Atsusuhi, and Shiono, Kiyoji,2002, Landscape modeling and analysis based on digital elevation models generated fromtopographic maps—algorithm and appliocation on Safa*ga area, Red Sea coast, Egypt: Journal ofGeosciences, Osaka City University, v. 45, art. 6, p. 73-87. [28.5-m-res. DEM min. discretization;curv.-based classif. into ridges, channels, & conv., conc., & planar slopes]

Massari, Remo, and Atkinson, P.M., 1999, Modeling susceptibility to landsliding—an approach basedon individual landslide type: Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 20, no. 3, p. 151-168. [generalized linear modeling; logistic regress.; geol., slope & veg. dominant]

Mather, A.E., Harvey, A.M., and Stokes, M., 2000, Quantifying long-term catchment changes ofalluvial fan systems: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 112, no. 12, p. 1825-1833. [log-logfan & drainage area]

Matmon, A., Zilberman, E., and Enzel, Y., 2000, Determination of escarpment age using morphologicanalysis—an example from the Galilee, northern Israel: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v.112, no. 12, p. 1864-1876. [normalized distance/altitude graphs]

Mattar, K.E., Gray, A.L., Geudtner, D., and Vachon, P.W., 1999, Interferometry for DEM and terraindisplacement—effects of inhom*ogeneous propagation: Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, v.25, no. 1, p. 60-69. [atmospheric vagaries a problem; need multiple independent measurements]

Matui, Isamu, 1932, Statistical study of the distribution of scattered villages in two regions of theTonami Plain, Toyama Prefecture: Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography, v. 9, p. 251-255.[1st use of the quadrat method for spatial analysis in geography?]

Maunder, C.J., 1999, An automated method for constructing contour-based digital elevation models:Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 12, p. 3931-3940. [uses natural flow lines & contours; nouser-defined critical points]

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Maune, D.F., ed., 2001, Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications, the DEM UsersManual: Bethesda, MD, American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, 540 p.;https://eserv.asprs.org/wasprs/staticcontent/staticpages/1067.htm. [13 chapters on DEMoperational issues; vert datums, accuracy stds, USGS DEM program, photogramm., IFSAR, LIDAR(incl. airborne bathymetry), SONAR, enabling tech., quality assessment]

Maxwell, J.C., 1955, The bifurcation ratio in Horton's law of stream numbers (abs.): Transactions,American Geophysical Union, v. 36, no. 3, p. 520. [modified to apply to stream segments; in plotof log str. no. & str. order, abs. val. of antilog of slope of linear fit = bifurc. ratio]

Maxwell, J.C., 1967, Quantitative geomorphology of some mountain chaparral watersheds ofsouthern California, in Garrison, W.L., and Marble, D.F., eds., Quantitative Geography, Part II,Physical and Cartographic Topics: Evanston, Ill., Northwestern University, Department ofGeography, Studies in Geography no. 14, p. 108-226. [publ. of 1960 thesis; of Strahler studentsthe most aware of European morphometry; multiple-regression analysis confirmed Hortonian 'laws'in steep semi-arid terrain]

Mayer, L., 2000, Application of digital elevation models to macroscale tectonic geomorphology, inSummerfield, M.A., ed., Geomorphology and Global Tectonics (papers from InternationalConference on Geomorphology 4th, Bologna, 1999): Chichester UK and New York, Wiley, pagingunknown. [no info; presumably Larry Mayer, the quant. geomorphologist; see Mayer 1990 &1994?]

McAdoo, B.G., Pratson, L.F., and Orange, D.L., 2000, Submarine landslide geomorphology, UScontinental slope: Marine Geology, v. 169, nos. 1-2, p. 103-136. [15 morphometric params. for 83slides; histograms, correlations]

McAllister, Michael, 1999, A watershed algorithm for triangulated terrains, in Canadian Conference onComputational Geometry 11th, Vancouver, BC, University of British Columbia, 15-18 August,Proceedings: p. 103-106 http://www.cs.ubc.ca/conferences/CCCG/elec_proc/fp50.pdf (8 p.).[DEM-to-watershed transformation; vector-based algorithm guarantees one polygon per basin]

McAllister, Michael, and Snoeyink, Jack, 1997, Medial axis generalisation of hydrology networks, inAuto-Carto 13, Symposium on Automated Cartography 13th, 5-10 April, Seattle WA, Proceedings:p. 164-173. [from TIN; added benefits from use to depict rivers & lakes; similar to M&S 2000?]

McAllister, Michael, and Snoeyink, Jack, 1999, Extracting consistent watersheds from digital river andelevation data: ASPRS Annual Conference,http://www.cs.ubc.ca/spider/snoeyink/papers/asprs99.pdf. [combine TIN & steepest-descent flowmodels to identify watershed breaklines]

McAllister, Michael, and Snoeyink, Jack, 2000, Medial axis generalization of river networks: CaGIS, v.27, no. 2, p. 129-138. [Voronoi quant.-carto. relation of medial axis to riverbank from TIN; similarto M&S 1997?]

McArthur, D.E., Fuentes, R.W., and Devarajan, Venkat, 2000, Generation of hierarchicalmultiresolution terrain databases using wavelet filtering: Photogrammetric Engineering and RemoteSensing, v. 66, no. 3, p. 287-295. [scale-variant hierarchical triangulations (ca. like a quadtree)]

McBride, E.F., and Picard, M.D., 2000, Origin and development of tafoni in Tunnel Spring Tuff,Crystal Peak, Utah, USA: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms: v. 25, no. 8, p. 869-879.[height, width, depth plots fr field meas.]

McCarroll, Danny, 1992, A new instrument and techniques for the field mesurement of rock surfaceroughness: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 36, no. 1, p. 69-79. [micro-roughness meter; 2indices: slope std. dev., mean abs. diff adjacent slopes]

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McClung, D.M., 2001, Characteristics of terrain, snow supply and forest cover for avalanche initiationcaused by logging: Annals of Glaciology, v. 32, p. 223-229. [probl. plot for start-zone slope;cross- & down-slope shape; concave slopes most at risk]

McGill, G.E., 2001, The Utopia Basin revisited—regional slope and shorelines from MOLA profiles:Geophysical Research Letters, v. 28, no. 3, p. 411-414. [topographic profiles, cratersize/frequency]

McNamara, J.P., Kane, D.L., and Hinzman, L.D., 1999, An analysis of an Arctic channel networkusing a digital elevation model: Geomorphology, v. 29, nos. 3-4, p. 339-353. [scaling char. holdonly for channels larger than permafrost 'water tracks'; 10-m DEM]

Medler, M.J., and Yool, S.R., 1998, Computer-assisted terrain stratification: Physical Geography, v.19, no. 5, p. 433-443. [Terrain 'poses' (types?) from combo of elev, slope & aspect by RGB Dig. I-P]

Meentemeyer, R.K., and Moody, Aaron, 2000, Automated mapping of conformity betweentopographic and geological features: Computers and Geosciences, v. 26, no. 7, p. 815-829. [frDEM & geologic map; needs slope, aspect, & bedding dip & azimuth]

Mehrotra, G.S., Dharmaraju, R., and Prakash, S., 1994, Morphometric appraisal of slope instability ofChilla Landslide, Garhwal Himalaya: Journal of the Geological Society of India, v. 44, no. 2, p. 203-211. [profile analysis of 1 landslide, after Crozier, 1973, suggests processes]

Mehrotra, G.S., Sakart, S., and Dharmaraju, R., 1992, Landslide hazard assessment in Rishikesh-Tehri area, Garwal Himalaya, India, in Bell, D.H., ed., Landslides, International Symposium 6th, 10-14 February, Christchurch NZ, Proceedings: Rotterdam, Balkema, v. 2, p. 1001-1006. [no DEM;slope segments; variables include drainage density, spatial freq. by slope angle & lithology]

Meinardus, Wilhelm, 1926, Die hypsographischen Kurven Grönlands und der Antarktis und dieNormalform der Inlandeisoberfläche (in German): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 72,no. 5/6, p. 97-105. [gross morphometry of Earth's two largest areas of continental ice]

Meisel, J.E., and Turner, M.G., 1998, Scale detection in real and artificial landscapes usingsemivariance analysis: Landscape Ecology, v. 13, no. 6, p. 347-362. [elev., aspect, & slope; elkforaging in Yellowstone Park]

Mekhbaliyev, M.M., 2001, Morfometricheskiy analiz kart ekspozitsii sklonov kartografo-matematicheskim metodom (in Russian; morphometric analysis of slope exposure maps bycartographic-mathematical method): Izvestiya Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, v. 133,no. 5, p. 54-64. [relief, slope, variance analysis]

Melton, M.A., 1960, Intravalley variation in slope angles related to microclimate and erosionalenvironment: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 71, no. 2, p. 133-144. [4.42º N-S diff. inWyoming ascribed solely to aysmmetric stream corrasion]

Melton, M.A., 1965, The geomorphic and paleoclimatic significance of alluvial deposits in southernArizona: Journal of Geology, v. 73, no. 1, p. 1-38. [alluvial fan slope related to basin relief & area]

Mendicino, Giuseppe, 1999, Sensitivity analysis on GIS procedures for the estimate of soil erosionrisk: Natural Hazards, v. 20, nos. 2-3, p. 231-253. [2-D DEMON best of 3 models at gettingstream flowpaths fr DEM]

Menduni, Giovanni, and Riboni, Vittoria, 2000, A physically based catchment partitioning method forhydrological analysis: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p. 1943-1962. [new contour line-to-watershed algorithm, superior to DEM & TIN models]

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Mertes, L.A.K., Dunne, Thomas, and Martinelli, L.A., 1996, Channel-floodplain geomorphology alongthe Solimões-Amazon River, Brazil: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 108, no. 9, p. 1089-1107. [downstream distance vs. sinuosity, width, bank height, & island & lake density, area,circularity]

Mesa, O.J., 1986, Analysis of channel networks parameterized by elevation: University of Mississippi,unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 155 p. [Markov analysis; width fcn. needs only 2 parameters, area &branching]

Messina, Paula, and Stoffer, Phil, 2000, Terrain analysis of the Racetrack Basin and the sliding rocksof Death Valley: Geomorphology, v. 35, nos. 3-4, p. 253-265. [tested airflow char. fr DEM aspect& intervisibility of surrounding relief]

Meyer, Fernand, 1991, Un algorithme optimal de ligne de partage des eaux (in French): 8èmeCongrès RFIA, Lyon, France, p. 847-857. [most efficient algorithm for grey scale-to-'watershed'transformation for image segmentation]

Meyer, T.H., Eriksson, Marian, and Maggio, R.C., 1997, A preliminary study on approximating hillslopeat a point, in Applied Geography Conferences, Albuquerque NM, Papers and Proceedings: v. 20,p. 177-187. [extended method of Philip & Watson 1986 to approx. terrain surface-normal vectors]

Meyer, T.H., Eriksson, Marian, and Maggio, R.C., 2001, Gradient estimation from irregularly spaceddata sets: Mathematical Geology, v. 33, no. 6, p. 693-717. [a generalization of finite-differencemethods; uses directional derivatives; see M.E.M. 1997]

Midtbø, Terje, 1987, Digitale terrengmodellar: University of Trondheim, Norwegian Institute ofTechnology, Department of Surveying and Mapping, unpublished Master's thesis, paging unknown.[no info]

Mikhail, E.M., Bethel, J.S., and McGlone, J.C., 2001, Digital elevation models (DEMs), §8.2.1 inIntroduction to Modern Photogrammetry: New York, Wiley, p. 228-233. [explains grid vs. TIN, var.caveats, banding in raster DEMs]

Miklós, Ladislav, 1991a, Morphometric indices of the relief in the LANDEP methods and theirinterpretation: Ecology (CSFR), v. 10, no. 2, p. 159-186. [drainage-basin parameters]

Miklós, Ladislav, 1991b, Interpretation of the morphometric relief indices for spatial differentiation ofmicroclimatic conditions: Ecology (CSFR), v. 10, no. 2, p. 223-246. [no info; probl. drainage-basinparameters]

Milana, J.P., and Ruzycki, Lucía, 1999, Alluvial-fan slope as a function of sediment transportefficiency: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 69, no. 3, p. 553-562. [n=37; power laws: fan &basin A; precip = major var. in fan-to-fan slope diffs.]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., 1999, A region growing algorithm for the segmentation of alluvial fans from digitalelevation models, in Symposium on Imaging Applications in Geology, Geovision99, University ofLiège, Belgium, May 6-7, Proceedings: p. 189-192. [Old Army 3' DEM; Death Valley; complexprocedure, req. Landsat image]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., 1999, Automated segmentation of alluvial fans to regions of high to intermediateflood hazard from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, in International Symposium onOperationalization of Remote Sensing, 2nd, ITC Enschede, Neth., August 16-20, Proceedings: CD-ROM; abstract = http://www.itc.nl/ags. [Old Army 3' DEM; Death Valley; complex procedure(region-growing), req. Landsat image]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., 2000, Recognition of landforms from DEMs and satellite imagery with expertsystems, pattern recognition and image processing techniques (in Greek with English abstract &

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reference list): National Technical University of Athens, Dept. of Surveying and Regional Planning,unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 267 p. [Zagros & Great Basin mtns. fr GTOPO30, their extraction,parametric repr., fuzzy repr. & pattern recognition]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., 2001a, Geomorphometric mapping of Zagros Ranges at regional scale: Computersand Geosciences, v. 27, no. 7, p. 775-786. [mountains delimited by region-growing algorithm]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., 2001b, Extraction of bajadas from digital elevation models and satellite imagery:Computers and Geosciences, v. 27, no. 10, p. 1157-1167. [bajadas delimited by slope &drainage pixels in region-growing algorithm]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., and Argialas, D.P., 1998, Parametric representation and classification of mountainobjects extracted from moderate resolution digital elevation data, in Buccianti, A., Nardi, G., andPotenza, R., eds., Annual Conference 4th, International Association for Mathematical Geology,Isola d'Ischia, Naples, IT, October 5-9, Proceedings: p. 892-897. [12 params. & 36 Nevadamountain ranges fr. GTOPO30]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., and Argialas, D.P., 1998, Physiographic feature extraction from moderate resolutiondigital elevation data, in Annual Conference 24th, RSS98, Remote Sensing Society, University ofGreenwich, UK September 9-11, Proceedings: p. 545-551. [GTOPO30 work; precursor to 1999C&G paper]

Miliaresis, G.Ch. and Argialas, D.P., 1999a, Fuzzy pattern recognition of compressional mountainranges in Iran, in Annual Conference 5th, International Association for Mathematical Geology,Trondheim, August 6-11, Proceedings: p. 227-232. [region-growing fr. ridge & valley seed pixels?same 6 parameters as Basin & Range]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., and Argialas, D.P., 1999b, Formalisation of the photo-interpretation process by afuzzy set representation of mountain objects in the geomorphic context of the Great Basin Section,in Annual Conference 25th, RSS99, Remote Sensing Society, University of Wales, Cardiff, UK,September 8-10, Proceedings: p. 745-750. [GTOPO30; attributes: diam., eccentricity, elev., relief,massiveness, slope]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., and Argialas, D.P., 1999c, Segmentation of physiographic features from the globaldigital elevation model / GTOPO30: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 7, p. 715-728. [USBasin & Range mtns., basins, & piedmont slopes: region-growing fr. ridge & valley seed pixels]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., and Argialas, D.P., 2000, Extraction and delineation of alluvial fans from digitalelevation models and Landsat thematic map images: Photogrammetric Engineering and RemoteSensing, v. 66, no. 9, p. 1093-1101. [Old Army 3' DEM; Death Valley; complex procedure (region-growing), req. Landsat image]

Miliaresis, G.Ch., and Argialas, D.P., 2002, Quantitative representation of mountain objects extractedfrom the global digital elevation model (GTOPO30): International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 23,no. 5, p. 949-964. [12 mtn. params. classif. by K-means into 4 spatially distinct mtn. clusters]

Miller, D.J., 1995, Coupling GIS with physical models to assess deep-seated landslide hazards:Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, v. 1, no, 3, p. 263-276. [factor-of-safety modeled for12,438 30-m DEM topo profiles]

Miller, J.P., 1958, High mountain streams—effects of geology on channel characteristics and bedmaterial: Socorro NM, State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Memoir 4, 53 p. [Hack's law& other quant. relations verified in Sange de Cristo Range]

Miller, J.P., and Leopold, L.B., 1963, Simple measurements of morphological changes in riverchannels and hill slopes, in Changes of Climate, Arid Zone Research 20, Rome Symposium,Proceedings: Paris, UNESCO, p. 421-427. [no info]

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Miller, J.W., 1972, Variations in New York drumlins: Annals of the Association of AmericanGeographers, v. 62, no. 3, p. 418-423. [length, width, height fr. 1/24K contour maps]

Miller, O.M., 1951, Relief on maps and models—some conclusions and a proposal: Columbus OH,Ohio State University, Mapping and Charting Research Laboratory, Technical Paper no. 151. [theslope-zone technique of Miller & Summerson 1960]

Milling, M.E., and Tuttle, S.D., 1964, Morphometric study of two drainage basins near Iowa City, Iowa:Iowa Academy of sciences Proclamations, v. 71, p. 304-319. [azimuthal asymmetry explained bydifferential deposition of loess]

Milne, B.T., 1991, Lessons from applying fractal models to landscape patterns, in Turner, M.G., andGardner, R.H., eds., Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology, the analysis and interpretation oflandscape heterogeneity: New York, Springer-Verlag, Ecological Studies Series, p. 199-235.[quantifying the non-topo X,Y domain]

Milne, J.A., and Sear, D.A., 1997, Modelling river channel topography using GIS: InternationalJournal of Geographical Information Science, v. 11, no. 5, p. 499-519. [contains summary ofDEM applications]

Milton, L.E., 1967, Analysis of the laws of drainage-net composition: Bulletin of the InternationalAssociation for Scientific Hydrology, v. 12, no. 1, p. 51-56. ['laws' are stat. prob. functionsresulting from the technique itself]

Mino, Yokichi, 1942, Study on peneplains viewed from rock floor theory (Chikei Genron; inJapanese): Kokon-shoin, Tokyo, p. 393-408. [unspecified geomorphometry]

Mino, Yokichi, 1981, Early episode of quantitative research on landform evolution (in Japanese withEnglish abstract): Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 2, no. 1, p. 135-137. [briefreview of >'40's Japanese morphometry]

Mironova, E.A., 1958, Experiment in morphometric description of erosion relief, in Rihter, G.D., andDyachenko, A.E., eds., Agricultural Erosion and Its Control: Soviet Academic Press, Moscow, p.193-222. [no info]

Mitásová, Helena, 1993, Surfaces and Modeling: GRASSclippings (Champaign, Ill., U.S. Army Corpsof Engineers, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory), V. 7, no. 1, p. 18-19. [slopecurves (flowlines), raster maps of flowpath length & flowline densities fr raster DEM]

Mitchell, N.C., 2001, Transition from circular to stellate forms of submarine volcanoes: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 106, no. B2, p. 1987-2003. [n=141; elongation, moment of inertia,perimeter dist.; trans. ca. 3 km edifice height]

Mizukoshi, Hiroko, and Aniya, Masamu, 2000, Automated classification of plan and profile forms ofslope using digitized contour data (in Japanese with English abstract & figure captions):Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 21, no., 3, p. 307-328. [contour-to- (1)convergent, divergent & planar slopes, & (2) concave, convex & planar profiles]

Mizukoshi, Hiroko, and Aniya, Masamu, 2002, Use of contour-based DEMs for deriving and mappingtopographic attributes: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 68, no. 1, p. 83-93.[algorithms generate flow (fall) lines and then compute slope gradient & aspect & classify & mapslope profile & plan forms]

Moellering, Harold, 2001, Analytical cartography—past, present, and future, in AGILE Conference onGeographic Information Science, 4th, GI in Europe—Integrative, Interoperable, Interactive, Brno,Czech republic, 19-21 April, Proceedings: p. 599-614;

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http://agile.isegi.unl.pt/Conference/Brno2001/Questions.pdf. [review briefly mentions fractals, TIN,Warntz nets; biblio]

Molchanov, A.K., 1967, On the study of characteristic and limiting slope angles in the southernregions of the Buryat A.S.S.R. (in Russian): Metody Geomorfologicheskikh Issledovannii, no. 1, p.134-143. [1º, 3º-4, 9-12, 16-18, 31-33º; gentle slopes more common than level land]

Monmonier, M.S., Pfaltz, J.L., and Rosenfeld, Azriel, 1966, Surface area from contour maps:Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 32, no. 3, p. 476-482. [processesdigitized contours; Surface area related to projected area]

Montgomery, D.R., 1998, Review of 'Fractal River Basins. Chance and Self-Organization' by IgnacioRodríguez-Iturbe and Andrea Rinaldo: Nature, v. 396, no. 6711, p. 536. ['stimulating, etc.';reviewer defends 'reductionist, process-oriented' work decried by authors]

Montgomery, D.R., 2000, Erosional processes at an abrupt channel head—implications for channelentrenchment and discontinuous gully formation, in Darby, S.E., and Simon, Andrew, eds., IncisedRiver Channels—Processes, Forms, Engineering and Management: Chichester UK, John Wiley &Sons, p. 247-276. [inverse relation betw. drainage area and slope for the Marin Co. CA test site]

Montgomery, D.R., 2001, Slope distributions, threshold hillslopes, and steady-state topography, inPazzaglia, F.J., and Knuepfer, P.L.K., eds., The steady-state orogen—concepts, fieldobservations, and models: American Journal of Science, v. 302, nos. 4 & 5, p. 432-454. [DEMsof Olympic & Oregon Coast Range Mts. test relations among SD, TH, & SST]

Montgomery, D.R., Balco, Greg, and Willet, S.D., 2001, Climate, tectonics, and the morphology of theAndes: Geology, v. 29, no. 7, p. 579-582. [broad-scale orometry; cross-range asymmetry, width,hypsometry, & max. elev.]

Montgomery, D.R., and Brandon, M.T., 2002, Topographic controls on erosion rates in tectonicallyactive mountain ranges: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 201, no. 3-4, p. 481-489. [slope& relief; nonlinear rate w/ relief; GTOPO30 local relief on 10 km circles for 4 continents]

Montgomery, D.R., and Dietrich, W.E., 1994, A physically based model for the topographic control onshallow landsliding: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 4, p. 1153-1171.http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~geomorph/shalstab/. [development of software to predict debrisflow]

Montgomery, D.R., and Greenberg, H.M., 2000, Local relief and the height of Mount Olympus: EarthSurface Processes and Landforms, v. 25, no. 4, p. 385-396. [valley W/slope L & % local relief(30-m DEM) infer eros. control of high peak location]

Moore, I.D., Burch, G.J., and Mackenzie, D.H., 1988, Topographic effects on the distribution ofsurface soil water and the location of ephemeral gullies: Transactions, American Society ofa*gricultural Engineers, v. 31, no. 4, p. 1098-1107. [topo. heterogeneity vital in pred. catchmentmoisture; TOPO software for terrain analysis formally became TAPES]

Moores, E.A., 1966, Regional drainage basin morphometry: Iowa State University, Ames, IA,unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, paging unknown. [Drainage basin morphometry, fluvial features]

Mora C., Sergio, and Vahrson, W.-G., 1994, Macrozonation methodology for landslide hazarddetermination: Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, v. 31, no. 1, p, 49-58.[unusual in that uses relative relief on 1 km as slope parameter]

Morawetz, Sieghard, 1937, Das Problem der Taldichte und Hangzerschneidung (in German; Theproblem of valley density and slope incision): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 83, no.12, p. 346-350. [comparative drainage density (12 refs.) & geomorphic process]

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Morawetz, Sieghard, 1939, Reliefenergie und Vergletscherung in der Nanga Parbat-Gruppe:Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, v. 26, no. 3-4, p. 303-307. [no info]

Morawetz, Sieghard, 1957, Fragen der Talnetz- und Kammentwicklung insbesondere in denOstalpen und einigen Nachbargebieten (in German; ... on valley network & ridge development esp.in eastern Alps & contiguous areas), in Neef, Ernst, ed., Geomorphologische Studien (theMachatschek Festschrift): Gotha, VEB Hermann Haack, Ergänzungsheft (supplement volume) no.262 to Petermanns Geographischen Mitteilungen, p. 91-101. [drainage density (same 12Flußdichte refs as 1937 paper) & geomorphic process]

Morgen, Herbert, 1940, Die natürlichen Ertragsfaktoren ... in 26 Landkreisen Pommerns. Ein raum-politische Studie (in German; natural yield factors ... in 26 Pomeranian districts. A geo-politicalstudy): Berichte über Landwirtschaft, N.F., no. 151, p. 28. [map of relative relief; 1/850K; 8intervals]

Morisawa, M.E., 1959a, Relation of morphometric properties to runoff in the Little Mill Creek, Ohio,drainage basin: Office of Naval Research Project NR 389-042, Contract N6 ONR 271-30: Nonr 266(50), Technical Report no. 17: New York, Columbia University, Department of Geology, 10 p.[prelude to thesis; signif. power-fcn. correl. for stream L, relief ratio, & 2 shape ratios]

Morisawa, M.E., 1959b, Relation of quantitative geomorphology to stream flow in representativewatersheds of the Appalachian Plateau province: Office of Naval Research Project NR 389-042,Contract N6 ONR 271-30: Nonr 266 (50), Technical Report no. 20: New York, Columbia University,Department of Geology, 94 p. [published in 1962; identified 5 diff. types of difficulty in definingchannel networks fr contour maps]

Mosley, M.P., and Parker, R.S., 1973, Re-evaluation of the relationship of master streams anddrainage basins—discussion: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 84, no. 9, p. 3123-3125.[var. criticisms of Mueller 1972 on Hack's law exponent]

Mossman, James, 2001, New color system enhances relief mapping: ArcUser (ESRI, Redlands CA),Jan.-March, p. 54-56. [continuous-appearing shaded-relief fr lighter, closer-spaced color palette]

Mostafa, M.E., and Hussein, M.T., 1997, Automated characterization of some morphological featureswith application to Khor Baraka drainage basin, Sudan: Journal of King Abdulaziz University (SaudiArabia), Earth Science, v. 9, p. 39-55, 1997. [basin perimeter, total & fractal areas, hypsometriccurves, network maps]

Mueller, J.E., 1972, Re-evaluation of the relationship of master streams and drainage basins:Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 83, no. 11, p. 3471-3473. [Hack's law exponent ~0.47for 65 mid-to-large basins]

Mueller, J.E., 1973, Re-evaluation of the relationship of master streams and drainage basins—reply:Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 84, no. 9, p. 3127-3130. [Hack's law exponent ~0.55for 250 small-to-large basins; stream sinuosity not an influence on ~0.5 exponent]

Müller, Bernd, and Mietz, Olaf, 1991, Zum Einfluß morphometrischer Faktoren auf Prozeßabläufe inBinnenseen am Beispiel von Seengruppen des Jungmoränengebietes im nördlichen Mittel- undOsteuropa (... morph. factors influencing process sequence in inland lakes ..., in German):Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v. 135, no. 2, p. 123-132. [lake-basin shape, slope offloor, & floor roughness]

Müller, Emil, 1912, Lehrbuch der Darstellenden Geometrie für Technische Hochschulen, v. I (inGerman; 1st publ. 1908?, v. 2 in 1916): Leipzig & Berlin, Teubner, p. 52. [inspired Rothe 1915?;ascribes earliest descriptive-geometric treatment of ridges & watercourses to Dupuis de Torcy &Brisson 1808, but claims 'a perfectly rigorous geometrical definition ... has not yet been found']

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Müller, Emil, 1919, Besondre Punkte und Linien auf der Geländefläche; Verlauf von Schichten- undFallinien (in German: special points & lines on the ground surface; course of contour and slopelines, § 166 in Lehrbuch der Darstellenden Geometrie für Technische Hochschulen, v. I (?) (2nd ed;1st publ. 1918?): Leipzig & Berlin, Teubner, p. 47-53. [expanded? his 1912 treatment (otherearlier editions exist); refs Dupuis de Torcy & Brisson 1808 (1st modern citation?), later Frenchwork, Maxwell 1870; credits Rothe 1915 with correctly defining watercourses]

Murata, Teizo, 1931a, Theoretical consideration on the shape of alluvial fans: Geographical Reviewof Japan, v. 7, no. 7, p. 569-586. [not seen; geometric conceptualization of fan relief and planform? as equations?]

Murata, Teizo, 1931b, Relation betwen a fan and its surrounding mountains: Geographical Review ofJapan, v. 7, no. 8, p. 649-663. [not seen; geometric relations?]

Murphey, J.B., Wallace, D.E., and Lane, L.J., 1977, Geomorphic parameters predict hydrographcharacteristics in the Southwest: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 13, no. 1, p. 25-38. [catchmentarea = best; new shape/size param.]

Murray, John, 1886, Drainage areas of the continents and their relation to oceanic deposits: ScottishGeographical Magazine, v. 2, no. 9, p. 548-555. [watershed planimetry of new Bartholomewglobal Lambert equal-area maps; land/water (area) = 1/2.5, cf. Penck 1886]

Murtaugh, C.R., and Antonatos, P.P., 1949, Test of the 2' x 2' supersonic wind tunnel nozzle: U.S.Air Force Memorandum Report MCREXA9-90311-1-10, 1 July, paging unknown. [PSD-likesurface-curvature analysis of metal-finishing, adapted by Schloss 1965 to terrain analysis for ApolloProject]

Musgrave, F.K., 1993, Methods for realistic landscape imaging: New Haven, CT, Yale University,unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 268 p. [fractal Brownian motion simulations]

Musgrave, G.W., 1947, The quantitative evaluation of factors in water erosion, a first approximation:Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, v. 2, no. 3, p. 133-138. [derived equation for soil loss;uses data fr. uniform slopes]

Myers, D.M., 1999, Review of 'GSLIB—Geostatistical Software Library and User's Guide, secondedition,' by C.V. Deutsch & A.G. Journel, 1998: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 3, p. 309-312. [thorough review; mildly critical; 'strictly user-beware;' cites other software]


Naden, P.S., 1993, A routing model for continental-scale hydrology, in Symposium on MacroscaleModeling of the Hydrosphere, Yokohama, July, Proceedings: IAHS Publication 214, p. 67-79.[early broad-scale DEM-based model; implicit source-to-sink method]

Nagel, Dr., 1835, Über die Küstengestaltung der Erdteile (on the coastal shape of the continents, inGerman): Heinrich Berghaus' Annalen der Erd-, Völker-, und Staatenkunde (Berlin), v. 12, p. 490-497. [after Ritter 1826, next work on coast shape?; K = U/2√F∏: U = coast perimeter, F = areaenclosed; see Rohrbach, 1890]

Nakano, M., Takagi, A., and Haraguchi, N., 1985, Stochastic simulation of gully networks on erodedland, in El-Swaify, S.A., Moldenhauer, W.C., and Lo, Andrew, eds., Soil Erosion and Conservation:Ankeny, Iowa, Soil Conservation Society of America, p. 178-187. [used prior sim. models &Strahler ordering; varied results]

Nakayama, Daichi, 1998, A study of DEM-based drainage basin classification—the case of theAbukuma Mountains (in Japanese with English abstract & figure captions): Geographical Review ofJapan, v. 71A, p. 169-186. [54 basins, 5 hyps. & 6 planim. char.; PCA = 3 PC's & 4 types]

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NASA, 2002, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: U.S. National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/. [official online source for SRTM data andinformation]

Natarajan, Padma, 1999, Intelligent retrieval of ridgelines from digital elevation models: Orono ME,University of Maine, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, unpublished MSEE thesis,paging unknown. [presented at 1999 ASPRS ANnual Conference]

Nellemann, Christian, and Reynolds, P.E., 1997, Predicting late winter distribution of muskoxen usingan index of terrain ruggedness: Arctic and Alpine Research, v. 29, no. 3, p. 334-338. [Indicesbased on contour characteristics fr topo maps]

Neumann, G.A., Rowlands, D.D., Lemoine, F.A., Smith, D.E., and Zuber, M.T., 2001, Crossoveranalysis of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 106, no. E10, p.23,753-23,768. [error for 5000 orb. profiles modeled by 24 M elev. crossovers; adjusted tracksaccuracy < 1 m vert.]

Neumann, Ludwig, 1889, Die mittlere Kammhöhe der Berner Alpen (in German, mean crest levels ofthe Bernese Alps): Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Freiberg im Br., v. 4, no. 1, p.45-50. [definition of 'mean crest-level'—height 'longitudinal crest profile would take if limited toconsistently even portions parallel to sea level', as cited by Fiedler 1890]

Neumann, Ludwig, 1888, Orometrische Studien im Anschluß an die Untersuchungen desKaiserstuhlgebietes (orometric studies after investigations of the Kaiserstuhl area; in German):Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Geographie (Weimar), v. 7, no. 1, p. 320-332. [post-Sonklar work;cited elsewhere as 'Untersuchung' & 'Kaiserstuhlgebirges']

Neumann, Ludwig, 1889, Orometrische Studien im Anschluß an die Untersuchungen desKaiserstuhlgebietes (conclusion): Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Geographie (Weimar), v. 7, no.2/3, p. 362 (361?)-378. [balance of Neumann 1888]

Neumann, Ludwig, 1900, Die Dichte des Flußnetzes im Schwarzwalde (Stream network density in theBlack Forest, in German): Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik, Leipsig, v. 4, ca. p. 222. [early ddwork; defined drainage density = L/A; L = total stream lengths & A = basin area; 1 km squares]

Newman, W.I., Turcotte, D.L., and Gabrielov, A.M., 1997, Fractal trees with side branching: Fractals,v. 5, no. 4, p. 603-614. [more direct descr. of river structure, based on Tokunaga scaling]

Newson, M.D., 1978, Drainage Basin characteristics, their selection, derivation and analysis for aflood study of the British Isles: Earth Surface Processes, v. 3, no. 3, p. 277-293. [>1000 basins]

Nice, Bruno, 1948, Energia del rilievo, in La fittezza del reticolato idrografico nell'Appennino tosco-emiliano: Riv. Geogr. Ital., v. 60, p. 11-22, & 65-98. [1/700K relative-relief map; 3x3 samples; 7intervals]

Nicholls, R.J., and Small, Christopher, 2002, Improved estimates of coastal population and exposureto hazards released: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 83, no. 28, p. 301, 305.[quant. rel. (graphs & maps) of pop. density to elev. & distance from coast; need LiDAR to improvelow-lying elevs.]

Nieuwenhuis, J.D., and van den Berg, J.A., 1971, Slope investigations in the Morvan (Haut Folinarea): Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique, v. 20, no. 4, p. 161-176. [6063 field-profile anglesat 10-m length; stat. relation betw. slope & elev. & rock type]

Nikora, V.I., and Goring, D.G., 2001, Extended self-similarity in geophysical and geologicalapplications: Mathematical Geology, v. 33, no. 3, p. 251-271. [structure func. & ESS (extendedself-sim.) plots of Martian topo. &]

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Nogami, Michio, 1995, Geomorphometry for detailed digital elevation model (in Japanese with Englishsummary): Chish*tsu Chosajo Geppo (Bull. Japan. Geol. Survey), v. 46, no. 4, p. 465-474.[DEM's, drainage basins & patterns, math. models]

Nogami, Michio, 1998, An algorithm and a C-program source for automated drainage networkextraction (in Japanese with English abstract): Theory and Applications of GIS (J. of GIS Assoc. ofJapan), v. 6, no. 1, p. 95-102. [flood-type; random-walk techn. gives good results on flats]

Nogami, Michio, 1999, Effects of geology on geomorphometric characteristics analyzed by a 50-mdigital elevation model (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions): GeographicalReview of Japan, v. 72A, no. 1, p. 23-29. [50m DEM; height, slope, convexity, & geology ofJapan change through time]

Nogami, Michio, 2000, 50m-DEM and landforms of Japanese Islands (abs.): Transactions, JapaneseGeomorphological Union, v. 21, no. 1, p. 69-70. [PCA of morphometric properties of 597mountain summits]

Noguchi, Naohiko, 1972, Quantitative geomorphology and relative rate of erosion, Pescadero CreekBasin, San Mateo Co., California: University of Santa Cruz, Dept. Earth Sciences, unpublishedM.Sc. thesis, 109 p. [only the areal params. correlate highly with environmental variables]

Nolan, T.J., Kirk, R.M., and Shulmeister, J., 1999, Beach cusp morphology on sand and mixed sandand gravel beaches, South Island, New Zealand: Marine Geology, v. 157, no. 3-4, p. 185-198.[most quant relations covary; amplitude & spacing poorest]

Noumi, Yousuki, Shiono, Kiyoji, Masumoto, Sinji, and Raghavan, Venkatesh, 1999, Generation ofDEM from the topographic maps—utilization of inter-contour information (in Japanese with Englishabstract & figure captions): Geoinformatics, v. 10, no. 4, p. 235-246. [interpolates elevs. from setof inequality constraints prior to creating DEM]

Nowacki, Gregory, Shephard, Michael, Krosse, Patricia, Pawuk, William, Fisher, Gary, Baichtal,James, Brew, David, Kissinger, Everett, and Brock, Terry, 2001, Ecological subsections ofSoutheast Alaska and neighboring areas of Canada: USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region,Technical Publication No. R10-TP-75, 306 p. [binned elev., slope, aspect, 'roughness' (std. dev.elev.) & slope & elev. histograms for 73 regions fr 60m DEM (1:63,360 maps)]

Nowak, Hans, 1944, Die Reliefenergie im Grenzsaume der Böhmischen Masse zwischen Donau undThaya: Mitteilungen Geograph. Ges. Wien, no. 87, p. 16-18. [1/420K relative-relief map; 1 kmsamples; 7 relief intervals]

Nuth, Van, Pulliam, Jay, and Wilson, Clark, 2002, Migration of radar altimeter waveform data:Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 10, p. 131-1 to 131-4. [Greenland ice-sheet data revealone limitation of current radar altmeters]

Nye, J.F., 1965, Flow of a glacier in a channel of rectilinear, elliptic, or parabolic cross-section: Journalof Glaciology, v. 5, no. 41, p. 661-690. [shape factor = (A/h of trimline above thalweg) x troughperimeter]


O'Donnell, Greg, Nijssen, Bart, and Lettenmaier, D.P., 1999, A simple algorithm for generatingstreamflow networks for grid-based, macroscale hydrological models: Hydrological Processes, v. 13,no. 8, p. 1269-1275. [gets coarse-scale network from fine-scale DEMs using accumulation-flowfile]

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O'Sullivan, David, and Turner, Alasdair, 2001, Visibility graphs and landscape visibility analysis:International Journal of Geographical Information Science, v. 15, no. 3, p. 221-237. [appliedgraph theory yields pixel surface colored by size of visible neighborhoods]

Ochi, Shiro, and Shibasaki, Ryosuke, 1999, Development of 1km drainage model based onGTOPO30 and global data sets, in Otsubo, Kuninori, Tsuboi, Kaoru, and Hiromoto (Airies), Misako,eds., 1999 NIES Workshop on Information Bases and Modeling for Land-use and Land-coverChanges Studies in East Asia, 25-27 January, Tsukuba, Japan, Proceedings: p. 201-205.[algorithm for drainage-direction matrix, but fit still inconsistent]

Ochi, Shiro, and Shibasaki, Ryosuke, 1999, Algorithm for generating drainage direction matrix usingDEM (GTOPO30) and DCW (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions): Journal of theJapan Society of Photogrammetry, v. 38, no. 3, p. 60-68. [combines DEM with planimetric streamdepiction to get better DDM]

Ochis, Heidi, and Russell, E.C., 1997, Comparison of a piecewise transformation to polynomial-basedgeometric correction algorithms: Boulder, CO, Computer Terrain Mapping, Inc., 13 p.;http://www.ctmap.com/gis_journal/geotin.pdf. [piecewise technique better, & for all relief types]

Ochis, Heidi, Russell, E.C., and Hoffer, R.M., 1997, A comparison of a triangulation-based piecewisetransformation to polynomial-based geometric correction algorithms, in ACSM/ASPRS AnnualConvention & Exposition, Seattle, WA, April 7-10: Technical Papers, v. 3, p. 215-225. [piecewisetechnique better, & for all relief types]

Ogden, F.L., Garbrecht, Jurgen, DeBarry, P.A., and Johnson, L.E., 2001, GIS and distributedwatershed models. II—modules, interfaces, and models: Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, v. 6,no. 6, p. 515-523. [2nd of 2-part GIS tutorial for practicing engineers; applics.]

Oguchi, Takashi, Tanaka, Yukiya, Kim, Tae-Ho, and Lin, Zhou, 2001, Large-scale landforms andhillslope processes in Japan and Korea: Transactions of the Japanese Geomorphological Union, v.22, no. 3, p. 321-336. [A/elev., slope map, slope/elev., % slope >15º & % slope < 2º/elev.]

Ohmori, Hiroo, and Sugai, Toshihiko, 1994, Morphometrical characteristics of landslide masses andtheir geomorphological implications: Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 15, no. 1,p. 1-16. [see 1995 paper by same authors]

Oimoen, M.J., 2000, An effective filter for removal of production artifacts in U.S. Geological Survey7.5-minute digital elevation models, in Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 14th, 6-8Nov., Las Vegas, NV, Proceedings: Ann Arbor, MI, Veridian ERIM International, p. 311-319;http://edcnts12.cr.usgs.gov/ned/filter/; also http://gisdata.usgs.net/ned/filter/index.html. ['meanprofile filter' at least partially successful in removing 'stripes' from level 1 USGS DEMs]

Okagama, T., 1969, Gipfelflur, in Quaternary tectonic map of Japan: National Research Center forDisaster Prevention, map no. 6, 1/2,000,000. [summit-height envelope fr 1.5' x 1.25' grid&1/50,000 maps]

Okayama, T., 1932, Some problems on mountain topographic features (in Japanese): Geography ofIwanamikoza (Geographical course of Iwanami), Iwanamisyoten, Tokyo, 50 p. [among earliestJapanese use of morphometric methods]

Okayama, T., 1953, The geomorphic structure of Japan—as a starting point of regionalgeomorphology (in Japanese): Sundai Shigaku (Sundai Historical Review), v. 13 (not 3?), p. 28-38.[summit-height envelope fr 1.5' x 1.25' grid &1/50,000 maps]

Okimura, Takashi, and Kawatani, T., 1986, Mapping of the potential surface-failure sites on granitemountain slopes, in Gardiner, V., ed., International Geomorphology 1986, Part I: New York, JohnWiley & Sons, p. 121-138. [debris flows; incl. slope & slope curvature fr.10m DEM]

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Olivera, Francisco, Famiglietti, James, and Asante, Kwanbena, 2000, Global-scale flow routing usinga source-to-sink algorithm: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 8, p. 2197-2207. [instead ofcell-to-cell routing; hydrographs for large basins fr. GTOPO30 seem OK]

Olivera, Francisco, 2001, Extracting hydrologic information from spatial data for HMS modeling:Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, v. 6, no. 6, p. 524-530. [princ. & meth. behind DEM-to-watershed, etc. for input to USACE's modeling system]

Olivier, J., and Valentine, R., 1965, Engineering Lunar Model Obstacles (ELMO): JFK Space Center,Future Studies Branch, Launch Support Equipment Engineering Division, Tech. Report TR-145-D,paging unknown. [to provide pre-real lunar data quant. design criteria for Lunar Roving Vehicledesign concepts; synthetic technique used 2 params, terrain obstacle spacing (constant) & size(var.), for var. topo profiles]

Onde, H., 1938, La Maurienne et la Tarentaise, étude morphologique (in French): Revue deGéographie Alpine, v. 26?, p. 663-771; also La Maurienne et la Tarentaise. Étude de géographiephysique: Thèse Lettres Grenoble / Grenoble, Arthaud, 624 p. [applic. of morphometry; correl.basin discharge w/ mean elev., etc.; esp. ch. VI, p. 75-103]

Onde, H., 1939, L'aération des massifs montagneux et son évaluation (in French): Revue deGéographie Alpine, v. 27, p. 447-453. ['coefficient of aeration' applied to mountains]

Ongley, E.D., 1968, Towards a precise definition of drainage basin axis: Australian GeographicalStudies, v. 6, no. 1, p. 84-88. ['basin vectoral axis' = vector resultant of high-order links]

Ore, H.T., and White, E.D., 1958, An experiment in the quantitative analysis of drainage basincharacteristics: Compass, Sigma Gamma Epsilon, v. 36, no., 1, p. 23-38. [Horton analysis of 2Iowa basins supports laws of stream numbers & lengths]

Orlandini, Stefano, and Lamberti, Alberto, 2000, effect of wind on precipitation intercepted by steepmountain slopes: Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, v. 5, no. 4, p. 346-354. [6 basin params. frDEM combine w/ modeled 3D rainfall field]

Orris, G.J., and Williams, J.W., 1984, Landslide length-width ratios as an aid in landslide identificationand verification: Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, v. 21, no. 3, p. 371-375.[n=153; different l/w for diff. facies of St. Clara fm. in No. CA]

Ottoson, Patrik, 2001, Compressing digital elevation models with wavelet decomposition, inScanGIS'2001, Scandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Science 8th, Ås,Norway, 25-27 June, Proceedings: p. 15-31; <http://www.nlh.no/conf/scangis2001/papers/12.pdf>.[addresses issues in adapting wavelet decomp. to 50m Sweden DEM]

Otuka, Y., 1933, The Japanese coastline (in Japanese with English summary: Geographical Revueof Japan, v. 9, p. 819-843. [coastline shape = (L-D)/D where D = circle diam & L = shorelinelength in circle]

Overbeck, Christoph, 1997, Simulation der Topographie des Meersbodens mit Hilfe fraktalerProzesse (in German): Universität Trier, Germany, unpublished thesis (Diplomarbeit), 180 p.[found scale-dependent breaks in fractal analyses of seafloor topo form]

Ozawa, Taku, Doi, Koichiro, and Shibuya, Kazuo, 1999, A case study of generating a digitalelevation model for the Sôya Coast area, Antarctica, usinbg JERS-1 SAR interferometry: PolarGeoscience, no. 12, p. 227-239. [50m grid; 23 control pts. for 45km x 55km area; better thanGTOPO30]


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Pack, R.T., Tarboton, D.G., and Goodwin, C.N., 1999, GIS-based landslide susceptibility mappingwith SINMAP, in Bay, J.A., ed., Symposium on Engineering Geology and GeotechnicalEngineering, 34th, Proceedings: p. 219-231. [SINMAP = DEM-dependent software package; seeTarboton 1997]

Paillou, Philippe, and Gelautz, Margrit, 1999, Relief reconstruction from SAR stereo pairs—The'optimal gradient' matching method: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 37,no. 4, p. 2099-2107. [pairs preproc., then filtered to get gradient (brightness?)-amplitude images]

Pal, S., 1972, A classification of morphometric methods of analysis—An appraisal: GeographicalReview of India, v. 34, (cited by Lastochkin, 1987). [no info]

Palacios-Vélez, O.L., Gandoy-Bernascon, William, and Cuevas-Renaud, Baltasar, 1998, Geometricanalysis of surface runoff and the computation order of unit elements in distributed hydrologicalmodels: Journal of Hydrology, v. 211, nos. 1-4, p. 266-274. [new algorithms for kinematiccascade from DEM or TIN]

Palmu, J.-P., 1997, Combining Quaternary geological and digital elevation model data, in Autio, Sini,ed., Geological Survey of Finland Current Research 1995-1996: Geological Survey of FinlandSpecial paper 23, p. 109-116. [novel DEM visual. technique; ChromaDepth; depth parallaxinmduced by color]

Panin, A.V., and Gelman, R.N., 1997, Experience applying GPS techniques to derivation of large-scale digital terrain models (in Russian): Geodesiya i Cartographiya, no. 10, p. 22-27. [no info]

Papanikolaou, K., and Derenyi, E.E., 1987, GIS in support of remote sensing technology—presentapplications, future possibilities, in American Society for Photogrammetry and RemoteSensing—American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, International Conference, Exhibits, andWorkshops on Geographic Information Systems, 2nd, GIS '87-San Francisco, October 26-30,Proceedings: v. 1, p. 333-339. [gen'l. info on DEMs, slope & aspect, shadowed area, & ridgeextraction]

Pareschi, M.T., Favalli, M., Giannini, F., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., and Santacroce, R., 2000, May 5,1998, debris flows in circum-Vesuvian areas (southern Italy)—insights for hazard assessment:Geology, v. 28, no. 7, p. 639-642. [10-m DEM fr. 1/25K TIN: basin slope vs. shape factor, &;superb oblique shaded-relief image of area is on cover of v. 28, no. 8]

Park, Donggyu, Cho, Hwanggue, and Kim, Yangsoo, 2001, A TIN compression method usingDelaunay triangulation: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, v. 15, no. 3, p.255-269. [reviews past methods; near-equiangular triangles.]

Parlow, E., and Schweinfurth, G., 1995, Das Digitale Geländemodell, in Fiedler, F., KlimaatlasOberrhein Mitte-Süd: Textteil, IFG Offenbach, p. 17-18. [no info]

Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo, and Rothman, D.H., 1998a, Scaling of a slope—the erosion of tiltedlandscapes: Journal of Statistical Physics, v. 93, nos. 3/4, p. 477-500. [propose theory to modelerosion; attempt to explain inflected shape of autocorrel. fcn.; var, comparisons w. topo-map data.]

Pastor-Satorras, R., and Rothman, D.H., 1998b, Stochastic equation for the erosion of inclinedtopography: Physical Review Letters, v. 80, no. 19, p. 4349-4352. [abbreviated version of P-S &R 1998a]

Patel, J.G., Pappalardo, R.T., Head, J.W., Collins, G.C., Hiesinger, Harald, and Sun, Jie, 1999,Topographic wavelengths of Ganymede groove lanes from Fourier analysis of Galileo images:Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. E10, p. 24,057-24,074. [dominant wavelenths varyw/ location, fr 1-2 km to 5-10 km]

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Paulson, M.J., and Tucker, Dean, 1998, Comparison of GIS-based watershed delineation algorithms(abs.), in Hallam, C.A., and Salisbury, J.M., eds., GIS Applications in Water ResourcesResearch—American water Resources Annual Meeting, Chicago Ill, November 6-10, 1994: U.S.Geological Survey, Open-file Report 98-751, p. 18. ['several' packages evaluated; no furtherdetails on results]

Payer, Julius, 1865, Orometrischer Theil, p. 6-8 in Die Adamello-Presanella-Alpen nach demForschungen und Aufnahmen (in German): Gotha, Justus Perthes, Ergänzungsheft (supplementvolume) no. 17, to Petermanns Geographischen Mitteilungen, 36 p. [measurements of elev.,slope, rel. relief, & a ratio for various mountains in the Tyrol]

Pazzaglia, F.J., and Brandon, M.T., 2001, A fluvial record of long-term steady-state uplift and erosionacross the Cascadia forearc high, western Washington state, in Pazzaglia, F.J., and Knuepfer,P.L.K., eds., The steady-state orogen—concepts, field observations, and models: AmericanJournal of Science, v. 302, nos. 4 & 5, p. 385-431. [elev. & slope / distance profiles; use valleyprofile, terrace levels & ages, & kinematic model to est. incision & rock uplift across a mtn. range]

Pazzaglia, F.J., and Knuepfer, P.L.K., eds., 2001, The steady-state orogen—concepts, fieldobservations, and models: American Journal of Science, v. 302, nos. 4 & 5, p. 313-512;http://www.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/TableContents.html. [broad-scale work; 'neo-orometry'?; 1st &5th-8th of 8 papers all have morphometric contributions]

Pearce, S.J., and Melosh, H.J., 1986, Terrace width variations in complex lunar craters: GeophysicalResearch Letters, v. 13, no. 13, p. 1419-1422. [W < w/ distance fr rim, & largest terrace (nearestrim) > w/ rim D; pre-collapse topo profile most important control on width; see also Leith & McKinnon1991]

Peckham, S.D., and Gupta, V.K., 1999, A reformulation of Horton's laws for large river networks interms of statistical self-similarity: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 9, p. 2763-2777.[generalizes scaling from means to entire distribtions; supported by Shreve model]

Peeters, L., 1944, De Waarde van Enkele Kartografische Methoden bij de Analyse van eenpolycyclish Relief (in Dutch): Natuurwetenschnappelyk Tijdschr., v. 26, no. 1, p. 25-35. [Macar(1938) sampling technique; choice of spacing of sampling grid precludes total objectivity]

Pegler, K.H., 1999, TIN random densification—a process to minimize the ridging phenomenon inDTMs (abs.): URISA Annual Conference, Chicago, IL, August 21-25,<http://www.urisa.org/99Conference/database_design_and_maintenance.htm>. [attempt to fix'stripes' in stereo-profiled DEMs]

Péguy, Ch.P., 1945, Recherches sur les orientations directrices de l'hydrographie dans les chainesplissées (in French): Revue de Géographie Alpine, v. 33, p. 215-237. [index of correl. betw. riverorientation & fold axes]

Péguy, Ch.P., 1947, Haute Durance et Ubaye—Esquisse physique de la zone intra-alpine des Alpesfrançaises du Sud (in French): Thèse Lettres Grenoble / Grenoble, Arthaud, 314 p.; also chap. III:Revue de Géographie Alpine, v. 35, no. 3. [elevation statistics, etc.]

Peikert, Ronald, and Roth, Martin, 1999, The "parallel vectors" operator—a vector field visualizationprimitive, in IEEE conference Visualization'99, 24-29 October, San Francisco CA, Proceedings:IEEE Computer Society Press, p. 263-270; <http://www.cg.inf.ethz.ch/~peikert/vis99/slides.pdf>.[descriptive geometry of vortex surfaces in turbomachinery; cites ridge & valley defs. by Saint-Venant, Breton de Champs, Rothe, Haralick]

Pelletier, J.D., 1999, Self-organization and scaling relationships of evolving river networks: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 104, no. B4, p. 7359-7375. [diffusion-eqn model of landscape evol. fr.overland & channel flow; used RiverTools]

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Penck, Albrecht, 1886, Einteilung und mittlere Kammhöhe der Pyranäen (arrangement? & meancrest heights of the Pyrenees; in German): Jahresbericht der Geographischen Gesellschaft inMünchen (1885), v. 11, no. 20, p. 58-75, 64ff. ['calculated profile area by summing trapezoidsdefined by adjacent contours & the contour interval' (Riedel 1907)]

Penck, Albrecht, 1886, Relative proportion of land and water on the surface of the Earth (transl. fromGerman by J.T. Bealby): Scottish Geographical Journal, v. 2, no. 6, p. 358-362. [history of landarea /water area est.; puts it at 1/2.57-1/2.60; discusses the many uncertainties]

Penck, Albrecht, 1894a, Morphometrie des Bodensees (in German; morphometry of LakeConstance): Jahresbericht der Geographischen Gessellschaft in München, p. 119-155. [testsformulae given in 1894 book; shallow lake differs in form fr others in Europe; see Peucker 1894]

Penck, Albrecht, 1894b, Orometrie in Morphologie der Erdoberfläche (in German), Stuttgart, J.Engelhorn, v. 2, p. 339-343. [summarizes mountain morphometry; comments on work of Sonklar,others]

Penck, Walther, 1922, Morphologische Analyse (in German): Berlin, Verhandlung des 20 DeutschenGeographentages Leipzig 1921, p. 122-128. [cited by D. Merriam 1981 as having quant.material; Penck's posthumous 1924 book does develop Fisher 1866 theory of slope retreat]

Perez, Albert, 2000, Source Water Protection Project—a comparison of watershed delineationmethods in ARC/INFO and ArcView GIS, in Djokic, Dean, and Maidment, David, eds., Hydrologicand Hydraulic Modeling Support with Geographic Information Systems: Redlands CA, ESRI Press,p. 53-64; http://www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/papers/pap483/p483.htm.[compares Arcview w Spatial Analyst & Watershed Delineator Extensions with ARC/INFO GRIDAMLs]

Perlant, F., 2000, Using stereo images for digital terrain modeling: Surveys in Geophysics, v. 21, nos.2-3, p. 201-207. [elementary intro to making a DEM from stereo images]

Pernarowski, Leszek, 1960, Application of statistical methods in investigating dune forms: PrzegladGeograficzny (Polish Geographical Review), v. 32, supplement (XIXth IGC, Stockholm), p. 57-66 +errata sheet. [Czekanowski's 'meth. of differ.' on ave. azimuth, windw. & lee slopes, asymmetry,height]

Petzold, Bettina, Reiss, Peter, and Stössel, Wolfgang, 1999, Laser scanning—surveying andmapping agencies are using a new technique for the derivation of digital terrain models: ISPRSJournal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, v. 54, p. 95–104;http://www.fsl.orst.edu/~lefsky/isprs/1130.pdf. [Germany; more accurate & less costly thanphotogrammetry; some quality caveats]

Peucker, Karl, 1894, Morphometry of the Lake of Constance: The Geographical Journal, v. 4, no. 3,p. 264-266. [English summary of Penck 1894; "... morphometric values posses an importanceonly when compared with the corresponding ones for other forms of the surface ..."]

Péwé, T.L., Burbank, Lawrence, and Mayo, L.R., 1967, Multiple glaciation of the Yukon-Tananaupland, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Investigations Map, I-507, one sheet,1/500,000 scale. [rose diagrams summarize 1088 cirque azimuths (NNE dominate)]

Philip, G.M., and Watson, D.F., 1986, A method for assessing local variation among scatteredmeasurements: Mathematical Geology, v. 18, no. 8, p. 759-764. [surface-roughness metriccomputes an approx. of surface-normal vector via vector cross-products; slope]

Phillips, J.D., 1999, Divergence, convergence, and self-organization in landscapes: Annals of theAssociation of American Geographers, v. 89, no. 3, p. 466-488. [reviews 11 definitions of S-O;urges caution in using term]

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Pickup, Geoff, and Marks, Alan, 2000, Identifying large-scale erosion and deposition processes fromairborne gamma radiometrics and digital elevation models in a weathered landscape: Earth SurfaceProcesses and Landforms, v. 25, no. 5, p. 535-557. [map-based DEMs insuffic.; DEM fr radaraltimetry & GPS got ground not trees]

Pike, R.J., 1976, Crater dimensions from Apollo data and supplemental sources: The Moon, v. 15, p.463-477. [large database of measurements (H, h, D, d, circularity) from spacecraftphotogrammetry]

Pike, R.J., 2000a, Geomorphometry—diversity in quantitative surface analysis: Progress in PhysicalGeography, v. 24, no. 1, p. 1-20. [state-of-art review of a dozen varied topics]

Pike, R.J., 2000b, Nano-metrology and terrain modelling—convergent practice in surfacecharacterisation: Tribology International, v. 33, no. 9, p. 593-600. [redo of Wood & Snell 1960illustrates potential technique for parsing an engineering surface]

Pike, R.J., 2001a, Scenes into numbers—facing the subjective in landform quantification, in Hoffman,R.R., and Markman, A.B., eds., Interpreting remote sensing imagery—human factors: Boca RatonFL, Lewis Publ. (CRC), p. 83-114. [quant. inferential steps & analytic procedures link perceptionof (mostly planetary) surface form with interpretation]

Pike, R.J., 2001b, Digital terrain modeling and industrial surface metrology—converging realms: TheProfessional Geographer, v. 53, no. 2, p. 263-274. [automobile cylinder-wall micro-topographyexemplifies methods of industrial surfacing as spatial processes]

Pike, R.J., 2001c, Digital terrain modelling and industrial surface metrology—converging crafts:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, v. 41, nos. 13-14, p. 1881-1888. [2examples of redundancy in morphometric analysis, fr metrology & geomorphology]

Pike, R.J., 2001d, Geometric signatures—experimental design, first results (abs.): Int'l. Conference onGeomorphology 5th, Chuo Univ., Tokyo, Japan, August 2001; DEMs and Geomorphology,Geographic Information Systems Association (Japan) Special Publication, v. 1, p. 50-51; andTransactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 22, no. 4, p. C-192. [corrected correlationsfor 91 samples x 49 parameters fr 1/24K topo map DEMs]

Pike, R.J., 2001e, "Topographic fragments" of geomorphometry, GIS, and DEMs (abs): Int'l.Conference on Geomorphology 5th, Chuo Univ., Tokyo, Japan, August 2001; DEMs andGeomorphology, Geographic Information Systems Association (Japan) Special Publication, v. 1, p.34-35. [misc. observations & recommendations on current state of art]

Pinchemel, Philippe, 1950, L'analyse morphométrique des réseaux hydrographiques (in French;morphom. anal. hydro. networks): Comptes Rendues des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences(Paris), v. 230, 5 Feb., p. 556-557. [presumably Hortonian analysis]

Piper, D.J.W., and Evans, I.S., 1967, Computer analysis of maps using a pencil follower:Geographical Articles (Cambridge Univ., UK), v. 9, p. 21-25. [stored & manipulated digitizedversions of contours fr printed maps]

Pitty, A.F., 1969, Some problems in selecting a ground-surface length for slope-angle measurement:Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique, v. 17, no. 2, p. 66-71. [optimal length = ?]

Pitty, A.F., 1970, A scheme for hillslope analysis, II. Indices and tests for differences: University ofHull (UK), Occasional Papers in Geography, no. 17, 56 p. [fr. Ph.D. thesis; reduces descr. toseries of indices: freq. distr., profiles, component shapes, irregularities., position on profile]

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Piwowar, A., 1902, Über Maximalböschungen trockener Schuttkegel und Schutthalden (in German):Vierteljahrsschrift d. Nat. forsch. Gesellschaft Zürich, v. 48, p. 43-56. [measured profiles of talusslopes]

Planchon, Olivier, Esteves, Michel, Silvera, Norbert, and Lapetite, J.-M., 2002, Microrelief induced bytillage—measurement and modelling of surface storage capacity: Catena, v. 46, no. 2-3, p. 141-157. [random roughness param. fr 5 cm DEM spacing @ 1 mm vert. accuracy]

Playfair, John, 1802, § 99 & 111, in Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth: Edinburgh,facsimile reprints 1956, Urbana, Univ. Illinois Press, & 1964, New York, Dover, 528 p. [ageometer, & one of the 1st in Britain to teach modern math. analysis & recent work from Europe,he early recognized key relations (generalized as 'Playfair's Law') quantified only muchlater—stream size proportional to that of its valley; channels & valleys of streams & tributaries ('...and valley side slopes' implied) meet on same level, p. 102; stream-junction angles are acuteupstream of junction, p. 113-14 (see also Kant, 1803, p. 18).]

Plazanet, C., and Spagnuolo, M., 1998, Seafloor valley shape modeling, in Spatial Data Handling '98Conference, 11-15 July, Vancouver, BC, Proceedings: p. 751. [no info]

Portnova, O.V., 1975, Distinctive features of stereophotogrammetric measurements in derivation ofdigital terrain models (in Russian): Geodesiya i Cartographiya, no. 6, p. 24-27. [no info]

Potter, D.M., 1957, Measurements of runway roughness of four commercial airports: Langley Field,VA, Aeronautical Laboratory, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA ResearchMemorandum RM L56126, 86 p. [raw data for elev. profiles surveyed w/ level, rod, & tape at 2'(0.6 m) interval & 0.01" vert. precision interpolated to 0.001"; 2 unlabeled PSD plots for onerunway]

Premoze, Simon, Thompson, W.B., and Shirley, Peter, 1999, Geospecific rendering of alpine terrain:Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, 10th, EGWR'99, Grenada, Spain, 21-23 June, (paper not inproceedings); http://www.cs.utah.edu/vissim/papers/snowTerrain/. [adding color aerial imagery,shading & shadowing for time of day, snow cover, & 3-D instancing of trees and brush to DEMmuch improve visual quality]

Press, Harry, and Tukey, J.W., 1956, Power spectral methods of analysis and their applications toproblems in airplane dynamics, in Durbin, E.C., ed., Flight Test Manual: North American TreatyOrganization AGARD (Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development), Part IVC, p. 1-41; also in The Collected Works of John W. Tukey v. I—Time Series, 1949–1964, WadsworthAdvanced Books & Software: Monterey, CA., p. 185-255]. [actual work may date closer to ~1954(see Walls et al. 1954); many PSD examples; comp. details; introduced 'prewhitening, simplifyingchoice of window]

Prior, D.B., and Renwick, W.H., 1980, Landslide morphology and processes on some coastal slopesin Denmark and France: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Supplementband 34, p. 63-86. [surveyedprofiles & slope-freq. distributions of clay slopes]

Puppo, E., Davis, L., De Menthon, D., and Teng, Y., 1994, Parallel terrain triangulation: InternationalJournal of Geographical Information Systems: v. 8, no. 2, p. 105-128. [developed & implemented(for 1st time) a parallel algorithm for Delaunay triang.]


Raasch, W., 1979, Photometric measurement of terrain roughness: Journal of Terramechanics, v. 16,no. 2, p. 87-111. [no info]

Rachocki, Andrzej, 1981, Alluvial Fans—an attempt at an empirical approach: Chichester & NewYork, Wiley, 161 p. [intro to quant. p. 23-24, & randon-walk model p. 111-143]

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Raczkowski, M., Wojcik, A., and Zuchiewicz, W., 1985, Mloda tektonika Karpat w swietle analizymorfostrukturalnej (in Russian): Zesz Nauk AGH, kwart Geologia, v. 11, no. 2, p. 38-83. [isolinemaps of valley height & stream length in the Carpathians; method of Filosofov 1960, 63, 70]

Radebaugh, Jani, and Christiansen, E.H., 1999, Terrestrial pluton and planetary calderasizes—implications for the origin of calderas (abs.): EOS, Transactions, American GeophysicalUnion, v. 80, no. 46, Supplement, p. F635. [freq. distr. of plutons based on Pike & Clow 1981caldera data]

Radionov, V.A., 1996, On accuracy of digital representation of relief (in Russian): Geodesiya iCartographiya, no. 10, p. 34-37. [no info]

Râdulescu, D., 1975, Digitalizarea suprafetelor (in Rumanian, digital modeling of surfaces):Symposium of Photogrammetry, Rumanian Committee of Photogrammetry, Comission V, Bucharest,Proceedings: paging unknown. [digital model of irregularly-spaced elevs fr profiles; yields slopes]

Raines, G.L., 2002, Description and comparison of geologic maps with FRAGSTATS—a spatialstatistics program: Computers and Geosciences, v. 28, no. 2, p. 169-177. [1st Earth-scienceuse? implem. in Patch Analysis extension of ESRI's Arcview by converting polygon files to grids;potential applic. to drainage basins & topo. facets]

Ramsey, E.W. III, Nelson, G.A., Laine, S.C., Kirkman, R.G., and Topham, Willie, 1998, Generation ofcoastal marsh topography with radar and ground-based measurements: Journal of CoastalResearch, v. 14, no. 3, p. 1158-1164. [ERS-1 SAR flood extent + contours; 5-9X better; eval.errors]

Rana, Sanjay, and Morley, Jeremy, 2002, Surface Networks: London, UK, University College, Centrefor Advanced Spatial Analysis, Working paper 43, 72 p.;http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/working_papers/Paper43.pdf. [reviews surface-specific abstraction of 2-D surfaces, 1859-2000]

Range, Wolfgang, 1961, Morphometrische Untersuchungen in den Einzugsgebieten der BayerischenAlpenflüsse (Morph. inves. in catchments of Bavarian alpine rivers, in German): Veröffentlichungaus dem Arbeitsbereich der Bayer. Landesstelle für Gewässerkunde in München, 62 p. [defines& calc. area, mean slope & elev, drainage density, etc. fr contour maps]

Rao, L.A.K., Asif, Mohammed, and Ali, S.R., 1997, Quantitative hydrogeomorphic investigation ofKali-Sindh sub-basin within Rajgarh district, Madhya Pradesh, India: Indian Journal of EarthSciences, v. 24, nos. 3-4, p. 45-50. [Horton/Strahler analysis; geol. structure does not affectstream topology]

Rapp, Anders, 1967, On the field survey of hillslopes: Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique, v. 17,no. 4, p. 152. [favors 5-m or 10-m slope-length sampling interval]

Rasehorn, F., 1911, Die Flußdichte im Harze und in seinem nördlichen Vorlande (in German;drainage density in the Harz ...): Univ. Halle, dissertation, 58 p., Zeitschrift für Gewässerkunde, v. 9,p. 1-56. [x = A/n, A = basin area & n = number of segments]

Ravenstein, M.A., 1841, Some observations on relief maps: Report of the Tenth Meeting of theBritish Association for the Advancement of Science—Notices and abstracts of communications,Geology Section, Glasgow, August 1840, v. 9, p. 122-123. [invented raised relief (stamped inplastic); his 1838 'Plastic Atlas']

Ray, C.K., 1994, Representing visibility for siting problems: Ph.D, Thesis, Rensselaer PolytechnicInstitute, Troy, New York, April, paging unknown. [forms core of Franklin & 1994 on missile batterysiting]

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Ray, C.K., 1994, A new way to see terrain: Military Review, v. 2, no. 1, p. 81-89. [3D representationmuch quicker, more accurate & efficient than 2D map]

Reeb, Georges, 1946, Sur les points singuliers d'une forme de Pfaff completement integrable oud'une fonction numérique (in French; On the singular points of a completely integrable Pfaffian formor of a numerical function): Paris, Comptes Rendus de L'Acad. des Sciences, v. 222, p. 847-849.[proposed topological graph (a critical-point graph) that defines the skeleton of a surface]

Rees, W.G., 1992, Measurements of the fractal dimension of ice-sheet surfaces using Landsat data:International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 13, p. 663-671. [semivariogram analysis, other]

Rees, W.G., 1998, A rapid method of measuring snow-surface profiles: Journal of Glaciology, v. 44,no. 148, p. 674-675. [photo against portable black back-plate + image-processing = topo profile]

Rees, W.G., 2000, The accuracy of digital elevation models interpolated to higher resolutions:International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 21, no. 1 p. 7-20. [bilinear or bicubic interp. OK; rmsacc. of interp. DEM = 0.2-0.6 std. dev. of height diff. of adj. elevs.]

Remond, Agnès, Beaudoin, André, and King, Christine, 1999, SAR imagery to estimate roughnessparameters when modelling runoff risk: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 20, no. 13, p.2613-2625. [six params. of periodic & random roughness for 4 classes of agric. fields]

Rémy, Frédérique, Legresy, Benoît. and Testut, Laurent, 2001, Ice sheet and satellite altimetry:Surveys in Geophysics, v. 22, no. 1, p. 1-29. [reviews modern polar ice-sheet mensuration]

Rencz, Andy, Leclerc, Yvonne, Wright, Dan, Bonham-Carter, G.F., and Balma, Rob, 1991, Digitaltopography for earth sciences (Topographie numerique et sciences de la terre): Geos (Ottawa), v.20, no. 2, p. 1-6. [no info]

Reniger, Anna, 1954, Significance of land relief for agriculture (in Polish with English summary + fig. &table captions: Przeglad Geograficzny (Polish Geographical Review), v. 26, no. 4, p. 37-47. [datafor 6 areas fr l/100K 5-class slope map; correl. w/ veg. & soils]

Renssen, H., and Knoop, J.M., 2000, A global river routing network for use in hydrological modeling:Journal of Hydrology, v. 230, nos. 3-4, p. 230-243. [fr. TerrainBase 30' DEM (NGDC 1997); basinareas test well re publ. data]

Replumaz, A., Lacassin, R., Tapponnier, P., and Leloup, P.H., 2001, Large river offsets and Plio-Quaternary dextral slip rate on the Red River fault (Yunnan, China): Journal of GeophysicalResearch, v. 106, no. B1, p. 819-836. [drainage area/apparent offset, river spacing, up-downstream correl.]

Reuschle, F., 1869, Kritische Miszellen zur Geographie I. Das Maß der Küstenentwicklung undGrenzentwicklungs-Koeffizienten überhaupt (Critical goal ? of geography I. measuring generalizedcoefficients of coastal and border convolution): Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin,v. 4, p. 193-199. [coastal convolution = U/2√F∏: U = perimeter of coast, F = area enclosed; alsor1 = √F/∏; see Rohrbach, 1890]

Ribolini, Adriano, 2000, Relief distribution, morphology and Cenozoic differential uplift in theArgentera Massif (French-Italian Alps): Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 44, no. 3, p. 363-378. [Ranalysis after Burbank 1992, Gilchrist et al 1994, & Fielding et al. 1994]

Rice, R.M., Corbett, E.S., and Bailey, R.G., 1969, Soil slips related to vegetation, topography, andsoil in southern California: Water Resources Research, v. 5, no. 3, p. 647-659. [n= 200; slopegradient >80% for all landslides; prox. to streams, veg. type & density important; discrim. analysis]

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Rice, R.M., and Foggin, G.T. III, 1971, Effect of high intensity storms on soil slippage onmountainous watersheds in southern California: Water Resources Research, v. 7, no. 6, p. 1485-1496. [topo data incl. aspect, vol., area, length, width; discrim. analysis, slope most important]

Rice, S.P., and Church, Michael, 2001, Longitudinal profiles in simple alluvial systems: WaterResources Research, v. 37, no. 2, p. 417-426. [elev./dist. for stream links are expoential orquadratic]

Rice-Snow, Scott, 1998, Fractal characteristics of drainage basin boundaries in Puerto Rico, inJohnson, A.I., and Fernandez-Jauregui, C.A., eds., Hydrology in the Humid Tropic Environment:Symposium, Kingston, Jamaica, 17-23 November, 1996, Proceedings: IAHS Publication no. 253, p.195-201. [6 large basins; D (1.06-1.11) like that of temperate basins]

Rice-Snow, Scott, and Russell, Joshua, 1999, Long-range persistence of elevation and relief valuesalong the Continental Divide in the conterminous U.S., in International Conference onGeoComputation, 4th, Fredericksburg VA, Mary Washington College, 25-28 July, GeoComputation99: http://www.geovista.psu.edu/geocomp/geocomp99/Gc99/043/gc_043.htm. [both params.robustly self-affine, D = 1.0-1.2, fr. Mex. to Can.]

Richards, K.S., 1978, Yet more notes on the drainage density-basin area relationship: Area(London), v. 10, no. 5, p. 344-353. [w/ discussion by Pethick, Ferguson, & Gerrard]

Riedel, Wilhelm, 1907, Die Einteilung des Odenwaldes in orographische Gruppen—Ein Beispiel fürdie Verwertung der Ergebnisse orometrischer Untersuchungen zur Einteilung von Gebirgen (inGerman; dividing the Odenwald into orogr. sections—an example using results of orometricinvestig. to classify mountains): Univ. Gießen, Dissertation, 54 p. [using 14 ridge params. (4'improved' over Sonklar's) fr new 1/25K topo map, partitions area into hierarchy of 3 main divs. & 4divs. containing 17 dominant ridges]

Rieger, J.H., 1997, Topographical properties of generic images: International Journal of ComputerVision, v. 23, no. 1, p. 79-92. [both computer vision (grey values) & Earth science (terrain heights)need geometric descr. of surface features, e.g. watercourses, a non-trivial problem; prefers Jordan1872a definition of critical lines to Rothe 1915; found 1808 Dupuis de Torcy & Brisson ref. in Müller1919]

Riitters, K.H., O'Neill, R.V., Hunsaker, C.T., Wickham, J.D., Yankee, D.H., Timmins, S.P., Jones, K.B.,and Jackson, B.L., 1995, A factor analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics: LandscapeEcology, v. 10, no. 1, p. 23-39. [best discussion to consult after the FRAGSTATS manual]

Riley, S.J., DeGloria, S.D., and Elliot, R., 1999, A terrain ruggedness index that quantifiestopographic heterogeneity: Intermountain Journal of Sciences, v. 5, no. 1-4, p. 23-27. [no details]

Rinaldo, Andrea, and Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio, 1998, Scaling in river networks, in Sposito, Garrison,ed., Scale Dependence and Scale Invariance in Hydrology: Cambridge, UK, Cambridge UniversityPress, p. 61-87. [Hack's Laws = outgrowth of fractality, which exists imperfectly within upper &lower limits]

Rinaldo, Andrea, fa*gherazzi, Sergio, Lanzoni, Stefano, Marani, Marco, and Dietrich, W.E., 1999,Tidal networks 2. Watershed delineation and comparative network morphology: Water ResourcesResearch, v. 35, no. 12, p. 3905-3917. [quantify network properties, incl. power-law relations]

Rinaldo, Andrea, fa*gherazzi, Sergio, Lanzoni, Stefano, Marani, Marco, and Dietrich, W.E., 1999,Tidal networks 3. Landscape-forming discharges and studies in empirical geomorphic relationships:Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 12, p. 3919-3929. [simple model predicts local peak ebb &flood Q; tested OK on Venice Lagoon]

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Ritchie, J.C., 1995, Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography: RemoteSensing of the Environment, v. 53, no. 2, p. 91-96. [4000 data/sec. at 5cm-res.; GPS control;microtopo. elevs.]

Ritter Carl, 1806, Sechs Karten von Europa mit erkärendem Texte (in German): Schnepfenthal.[map V, 'Die Gebirgshöhen in Europa, ihre Vegetationsgrenzen & verschiedene Luftschichten',altho rather primitive (no contour lines), is perhaps the 1st layer-tint elevation map]

Ritter, Carl, 1826, Über geographische Stellung und horizontale Ausbreitung der Erdteile (Geogr.position & horizontal extent of the continents; in German): Berlin, lecture at Kgl. Akad. d.Wissenschaften, December 14, published 1852 in Einleitung zur allgemeinen vergleichendenGeographie, und Abhandlungen zur Begründung einer mehr wissenschaftlichen Behandlung derErdkunde: Berlin, Sammlung der Abhandlungen Ritters, p. 103-128. [calculated circularity indexfor the continents; related cont. area to square of perimeter or area of smallest circ*mscribed circle;the 1st-ever spatial morphometry? see 1861 Gage transl.]

Ritter, Carl, 1828, Bemerkungen über Veranschaulichungsmittel räumlicher Verhältnisse beigraphischen Darstellungen durch Form und Zahl (Illustrative methods for spatial properties usingdiagrams of form & number; in German): Berlin, lecture at Kgl. Akad. d. Wissenschaften, January17, published 1852 in Einleitung zur allgemeinen vergleichenden Geographie, und Abhandlungenzur Begründung einer mehr wissenschaftlichen Behandlung der Erdkunde: Berlin, Sammlung derAbhandlungen Ritters, p. 129-150. [early spatial morphometry; includes 1826 calc. of circularityindex of the continents; see 1861 Gage transl.]

Robison, E.G., Mills, K.A., Paul, James, Dent, Elizabeth, and Skaugset, Arne, 1999, Digital elevationmodels (DEMs) and ground-slope comparisons, pp. 32-39 in Storm impacts and landslides of1996—Final Report: Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest Practises Technical Report no. 4, 145p. [30-m DEM slopes (fr 40' CI map) poorly correl. w/ site slope (smaller scale length & bettersource maps)]

Rodda, J.C., 1970, A trend-surface analysis trial for the planation surfaces of north Cardiganshire:Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Publ. no. 50, p. 107-114. [early applic. of T-S technique to topo.]

Roering, J.J., Kirchner, J.W., and Dietrich, W.E., 1999, Evidence for nonlinear, diffusive transport onhillslopes and implications for landscape morphology: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 3, p.853-870. [back to Davis & Gilbert; transport law ≈ slope angle; field agreement (2-m DEM)]

Roering, J.J., Kirchner, J.W., and Dietrich, W.E., 2001, Hillslope evolution by nonlinear, slope-dependent transport—steady state morphology and equilibrium adjustment timescales: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 106, no. B8, p. 16,499-16,513 (minor correction in 106, B11, 26,787).[simulations; suggest hilltop curvature, not relief & slope, indicates tectonic forcing]

Roeschmann, Günter, and Lehmeier, Friedmut, 1993, Vorschläge zur morphographischenKennzeichnung des Oberflächenreliefs für punktbezogene geowissenschaftliche Profilaufnahmen(REPA) (in German: proposals for the morphographic characterization of surface relief forgeoscientific data acquisition at drilling sites and exposures): Geologisches Jahrbuch, v. F26, no. 1,p. 3-46. [exhautive system for relief char. in plan & profile, 'what is to be descr.' Kugler, Demekinfl.]

Rogers, C.A., 1993, Describing landscapes—indices of structure: Burnaby, BC, Simon FraserUniversity, unpublished M.Sc. thesis, 170 p. [landscape ecology; used metrics now inFRAGSTATS]

Romieux, A., 1890, Relations entre la déformation actuelle de la croûte terrestre et les densitésmoyennes des terres et des mers (in French;): Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances del'Académie des Sciences / Institut de France, v. 111, p. 994-996. [tries to reconcile mean land &sea elevs. with geophysics in light of Challenger Expedition data]

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Romstad, Bård, 2001, Improving relief classification with contextual merging, in ScanGIS'2001,Scandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Science 8th, Ås, Norway, 25-27June, Proceedings: p. 3-13; <http://www.nlh.no/conf/scangis2001/papers/15.pdf>. [more uniform,less 'noisy' terrain types; 10m DEM of Spitzbergen]

Rosiek, M.R., Kirk, R., and Howington-Krause, A., 1999, Lunar south pole topography derived fromClementine imagery, in Workshop on new views of the Moon II—understanding the Moon throughthe integration of diverse datasets: Houston TX, Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI Contribution no.980, p. 52-53. [fr Clementine altimetry; 90°-65° S at 1km/px; color map]

Rosiwal August, 1898, Über geometrische Gesteinsanalysen. Ein einfacher Weg zür ziffermassigenFeststellung des Quantitätsverhältnisses der Mineral-Bestandteile gemengter Gesteine (in German;Geometric rock analysis. A simple method for numerical determination of quant. ratios of mineralfractions of mixed rocks; transl. H.G. Ranson, 1960, Royal Aircraft Establ., Farnborough, U.K., Lib.Trans. #871): Verhandl. der Kaiserlich-Koeniglichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Vienna, 5/6, p.143-175. [parallel-line sampling to obtain area (& thus volume, after stereological principle ofAchille Delesse 1847) of mineral constituents in rocks fr microscope analysis of thin sections;directly adapts to area measurement on maps]

Rossi, M.J., 1999, Plan-curvature effect on the formation of tumuli on shield volcanoes—an examplefrom Leitin lava flow field in Iceland: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 114, p. 1-10.[tumuli freq., plancurv., & slope / dist. fr vent; freq. of tumulus H, W, & A]

Rosu, Al, and Balteanu, D., 1969, Caracterizarea cantitativa si clasificarea unitatilor geomorfologicedin Romania, pe baza varietatii reliefului (Quantitative characterization and classification ofgeomorphic units in Romania based on relief variations): Terra (Helsinki), v. 1, no. 1, p. 28-31.[defined 18 units on relief energy & dissection]

Rothe, Rudolf, 1915, Zum problem des talwegs (in German; on the drainage-line problem):Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Math. Gesellschaft, v. 14, p. 51-69. [key to older French refs.; citingmath. definition (Saint-Venant 1852) & theorem (Breton de Champ 1854), Rothe criticizes Jordan1872a & rather vaguely defines valley (& ridge) lines (flow-lines where other flow-lines converge &join to form a stream channel) as points where slope is locally minimal re/ other points at sameelev.]

Roubal, J., and Poiker, T., 1985, Automated contour labeling and the contour tree, in Auto-Carto 7,International Symposium on Computer-Aided Cartography, 7th, Washington, D.C., March 11-14,Proceedings: p. 472-481. [data structure evolved into Kweon & Kanade 1994 'topographicchange tree']

Rouse, W.C., 1984, Flowslides, chap. 12 in Brunsden, Denys, and Prior, D.B., eds., Slope Instability:London, Wiley, p. 491-522. [obs. on approx. geometries of ~20 flowslide (e.g. Gros Ventre,Blackhawk, Sherman, Madison Cyn.) rupture surfaces, tracks, & deposits]

Rowbotham, D.N., and Dudycha, Douglas, 1998, GIS modelling of slope stability in Phewa Talwatershed, Nepal: Geomorphology, v. 26, nos. 1-3, p. 151-170. [creates irreg. 'terrain units' frDEM maxs & mins fr elev. & curvature surfaces]

Rowland, S.K., and Garbeil, Harold, 2000, Slopes of oceanic basalt volcanoes, in Mouginis-Mark,P.J., Crisp, J.A., and Fink, J.H., eds., Remote Sensing of Active Volcanism: Washington, DC,American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph 116, p. 223-247. [DEMs & slope for 15shields in 4 regions; plot slope vs. elev. & % total elev.]

Rowland, S.K., MacKay, M.E., Garbeil, H., and Mouginis-Mark, P.J., 1999, Topographic analyses ofKíluea volcano, Hawai'i, from interferometric airborne radar: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 61, no. 1-2,p. 1-14. [10-m DEM, vert. accuracy 1-2 m; compare w/ USGS DEM & ground truth survey]

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Rubey, W.W., 1952, Final stages in development of present topography, p. 122-136 in Geology andmineral resources of the Hardin and Brussels quadrangles (in Illinois): U.S. Geological Survey,Professional Paper 218, 179 p. [eqn. relates stream-surface slope to channel depth/width, load,particle size, & discharge; used many results from G.K. Gilbert's 1914 flume experiments]

Rudenko, M.V., Dzhumaylo, N.A., and Berezhnyy, B.V., 1983, A computer method for the statisticalanalysis of bottom relief data: Oceanology, v. 22, no. 5, p. 630-632. [morphometry, relief,statistical analysis]

Ruffin, B.W., 1965, Lunar heights from shadows automatically: Photogrammetric Engineering, v. 31,no. 5, p. 741-743. [qual. descript. of quant. processes for getting spot heights for the ACIC lunarcharts]

Ruggles, C.L.N., Medyckyj-Scott, D.J., and Gruffydd, A., 1993, Multiple viewshed analysis using GISand its archaeological application—a case study in northern Mull, in Andresen, J., Madsen, T., andScollar, I., eds., Computing the past—Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods inArchaeology, CAA92 Aarhus: Aarhus, Denmark, Aarhus University Press, p. 125-131. [used tosolve historico-archeological problems]

Ruhe, R.V., 1967, Geomorphic surfaces and surficial deposits in southern New Mexico: Socorro NM,State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Memoir 18, 65 p. [eqns. of profiles & contours onfans, pediments, & piedmonts; fits ellipse to plan of mtn. range]

Ruhe, R.V., and Walker, P.H., 1968, Hillslope models and soil formation, I, in International Congressof Soil Science, 9th, Adelaide, Australia, Transactions: v. 4, p. 551-560. [parsed geomorph. unitsfr concavo-convexity & slope gradient, length, & width; proposed quant. descr. but did none]

Russell, E.C., Kumler, Mark, and Ochis, Heidi, 1995, Identifying and removing systematic errors inUSGS DEMs, in Conference, GIS in the Rockies, Denver, CO, 25-27 Sept., Proceedings: pagingunknown; http://www.ctmap.com/gis_journal/destripe.pdf. [row-by-row DEM power-spectrumestimates better than low-pass filtering]

Russell, E.C., and Ochis, Heidi, 1995-96?, Mitigation methods for systematic errors in USGS DEMs:Boulder, CO, Computer Terrain Mapping, Inc., 8 p.;http://www.ctmap.com/gis_journal/filtering_wp.pdf. [good review of Level 1 7.5' problem;improvements fr power-spectrum (manual profiling) or global + local filtering (Gestalt PhotomapperII)]

Rutkis, Janis, 1971, Tables on relative relief in middle and western Europe: Uppsala Universitet,Naturgeografiska Institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden, UNGI Rapport 9, 22 p. [+ 2 appendices with69 pages of tables of elevation; see William-Olssen, 1975]

Ruxton, B.P., 1958, Weathering and subsurface erosion in granite at the piedmont angle, Balo,Sudan: Geological Magazine, v. 95, no. 5, p. 353-377. [quant. data on slope profiles suggestcorrel. betw. slope & lithology]

Rzhanitsky, N.A., 1960, Morphological and hydrological regularities of the structure of the river net(translated from the Russian by D.B. Krimgold): U.S. Agricultural Research Service, 380 p. [quant.drainage analysis applied to USSR hydro. problems; big. Engl. biblio]


Sadahiro, Yukio, 2001, Analysis of surface changes using primitive events: International Journal ofGeographic Information Science, v. 15, no. 6, p. 523-538. [modify 'structural graph' (Warntztopology; critical points & integral curves)]

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Sagar, B.S.D., 2002, Qualitative models of certain discrete natural features of drainage environment:New Delhi, India, Allied Publishers Ltd., ca. 225 p, in-press. [a morphometric monograph('qualitative' a misnomer) on spatial fractal char. of rivers, math. morphology, '1-D maps']

Sagar, B.S.D., and Murthy, K.S.R., 2000, Generation of a fractal landscape using nonlinearmathematical morphological transformations: Fractals, v. 8, no. 3, p. 267-272. [fr 3r-order Kochquadric fractal; 'resembles landscape (w/) alluvial fans, of interest to theoretical geomorphologists']

Sagar, B.S.D., Murthy, M.B.R., Rao, C.B., and Raj, Baldev, 2002, Morphological approach to extractridge and valley connectivity networks from digital elevation models: International Journal ofRemote Sensing, v. 23, in press, 9 p. [math. morph. transform. of grey-scale image of DEM;Gaussian blurring technique]

Sagar, B.S.D., and Rao, B.S.P., 1995, Fractal relation on perimeter to the water body area: CurrentScience (Bangalore, India), v. 68, no. 11, p. 1129-1130. [the old (mid 19th Cent.) area/perimeterproblem yet again]

Sagar, B.S.D., and Srinivas, D., 1999, Estimation of number-area-frequency dimensions of surfacewater bodies: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 20, no. 13, p. 2491-2496. [math.morph.; set theory-based transform, the 'cascade of erosion-dilation' for 1700 lakes]

Sagar, B.S.D., Venu, M., and Murthy, K.S.R., 1999, Do skeletal networks derived from water bodiesfollow Horton's laws?: Mathematical Geology, v. 31, no. 2, p. 143-154. ['yes', acc. to Melton's law,tested on Nizamsagar Reservoir]

Sagar, B.S.D., Venu, M., and Srinivas, D., 2000, Morphological operators to extract channel networksfrom digital elevation models: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 21, no. 1 p. 21-29.[mathematical morphology simplifies DEM-to-network transf. from a simulated DEM]

Saint-Venant, A.J.C.B. (Adhémar Jean-Claude Barré) de, 1852, Sur les surfaces à plus grande penteconstante ainsi que sur les lignes courbes parallèls, sur celles qu'on peut appeler anti-parallèls, etsur les lignes de faîte et de thalweg des surfaces courbes en général (in French; on surfaces ofgreater constant slope as well as curved parallel lines, anti-parallels, and ridge & thalweg lines ofcurved surfaces in general): Bulletin de la Société Philomathématique de Paris, March 6 session, p.24-29. [mathematician & civil engineer; 2 theorems here; this possibly 1st identify of ridges &drains as points of minimum slope—compared to other points at same elevation, altho did notspecify flow-lines (slope = zero) that form drainage pattern (see Haralick 1983)]

Sakaguchi, Yukata, 1968, On mountain-forming processes: Geographical Review (Japan), v. 77, p.284-310. [used relative relief & summit altitude]

Salisbury, N.E., 1980, Thresholds and valleys widths in the South River basin, Iowa, in Coates, D.R.,and Vitek, J.D., eds., Thresholds in Geomorphology: London, George Allen and Unwin, p. 103-129. [problem of valley widening approached by regression analysis of basin area, reach length,slope, etc.]

Sallenger, A.H. Jr., Krabill, William, Brock, John, Swift, Robert, Jansen, Mark, Manizade, Serdar,Richmond, Bruce, Hampton, Monte, and Eslinger, David, 1999, Airborne laser study quantifies ElNiño-induced coastal change: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 80, no. 8, p. 89,92, 93. [Airborne Topo. Mapper (ATM): 2-m spacing & 14-cm rms vert. error show erosion]

Sandwell, D.T., and Smith, W.H.F., 2001, Bathymetric estimation, in Fu, L.-L., and Cazenave, eds.,Satellite Altimetry and Earth Sciences—A handbook of techniques and applications: New York,Academic Press, p. 441-457. [state-of-art overview]

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Sapozhnikov, V.B., and Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi, 1999, Horizontal and vertical self-organization ofbraided rivers: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 3, p. 843-851. [dynamic scaling emerges ascritical state approached; braided rivers are S-O systems]

Sauermann, G., Rognon, P., Poliakov, A., and Herrmann, H.J., 2000, The shape of the barchandunes of Southern Morocco: Geomorphology, v. 36, nos. 1-2, p. 47-62. [h/W; n=8; claim shapenot necessarily size-invariant]

Saunders, William, 2000, Preparation of DEMs for use in environmental modeling analysis, in Djokic,Dean, and Maidment, David, eds., Hydrologic and Hydraulic Modeling Support with GeographicInformation Systems: Redlands CA, ESRI Press, p. 29-52;http://www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/papers/pap802/p802.htm. [integrates vectorhydro layer into DEM prior to watershed delineation ('stream burning')]

Savigear, R.A.G., 1967, On surveying slope profiles: Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique, v. 17,no. 4, p. 153. [see also de Béthune, & Rapp, same source]

Savigear, R.A.G., 1967, The analysis and classification of slope profile forms, in Macar, Paul, ed.,L'evolution des versants: Liége, p. 271-287. [last (?) Savigear paper on slope profiles (1st in1952)]

Schaber, G.G., Pike, R.J., and Berlin, G.L., 1979, Terrain-analysis procedures for modeling radarback-scatter: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 79-1088, 20 p. + 41 p. appendix. [the Pikeet al. 1968-70 software package; appendix has entire FORTRAN code & worked example]

Scheer, Roderich, 1933, Die zahlenmäßige Erfassung der Reliefenergie und ihre Darstellung(numerical capture of relief energy and its representation, in German): Geogr. Wochenschrift(Breslau), v. 1, no. 17, p. 463-464. [brief note on relative-relief technique]

Scheidegger, A.E., 1967, A stochastic model for drainage patterns into an intermontane trench:Bulletin of the International Association of Scientific Hydrology, v. 12, no. 1, p. 15-20. [introducedthe directed random network, the simplest possible reasonable flow model]

Scheidegger, A.E., 1968, Horton's law of stream numbers: Water Resources Research, v. 4, no. 3, p.655-658. ['law' math. consistent only for structurally Hortonian networks, which are rare in nature]

Scheidegger, A.E., and Langbein, W.B., 1966, Probability concepts in geomorphology: U.S.Geological Survey Professional Paper 500-C, p. C1-C14. [var. examples of randomness conceptsin understanding landforms & rivers]

Schenk, P.M., 2002, Thickness constraints on the icy shells of the galilean satellites from acomparison of crater shapes: Nature, v. 417, no. 6887, p. 419-421. [d/D plots for Callisto,Ganymede, & Europa fr stereo DEMs, photoclinometry, & shadow lengths]

Schenk, P.M., Hargitai, Henrik, Wilson, Ronda, McEwen, Alfred, and Thomas, Peter, 2001, Themountains of Io—global and geological perspectives from Voyager and Galileo: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 106, no. E12, p. 33,201-33,222. [L, W, A, h (mean h= 6.3 km) for 115mtns. & 541 volcanoes (mean h= 17.5 km); h fr shadow lengths, twilight illum., limb profiles, &stereo elev. mapping)]

Schick, A.P., 1964, Accuracy of the 1/20,000 topographic maps of Israel for morphometric studies:Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society, v. 28, no. 1, p. 43-54. [1/2500 maps better than 1/20Kmaps, by ~10%]

Schilling, S.P., 1998, LAHARZ—GIS programs for automated mapping of lahar-inundation hazardzones: U.S.Geological Survey, Open-file Report 98-638, 80 p. [based on Iverson & (1998);menu-driven ARCINFO GRID software uses DEM]

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Schlager, Wolfgang, and Adams, E.W., 2001, Model for the sigmoidal curvature of submarine slopes:Geology, v. 29, no. 10, p. 883-886. [STRATA pkg. consis. w/ upper-planar / lower-concave-upward model of shelf-slope break]

Schloss, Milton, 1965, Quantifying terrain roughness on lunar and planetary surfaces: AmericanInstitute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2nd Annual Meeting, July 26-29, San Francisco CA,Paper no. 65-389 (separate), 22 p. also abstracted 1966, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets(AIAA), v. 3, p. 283-285. [PSD-like log-log plots fr slope & curvature deviations extended to 1.25'-grid DEM fr USGS map of Ranger 7 (Mare Cognitum) site]

Schmaltz, Gustav, 1929, Über Glätte und Ebenheit als physikalisches und physiologisches Problem(smoothness & parallelism as a physical & physiological problem, in German): Zeitschrift desVereines deutscher Ingenieure, v. 73, no. 41, p. 1461 ff. [engineering-surface measurements frmicroscopic study of profile sections]

Schmaltz, Gustav, 1936, Technische Oberflächenkunde—Feingehalt und Eigenschaften vonGrenzflächen technischer Körper insbesondere der Maschinenteile (in German; Technical surfacescience—smoothness & characteristics of exterior surfaces of workpieces, esp. machine parts):Berlin, Springer Verlag, 286 p. [review of industrial surface metrology, earlier work; profilequantification using the Schmaltz microscope]

Schmid-McGibbon, Gesche, and Eyton, J.R., 1996, Frequency-based contextual landformclassification: Geomatica, v. 50, no. 3, p. 287-299. [freq. counts fr. classified DEM's of relief,slope & curvature]

Schmidt, Jochen, 1996, Untersuchungen zum Einfluß geomorphologischer Variabilität und Strukturauf den Niederschlag-Abfluß-Prozeß in kleinskaligen Einzugsgebieten (in German, Studies oninfluence of geomorphologic variability & structure on rainfall-discharge process in small-scalecatchments): Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Geographisches Institut, unpublishedDiplomarbeit, 183 p. [hydrologic terrain modelling]

Schmidt, Jochen, and Dikau, Richard, 1999, Extracting geomorphometric attributes and objects fromdigital elevation models—semantics, methods, future needs, in Dikau, Richard, and Saurer, Helmut,eds., GIS for Earth Surface Systems Analysis and Modelling of the Natural Environment: Stuttgart,Borntraeger, p. 153-173. [overview in GIS context; extends previous work w/ GRASS &ARC/INFO examples]

Schmidt, Jochen, Hennrich, Kirsten, and Dikau, Richard, 2000, Scales and similarities in runoffprocesses with respect to geomorphometry: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p. 1963-1979. [framework overview for detailed work in Schmidt et al. 1998 & Hennrich et al. 1999]

Schmidt, Jochen, Merz, Bruno, and Dikau, Richard, 1998, Morphological structure and hydrologicalprocess modelling: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband, 112, p. 55-66. [basinmorphometry & rainfall-runoff related using SAKE model]

Schmidt, Jürgen, 2000, Oberflächenabfluß und erosion, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen dermathematischen Prozeßbeschreibung (in German; runoff & erosion, potentialities & limitations onmath. desc. of process: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband, 123, p. 1-12. [reviewsSLOP 3D, EROSION 2D/3D, RillGrow (Ahnert, etc.); newer models finer scale]

Schmidt, K.M., and Davidson, J.G., 1999, Using geomorphic features to constrain tectonic activitynear Pahrump Valley, Nevada and California, in Conference on Status of Geologic Research andMapping in DeathValley National Park, Las Vegas, NV, April 9-11: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 99-153, p. 154-155. [mountain-front sinuosity, valley H/W, & drainage area x slope]

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Schmidt, K.M., and Montgomery, D.R., 1996, Rock mass strength assessment for bedrocklandsliding: Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, v. 2, no. 3, p. 325-338. [quantifiesrelief, slope, & bedding-plane properties]

Schneider, Bernhard, 1995, Adaptive interpolation of digital terrain models, in InternationalCartographic Conference, 17th, Barcelona, Proceedings: v. 2, p. 2206-2210. [no info; probablylike his 1998 work]

Schneider, Bernhard, 1998a, Geomorphologisch plausible Rekonstruktion der digitalenRepräsentation von Geländeoberflächen aus Höhenliniendaten (in German; geomorph. plausiblerec. of terrain surfaces fr contour data): Geographisches Institut Universität Zürich, GeoprocessingReihe, v. 35 (Inaugural dissertation), 226 p. + appendices;http://www.geo.unizh.ch/~benni/b_3.html. [surface directly fr contours via TIN better than contour-to-grid; several applics.]

Schneider, Bernhard, 1998b, Geomorphologically sound reconstruction of digital terrain surfaces fromcontours, in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling 8th, 11-15 July, Vancouver BC,Proceedings: p. 657-667. [thesis work; gets surface directly from contours via TIN; severalapplics]

Schneider, Bernhard, 2000, Uncertainty propagation in digital terrain modelling with Taylor methodsand interval arithmetic, in Accuracy 2000, July 2000, Amsterdam, Proceedings: p. 561-568. [noinfo]

Schneider, Bernhard, 2001, Phenomenon-based specification of the digital representation of terrainsurfaces: Transactions on GIS, v. 5, no. 1, p. 39-52. [no info]

Schneider, Bernhard, 2001, Uncertainty of local form in digital terrain modelling (extd. abs.), in GISResearch UK 9th Annual Conference (GISRUK 2001), Proceedings: p. 336-340. [no info]

Schneider, Bernhard, and Martinoni, Daria, 2001, A distributed geoprocessing concept for enhancingterrain analysis for environmental modeling: Transactions on GIS, v. 5, no. 2, p. 166-178. [noinfo]

Schneider, Hans, 1932, Maximal Reliefenergie, in Morphologie des Buntsandsteinodenwaldes:Frankf. Geogr., v. 6, no. 2, plate 6, 1/800K map. [map of relief 'energy' on 5km squares; 7relative-relief intervals]

Schoorl, J.M., Sonneveld, M.P.W., and Veldkamp, A., 2000, Three-dimensional landscape processmodelling—the effect of DEM resolution: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms: v. 25, no. 9, p.1025-1034. [5 DEM spacings for hillslope & basin; erosion & sedimentation rates over- &underpred.]

Schörghofer, Norbert, and Rothman D.H., 2001, Basins of attraction on random topography: PhysicalReview E, v. 63, no. 2, p. 132-137. [ability to collect water ≈ contour curv. / local slope, sohillslope & drainage area statistically related, even in random topography; Gaussian surfaces modelrandom topography]

Schrepfer, Hans, 1933, Karte (2) der Reliefenergie, in Der Kaiserstuhl: Bad. Landeresverein f.Naturkunde und Naturschutz, Freiburg i B., p. 5, 1/133K map, and p. 7, 1/120K map(Taleintiefung). [maps of relief 'energy'; resp. 7 and 4 relative-relief intervals]

Schröder, Florian, and Roßbach, Patrick, 1994, Managing the complexity of digital terrain models:Computers and Graphics, v. 18, no. 6, p. 775-783. [create TINs from DEMs (an off-line process,due to its complexity)]

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Schroeder, Martin, 1995, Computergestützte Reliefmodellierung der Erde (in German, computer-assisted relief modelling of the Earth): Diplomarbeit im Fach Geographie, Ruprecht-Karls Univ.Heidelberg, Fakultät für Geowissenschaften Geographisches Institut, 84 p. and 4 fold-out colormaps. [Hammond classif. of New Mexico, US (lower 48), & world (GTOPO30)]

Schruben, P.G., 1998, Color shaded-relief map of the conterminous United States: U.S. GeologicalSurvey, Open-file Report 99-0011, CD-ROM (ESRI ArcView 3.0 reqd.), andhttp://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of99-011/ (Adobe Photoshop reqd.). [15 arc-sec fr. old Arny data;uses Mark's multi-directional shading]

Schuller, D.J., Rao, A.R., and Jeong, G.D., 2001, Fractal characteristics of dense stream networks:Journal of Hydrology, v. 243, nos. 1-2, p. 1-16. [self-affine, not self-similar; D varies widely bytechnique]

Schultze, C., 1864, Flächeninhalt und Küstenlänge. Notiz, betr. den Schumannschen Vorschlag.(Area & coastal length. Note, Schumann's suggestion considered, in German): Petermanns Geogr.Mitteilungen, v. 10, no. 3, p. 92. [the area/perimeter problem; 'coast devel.' = U/K, U = coastlength, for K see Rohrbach, 1890]

Schulz, Karsten, Huwe, Bernd, Wörlen, Christine, and Eiden, Reiner, 1999, Wind speedregionalization and its influence on areal evapotranspiration prediction, in Diekkrüger, Bernd,Kirkby, M.J., and Schröder, Ulrich, eds., Regionalization in Hydrology: Conference, TechnicalUniversity of Braunschweig, Germany, 10-14 March, 1997, Proceedings: IAHS Publication no. 254,p. 97-104. [distributed DEM data much improve ET estimates over those based on central stationtopo only]

Schumann, Dr., 1864, comments (in German) in Bothe (1864a), p. 406. [the area/perimeterproblem; 'coastal development' = U/2√F∏: U = perimeter of coast, F = area enclosed; and r1 =√F/∏; see Rohrbach, 1890]

Schumm, S.A., 1954, Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, NewJersey: Office of Naval Research Project no. 389-042, Contract N6 ONR 271-30, Technical Reportno. 8, New York, Columbia University, Department of Geology, 86 p. + illustrations. [mostprominent Strahler student; extended Horton work on topologic & geometric variables]

Schumm, S.A., 1954, The relation of drainage basin relief to sediment loss, in InternationalAssociation of Hydrology, IUGG, General Asembly 10th, Rome, Proceedings: v. 1, p. 216-219.[defined relief ratio, Rh, as total basin relief / max. basin length parallel to main trunk]

Schwartz, P.M., Levine, D.A., Hunsaker, C.T., and Timmins, S.P., 1995, TERRAIN, a computerprogram to process digital elevation models for modeling surface flow: U.S. Department of Energy,National Laboratories, Oak Ridge TN, 73 p. [software calculates overland flow paths, watershedboundaries, slope, & aspect; US$22.95]

Scott, P.J., 2001, An algorithm to extract critical points from lattice height data: International Journalof Machine Tools and Manufacture, v. 41, Nos. 13-14, p. 1889-1897. [satisfies Euler Criterion &other topological properties that always must apply to continuous data]

Seibert, Jan, 1999, On TOPMODEL's ability to simulate groundwater dynamics, in Diekkrüger, Bernd,Kirkby, M.J., and Schröder, Ulrich, eds., Regionalization in Hydrology: Conference, TechnicalUniversity of Braunschweig, Germany, 10-14 March, 1997, Proceedings: IAHS Publication no. 254,p. 211-220. [basic assumptions obstruct correct simulation of spatial & temporal dynamics]

Serra, Jean, 1995, (online) Course on mathematical morphology: Centre de MorphologieMathématique, Fontainebleau, France. <http://cmm.ensmp.fr/~serra/cours.htm>. [chapter 9, 'Skizand Watershed', describes grey scale-to-elevation transformation; standard text on subject = SerraJean, 1982, Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology: London, Academic Press]

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Serrat, Joan, López, A.M., and Lloret, David, 2000, On ridges and valleys, in InternationalConference on Computer Vision 15th (ICPR'00), IEEE Computer Society, 3-8 September,Barcelona: Proceedings, v. 4, p. 59-66. [intro. to descriptive geometry of ridges & drains inmachine vision; taxonomy; see López 1997 & 1999]

Seymour, M., and Cumming, I., 1998, Improving DEMs using SAR interferometry, in IEEEInternational Geoscience and Remore Sensing symposium (IGARSS), Seattle WA, July 6-10,Proceedings: Piscataway NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, CD-ROM. [work withGTOPO30]

Sharma, H.S., 1986, Climate and drainage basin morphometric properties - a case study ofRajasthan, in Gardiner, V., ed., International Geomorphology 1986, Part II: New York, John Wiley &Sons, p. 69-87. [maps of stream freq. & dissection index; 5 climate types contrasted]

Sharpton, V.L., and Head, J.W. III, 1985, Analysis of regional slope characteristics on Venus andEarth: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 90, no. B5, p. 3733-3740. [Pioneer/Venus data;3°x3° samples; same range, diff. freq. distr.]

Shary, P.A., 2001, Analytical GIS "Eco": <http://members.fortunecity.com/eco4/giseco/>. [softwarepackage for digital terrain modeling & display, by Peter Shary, for Windows 95/98/2000/NT; 23 landsurface attributes; $US 900/1200 as of 05/02; emphasis on soils analysis by the curvaturemeasures in Shary 1995 & Shary et al. 2002]

Shary, P.A., Sharyara, L.S., and Mitusov, A.V., 2002, Fundamental quantitative methods of landsurface analysis: Geoderma, v. 107, nos. 1-2, p. 1-32. [DEM-based random-field parameterizationof surface curvature after Gauss 1827, Evans & Young 1978, Krcho 1973 & 83; formulae for 12curvatures & 7 other local parameters]

Shepard, F.P., 1970, Lagoonal topography of Caroline and Marshall Islands: Geological Society ofAmerica Bulletin, v. 81, no. 7, p. 1905-1914. [4-fa contours reveal irreg. floors; 10-20-m-reliefknoll-&-basin topo]

Shiiba, Michiharu, Ichikawa, Yutaka, Sakakibara, Tetsuyoshi, and Tachikawa, Yasuto, 1999, A newnumerical representation form of basin topography (in Japanese with English abstract & figurecaptions): Transactions of the Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, n. 621/II-47, p. 1-9. [getsboth concentration & divergence of flow fr grid DEM]

Shimazu, Hiroshi, 2001, Relief condition and sediment transport processes in Japanese and Koreanmountain river basins: Transactions of the Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 22, no. 3, p. 307-320. [R/elev., R components by river type; elev. & slope/stream distance]

Shinagawa, Yoshihisa, and Kunii, T.L., 1991, Constructing a Reeb graph automatically from crosssections: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, v. 11, no. 6, p. 44-51. [topological skeletonof 3-D object from surface contours]

Shinagawa, Yoshihisa, Kunii, T.L., and Kergosien, Y.L., 1991, Surface coding based on Morsetheory: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, v. 11, no. 5, p. 66-78. [extends Morse theory(for abstracting shape of a surface) to sections of 3-D objects]

Shinagawa, Yoshihisa, Kunii, T.L., Belyaev, A.G., and Tsukioka, Taketo, 1996, Shape modeling andshape analysis based on singularities: The International Journal of Shape Modeling, v. 2, no. 1, p.85-102. [define fcn. on object & use its singularities to abstract object shape; Reeb graph,wavelets]

Shortridge, A.M., 1997, Characterizing the relationship between 7.5' and 1 degree digital elevationmodels: Santa Barbara, University of California, M.A. thesis, 70 p. [the "old Army" 1 degree dataare poor by comparison]

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Shortridge, A.M., 2001, Characterizing uncertainty in digital elevation models: ch. 11, in Hunsaker,C.T., Goodchild, M.F., Friedl, M.A., Case, T.J., eds., Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology—Implications forRemote Sensing and GIS Applications: New York, Springer, p. 238-257. [2 causes; diffs. betw.data model & real surface, and poor capture by production methods]

Shortridge, A.M., and Clarke, K.C., 1999, On some limitations of square raster cell structures fordigital elevation data modeling, Ch. 41 in Lowell, Kim, and Jaton, Annick, eds., Spatial AccuracyAssessment—Land Information Uncertainty in Natural Resources: Chelsea, MI, Ann Arbor Press, p.341-347. [identified resampling problems that need to be addressed by GIS users]

Shrestha, R.L., and Carter, W.E., 2000, Bare earth digital terrain model from airborne laser swathmapping (abs.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 48 (Supplement,G72A-01), p. F323. ['ground clutter' (structures, vegetation, etc.) filtered out of DEMs]

Shreve, R.L., 1963, Horton's "Law" of stream numbers for topologically random drainage netwirks(abs.): Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 44, no. 1, p. 44-45. [1st publ. by Shreve onrandomness, rather than orderly development, in river patterns]

Shreve, R.L., 1974, Variation of main stream length with basin area in river networks: WaterResources Research, v. 10, no. 6, p. 1167-1177. [Systematic deviation of observations (n = 461)from Hack's Law]

Shulits, Samuel, 1955, Graphical analysis of trend profile of a shortened section of river: Transactionsof the American Geophysical Union, v. 36, no. 4, p. 649-654. [cutoffs on the Rhine; slope &sediment size closely related]

Siakeu, Jean, and Oguchi, Takashi, 2000, Soil erosion analysis and modelling—a review:Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 21, no. 4, p. 413-429. [USLE & alternatives;includes caveats on DEM-based work]

Siegburg, Werner, 1987, Talasymetrien in der Umgebung von Bonn (Valley symmetry around Bonn):Decheniana, v. 140, p. 204-217. [no info]

Siegburg, Werner, 1988, Multivariate statistische Untersuchungen zur Hanggenese am Beispiel desSiebengebirges (multivariate statistical studies of slope genesis exemplified by the Siebenmountains): Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 32, no. 4, p. 481-497. [correl. slope, conc., conv.w/ geology, aspect, sed. cover, etc.]

Siegmund, Mike, and Hall, Kevin, 2000, A study of valley-side slope asymmetry based on theapplication of GIS analysis—Alexander Island, Antacrtica: Antarctic Science, v. 12, no. 4, p. 471-476. [slope & aspect of polygons of TIN-DEM fr map contours]

Sigle, M., 1985, Das digitale Höhenmodell für das Land Baden-Württemberg (in German): Nachr.Karten-und Vermessungswesen, Series I, v. 95, p. 143-154. [the Baden-Württemberg provincialDEM]

Sigle, M., Hellwich, O., and Köstli, A., 1992, Intersection and combination of digital elevationmodels—methods and applications: International Archives of Photogrammetry and RemoteSensing, v. 29, pt. B4, Commission IV, p. 878-882. [DEM analysis pkg SCOP]

Simonett, D.S., 1967, Landslide distribution and earthquakes in the Bewani and Torricelli Mountains,New Guinea, a statistical analysis, in Jennings, J.N., and Mabbutt, J.A., eds., Landform Studiesfrom Australia and New Guinea: Canberra, Australian National University Press, p. 64-84. [L/Selev., slope angle & length, area, vol.; mult. regression eqns.; denudation est.]

Singh, R.L., 1967, Morphometric analysis of terrain, Part 2: Indian Sci. Congr. Ass., 54th Sess., Proc.p. 115-134. [Relative relief, dissection indexes, drainage texture or density, slope]

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Sinha-Roy, S., 2002, Hypsometry and landform evolution—a case study in the Banas drainagebasin, Rajasthan, with implications for Aravalli uplift: Journal of the Geological Society of India, v.60, no. 1, p. 7-26. [10 basins; tectonic history interpr. fr shape of % hypsom. curves & relation toseveral other basin measures]

Sirotkin, M.P., 1961, Calculation of topographic volume by approximate integration techniques (inRussian): Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnyh Zavedeny, Geodesiya i Aerophotosyemka, no. 6, p. 39-46.[no info]

Sitnikov, V.K., 1964, Calculation of mean river slope and valley side slope (in Russian): Meteorol.Gidrol., no. 3, paging unknown. [no info]

Sivapalan, M., Jothityangkoon, C., and Menabde, M., 2002, Linearity and nonlinearity of basinresponse as a function of scale—discussion of alternative definitions: Water Resources Research,v. 38, no. 2, p. 4-1 to 4-5. [Hack's law arises from linear network response & a purely geometricalproperty of the basin]

Sjogren, D.B., and Rains, R.B., 1995, Glaciofluvial erosional morphology and sediments of theCoronation-Spondin Scabland, east-central Canada: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 32, no.5, p. 565-578. [1/20K DEMs & altimetric surveys of v. low-relief features; 1-2-m CI]

Skempton, A.W., 1953, Soil mechanics in relation to geology: Proceedings of the YorkshireGeological Society, v. 29, pt. 1, no. 3, p. 33-62. [1st distinction of landslides by D/L, where D=depth of moving mass & L= length upslope; also slope gradient vs. slope height]

Skidmore, A.K., 1997, GIS applications and use of digital terrain modelling, in Hodgson, S., Rumor,and Harts, J.J., eds., Joint European Conference on Geographical Information, 3rd, Vienna,Austria, Proceedings: Amsterdam, IOS Press, v. 1, p. 442-463. [reviews DEM's in GIS; DEMaccuracy, quality, role in modeling; big biblio heavy on applic.]

Skinner, H., and Moore, A.J., 1997, Digital elevation model of the Oak Ridges Moraine, southernOntario (hillshade enhanced): Geological Survey of Canada, Open-File Report 3297, 1 poster.[Oak Ridges Moraine NATMAP Project; see Kenny 1998 & Kenney et al. 1999]

Slatton, K.C., Crawford, M.M., and Evans, B.L., 2001, Fusing interferometric radar and laser altimeterdata to estimate surface topography and vegetation heights: IEEE Transactions on Geoscienceand Remote Sensing, v. 39, no. 11, p. 2470-2482. [one way to get accurate, dense, and broadcoverage]

Small, D., 1998, Generation of Digital elevation Models Through Spaceborne SAR Interferometry:Department of Geography, Univ. Zurich, Remote Sensing Series, v. 30, 150 p. [hybrid text/Ph.D.thesis; thorough on DEM analysis fr. 2 test areas]

Small, Christopher, and Cohen, J.E., 1999, Continental physiography, climate and the globaldistribution of human population, in International Symposium on Digital Earth, Beijing, Proceedings:Beijing, China, Science Press, p. 965-971; http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~small/population.html.[graphs show how world pop. density diminishes rapidly w/ elev. & distance fr sea & permanentrivers]

Smalley, I.J., and Unwin, D.J., 1968, The formation and shape of drumlins and their distribution andorientation in drumlin fields: Journal of Glaciology, v. 7, p. 377-390. [applied nearest-neighbortest]

Smart, J.S., 1972, Channel networks: Advances in Hydroscience, v. 8, p. 305-346. [Melton's law:channel freq./sq (ch. density) ≈ 0.69]

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Smart, J.S., 1973, The random model in fluvial geomorphology, in Morisawa, M.E., ed., FluvialGeomorphology, in annual geomorphology symposium, 4th, Binghamton, N.Y., SUNY,Proceedings: Publications in Geomorphology, p. 27-49. [introduces 3rd postulate to Shreve's 2;finds topol. random model better than Horton's laws]

Smith, D.D., and Whitt, D.M., 1948, Evaluating soil losses from field areas: Agricultural Engineering, v.29, no. 9, p. 394-396. [derived eqn for soil loss (corn-belt slope-practice); uses data fr. uniformslopes]

Smith, D.E., Zuber, M.T., and 17 others, 1999, The global topography of Mars and implications forsurface evolution: Science, v. 284, no. 5419, p. 1495-1503. [26-million-elev MOLA DEM at 1°(~59 km) res. & +13-m accuracy]

Smith, D.E., Zuber, M.T., and 22 others, 2001, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter—experiment summaryafter the first year of global mapping of Mars: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 106, no. E10, p.23,689-23,722. [Sect. 8, misc. topo. results; regional elev, slope; crater d/D; volc. relief & vol.; 5lg drainage basins]

Smith, K.G. 1958, Erosional processes and landforms in Badlands National Monument, SouthDakota: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 69, no. 8, p. 1975-1008. [results ontopo. texture, bifurcation ratios, & statistics of slope length & gradient in p. 998-1006]

Smith, L.C., 2002, Emerging applications of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) ingeomorphology and hydrology: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 92, no. 3,p. 385-398. [applics underdeveloped in geography; review & good biblio]

Snyder, N.P., Whipple, K.X., Tucker, G.E., and Merritts, D.J., 2000, Landscape response to tectonicforcing—digital elevation model analysis of stream profiles in the Mendocino triple junction region,northern California: Geological Society of America Bulletin. v. 112, no. 8, p. 1250-1263. [DEMslope-area of 21 channels; profile concavity constant]

Sobolev, S.S., 1936, Map of erosion depth in the Ukranian SSR and related problems (in Russian):Problemy sovetskogo pochvovedeniya, no. 1: Moscow-Leningrad, AN SSSR, paging unknown.[no info]

Sobolev, S.S., 1948, Development and Control of Erosion Processes in the European Part of theUSSR, v. 1: Soviet Academic Press, Moscow, 307 p. [no info]

Soille, Pierre, 1988, Modèles numériques de terrain et morphologie mathématique—délimitationautomatique de bassins versants (in French): Mémoire de fin d'études (Master's Thesis), Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Université catholique de Louvain, paging unknown. [DEM's-to-watershed usingmathematical morphology]

Soille, Pierre, 1989, Modèles numériques de terrain et morphologie mathématique—délimitationautomatique de bassins versants (in French): 2èmes Journées Utilités et Limites des Modèles enHydrologie, Montpellier, ORSTOM, p. 12-13. [DEM's-to-watersheds]

Soille, Pierre, 1990, Génération de MNT à partir de fonctions distances (in French): 3èmes JournéesUtilités et Limites des Modèles en Hydrologie, Montpellier, ORSTOM, p. 1-14. [DEM work; noother info]

Soille, Pierre, 1999, Morphological Image Analysis: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 316 p. (English edition ofMorphologische Bildverarbeitung, 1998). [math. morphology; a few DEM applics.; p. 230-39, 'thewatershed transformation' (grey scale to elevation)]

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Soille, Pierre, 1999, Processing of digital elevation maps, Chapter 19 in Jähne, B., Haußecker, H.,and Geißler, P., eds., Handbook of Computer Vision and Applications, v. 3: San Diego, AcademicPress, p. 411-428. [no info; see other articles]

Soille, Pierre, 2002, Advances in the analysis of topographic features on discrete images: LectureNotes in Computer Science, no. 2301, p. 175-186. [math. morphology; imposition of minima,lower complete transf., hit-or-miss transform, extracting crest lines by skeletonisation]

Soille, Pierre, and Gratin, C., 1994, An efficient algorithm for drainage networks extraction on DEMs:Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, v. 5, no. 2, p. 181-189. [improvedDEM-to-watershed transformation]

Soille, Pierre, Nickolay, B., and Köppen, M., 1994, A modular system for image segmentation basedon watershed transformation: Vision Magazine, v. 94, no. 2, p. 118-120. [mathematicalmorphology, the grey scale-to-'watershed' transformation]

Sokolov, A.A., 1962, Interrelations between the morphological features of basins and of rivernetworks (in Russian): Meteorol. Gidrol., no. 2, paging unknown. [no info]

Sokolov, A.A., 1969, Interrelationship between geomorphological characteristics of a drainage basinand stream (in Russian): Soviet Hydrology, Selected Papers, no. 1, paging unknown. [no info]

Sonklar, C.E. von I., 1860, Die Oetzthaler Gebirgsgruppe, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Orographieund Gletscherkunde, nach eigenen Untersuchungen dargestellte (in German): Gotha, J. Perthes,306 p. [1st use of some of the morphometric measures (pp. 249 ff.) summarized in full later in his1873 book (not known if term 'orometrie' coined here); 13 maps]

Sonklar, C.E. von I., 1862, Die Gebirgsgruppe der Hohen Tatra (in German): PetermannsGeographischen Mitteilungen, v. 8, no. 4, p. 121-125. [compares Ötzthaler Alps & Hohen Tatraacross 7 of the 12 parameters later summarized in 1873 book]

Sonklar, C.E. von I., 1866, Die Gebirgsgruppe der Hohen-Tauern, mit besonderer Rücksicht aufOrographie, Gletscherkunde, Geologie und Meteorologie, nach eigenen Untersuchungendargestellt (in German): Vienna, Beck'sche Universitäts-Buchhandlung, 408 p. [Pt. 1, Orographie,Orometrie, Topographie; further use of some of the morphometric measures later summarized in his1873 book]

Sonklar, C.E. von I., 1872, Die Zillerthaler Alpen, mit besonderer rücksicht auf orographie,gletscherkunde und geologie nach eigenen untersuchungen dargestellt (in German): Gotha,Justus Perthes, Ergänzungsheft (supplement volume) no. 32, to Petermanns GeographischenMitteilungen, 61 p. [many mean heights of ridges & other forms in chap. VI-VII, pp. 39-54ff.]

Sowter, M.J., and Talling, P.J., 1998, Topographic fingerprinting of erosional processes inmountainous regions (abs.): Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 79, no. 45,supplement, p. F366. [suite of DEM params. ; relief, slope, plan. arrangement of ridges, valleys,spurs]

Sparks, B.W., 1949, The denudation chronology of the dip-slope of the South Downs: Proceedingsof the Geologists' Association, v. 60, no. 3, p. 165-215. [devised the height-range diagram;plotted 283 field-surveyed flat areas]

Sparks, B.W., 1952, Stages in the physical evolution of the Weymouth Lowland: Transactions andPapers of the Institute of British Geographers, no. 18, p. 21. [elaborated the height-rangediagram of Sparks 1949]

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Speckmann, Bettina, and Snoeyink, Jack, 2001, Easy triangle strips for TIN terrain models:International Journal of Geographical Information Science, v. 15, no. 4, p. 379-386. [spanningtrees based on visibility = simple & effective way to get strips]

Spinney, Jamie, 2001, Environmental Application of LIDAR Data—Exploring High-ResolutionWatershed Delineation: Lawrencetown, NS, Nova Scotia Community College, Centre of GeographicSciences (COGS), Applied Geomatics Research Group, report;; slide presentation athttp:// [feasibility study, compare wmap data; used Arc/Info AML; LIDAR has both +&–s]

Squividant, E., 1994, MNTsurf, logiciel de traitment des Modèles Numérique de Terrain: Rennes,ENSAR (Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Rennes), internal document, pagingunknown. [calculates such hydro parameters as catchment area]

Srinivasan, Raghavan, and Engel, B.A., 1991, Effect of slope prediction methods on slope anderosion estimates: Applied Engineering in Agriculture, v. 7, no. 6, p. 779-783. [compared 4square-grid-DEM slope-calc. techniques against field meas.; found neighborhood & quadratic best.& max. slope poorest]

Srinivasan, Raghavan, Engel, B.A., Wright, J.R., Lee, J.G., and Jones, D.D., 1994, The impact ofGIS-derived topographic attributes on the simulation of erosion using AGNPS: Applied Engineeringin Agriculture, v. 10, no. 4, p. 561-566. [refinement of their 1991 experiment; neighborhoodmethod best]

Stange, Paul, 1885, Orometrie des Thüringerwaldes (in German): Friedrichs-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Inaugural-Dissertation (Ph.D.), 44 p.; also 1885, in Petermanns GeographischeMitteilungen, v. 31, no. 7?, p. 250-254. [Sonklar's volume method for mountains = meandimensions for Thur. Forest block; 12 meas. for 36 valleys, 17 N & 19 SW (sloping?)]

Stark, C.P., and Hovius, Niels, 2001, The characterization of landslide size distributions: GeophysicalResearch Letters, v. 28, no. 6, p. 1091-1094. [power-law scaling, but small failures are stronglyundersampled]

Stark, C.P., and Stark, G.J., 2001, A channelization model of landscape evolution, in Pazzaglia, F.J.,and Knuepfer, P.L.K., eds., The steady-state orogen—concepts, field observations, and models:American Journal of Science, v. 302, nos. 4 & 5, p. 486-512. [sub-grid scale parameterizationaggregates channel properties of roughness, srfce morph., cross-sect.]

Steger, Carsten, 1997, Removing the bias from line detection in CVPR '97, IEEE InternationalConference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 17-19 June, Puerto Rico, Proceedings:p. 116-122. [develops explicit model for surroundings of curvilinear structures ('lines') as well aslines themselves]

Steger, Carsten, 1998, An unbiased detector of curvilinear structures: IEEE Transactions on PatternAnalysis and Machine Intelligence, v. 20, no. 2, p. 113-125. [similar to Steger 1997 (& unpubl.1997 Ph.D. dissertation)]

Steger, Carsten, 1999, Subpixel-precise extraction of watersheds, in IEEE International Conferenceon Computer Vision 7th (ICCV'99), 20–25 September, Corfu, Greece, Proceedings (CD-ROM): p.884-890. [critical points & flowlines fr Gaussian filter derivatives superior to pixel-by-pixel routing]

Steiner, N., Harder, M., and Lemke, P., 1999, Modelling sea ice roughness in the Arctic, inWettlaufer, J.S., Dash, J.G., and Untersteiner, Norbert, eds., Ice Physics and the NaturalEnvironment: NATO ASI Series (1997 meeting), v. I 56, Berlin, Springer, p. 341-345. [model frstatistics of observed pressure-ridge geometry; use to verify remote sensing]

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Steinhauser, Dr., 1864, comments (in German) in Bothe (1864a), p. 406. [the area/perimeterproblem; 'coastal convolution' = ((U/4)2)/F, U = coast length, F = land area]

Stelford, Mark, 1998, Sources of error in morphometrically defined hydrologic source areas (abs.), inHallam, C.A., and Salisbury, J.M., eds., GIS Applications in Water Resources Research—Americanwater Resources Annual Meeting, Chicago Ill, November 6-10, 1994: U.S. Geological Survey,Open-file Report 98-751, p. 19. [problem = 'sinks' in glaciated & karst terrain on 7.5' DEM's notreal]

Stepinsky, T.F., Marinova, M.M., McGovern, P.J., and Clifford, S.M., 2002, Fractal analysis ofdrainage basins on Mars: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 8, p. 30-1 to 30-4. [4-pointnetwork descriptor fr Tarboton algorithm on 0.5 km DEMs of old mtn. terrain fr MOLA data]

Sternberg, H., 1875, Untersuchungen über Längen- und Querprofil geschiebeführender Fluss (studyof the longitudinal & transverse profile of the most (?) prominent river; in German): Zeitschrift fürBauwesen, v. 25, no. 11-12, p. 483-506. [the Rhine; 1st to suggest long. profile = exponentialcurve; related slope to sediment size—see Gilbert 1877]

Stevens, N.F., Wadge, G., and Murray, J.B., 1999, Lava flow volume and morphology from digitisedcontour maps—a case study at Mount Etna, Sicily: Geomorphology, v. 28, nos. 3-4, p. 251-261.[differences 10-m DEM's fr 1969 & 1991 1/25K maps, 25-m CI; not OK for thin flows]

Stewart, E.M., and Head, J.W., 2001, Ancient Martian volcanoes in the Aeolis region—new evidencefrom MOLA data: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 106, no. E8, p. 17,505-17,513. [paraboliccurves fit to flank topo. of candidate stratocone MOLA 'Feature A' suggest original h ~3 km]

Stewart, Ian, 1991, A Swift trip over rugged terrain: Scientific American, v. 264, no. 6, p. 123-125.['critical points' theorem; H+V-P=2, where H= no. of local maxima, V= min., P= saddles]

Stocks, J., 1939, Neues zur Morphometrie des Atlantischen Ozeans: Annaler der Hydrographie undMaritimen Meteorology, v. 67, p. 1-13. [see Stocks, 1938; (NB, author's initial Th.?)]

Stoddard, P.R., and Jurdy, D.M., 2002, Distribution of Io's volcanoes—possible influence on spinaxis: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 9, 10.1029/2001GL014539, p. 63-1 to 63-4. [351volcanoes & ~100 mountains are complementary re longitude]

Stoddart, D.R., ed., 1997, Process and Form in Geomorphology: London & NY, Routledge, 415 p.[not seen; the Chorley Festschrift; a few papers appear to be morphometric]

Stokes, S., Goudie, A.S., Ballard, J., Gifford, C., Samieh, S., Embabi, N., and El-Rashidi, O.A., 1999,Accurate displacement and morphometric data using kinematic GPS: Zeitschrift fürGeomorphologie, Supplementband 116, p. 195-214. [h/W data on 20 barchans in SW Egypt]

Stout, K.J., and others, 1999, 14 (+3) parameters for 3D surface roughness: University ofHuddersfield, UK, School of Engineering, Center for Ultra Precision Techniques,<http://zeus.plmsc.psu.edu/~manias/MatSc597/roughness/definitions.html>. [details on industrialmorphometric measures on Web; see Stout et al., 1993, 2000]

Stout, K.J., and Blunt, Liam, eds., 2000, Three-Dimensional Surface Topography (2nd Ed): LondonUK and Bristol PA, Penton Press, 308 p. [enlarged ed. of state-of-art review of a majordevelopment in metrology]

Stout, K.J., Blunt, Liam, Dong, W.P., Mainsah, Evaristus, Luo, N., Mathia, T.G, Sullivan, P.J., andZahouani, H., 2000, The development of methods for the characterisation of roughness in threedimensions (2nd ed.): London UK and Bristol PA, Penton Press, 384 p. [revision & enlargementof important 1993 review]

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Stover, J.C., 1995, Optical Scattering—Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed.: SPIE Press, BellinghamWA, 340 p. [full description of power spectral density applied to optical micro-surfaces]

Strahler, A.N., 1952, Dynamic basis of geomorphology: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America,v. 63, no. 9, p. 923-938. [mechanics & fluid dynamnics; 1st mention of general systems theory ingeomorph.]

Strahler, A.N., 1954, Quantitative geomorphology of erosional landscapes: 19th InternationalGeological Congress, Algiers, 1952, Comptes Rendues, Section 13, part 3, fasc. 15, p. 341-354.[good summary & intro to the subject]

Strahler, A.N., 1956, The nature of induced erosion and aggradation, in Thomas, W.L., Jr., ed.,Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth: University of Chicago Press, p. 621-638.[introduces 'Horton Number' = runoff intensity + slope + 'erosion porportionality']

Strahler, A.N., 1958, Dimensional analysis applied to fluvially eroded landforms: Bulletin of theGeological Society of America, v. 69, no. 3, p. 279-300. [parameter lists; methodol. statements;descr. of optimal analytic procedures]

Strahler, A.N., 1968, Quantitative geomorphology, in Fairbridge, R.W., ed., The Encyclopedia ofGeomorphology, New York, Reinhold, p. 898-912. [his last state-of-art summary of Horton-Strahler geomorph.; modified from Strahler 1964]

Streit, Ulrich, Fuhrmann, Sven, Krause, Joachim, and Mittring, Peter, 1999, GIS for regionalizationand visualization in hydrology, in Diekkrüger, Bernd, Kirkby, M.J., and Schröder, Ulrich, eds.,Regionalization in Hydrology: Conference, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, 10-14March, 1997, Proceedings: IAHS Publication no. 254, p. 253-258. [flow-direction applic. of 'Toolsfor Hydro. Info. & Modelling', T4HIM, in ARC/INFO]

Strumbo, D.A.,1963, Surface texture—measurement methods: Forest Products Journal, v. 12, no. 7,p. 299-303. [early surface-roughness analysis on wood]

Struzik, Z.R., 1996, From coastline length to inverse fractal problem—the concept of fractalmetrology: University of Amsterdam, Neth., unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, paging unnown.[continued development of the wavelet transform; highly mathematical]

Sulebak, J.R., 1997, Geomorphometric studies of different topographic regions—analysis andapplications from Norway and Sweden: University of Oslo, Department of Geography, Sc.D. thesis,204 p. [see Sulebak 1999 & Sulebak et al. 1997]

Sulebak, J.R., 1999, Fractal analysis of surface topography: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift (NorwegianJournal of Geography), v. 53, no. 4, p. 213-225. [topo. scaling; 50m DEM; multiple PSD of 2areas: not unifractal; good biblio]

Sulebak, J.R., Tallaksen, L.M., and Erichsen, B., 2000, Estimation of areal soil moisture by use ofterrain data: Geografiska Annaler, v. 82A, no. 1, p. 89-105. [slope, aspect, plan & profile curv., &wetness index fr 5m DEM; regression model]

Summerfield, M.A., 1976, Slope form and basal stream relationships—a case study in the Westendbasin of the southern Pennines, England: Earth Surface Processes, v. 1, no. 1, p. 89-96. [54field slope-profiles at 5-m segments, convexity index]

Summerfield, M.A., 1991, Sub-aerial denudation of passive margins—regional elevation versus localrelief models: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 102, no. 3/4, p. 460-469. [slope/modalelev. & slope/relief fr 1/250K map 15' DEM]

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Sun, Tao, Meakin, Paul, and Jøssang, Torstein, 2001, A computer model for meandering rivers withmultiple bed load sediment sizes, 1, Theory, 2, Computer simulations: Water Resources Research,v. 37, no. 8, p. 2227-2241 & 2243-2258. [parameter space has 5 geomorph. regions; initialmeander is growth controlled by curvature-related instabilities]

Sung, Q.C., Chan, Y.C., and Chao, P.C., 1998, Spatial variation of fractal parameters and itsgeological implications: Terrestrial, Atmosphere and Oceanic Sciences (TAOS; Taiwan), v. 9, no. 4,p. 655-672. [includes an azimuth-related parameter]

Surell, Alexandre, 1841, Étude sue les torrents des Hautes-Alpes: Paris, Carilian-Goeury and V.Dalmont, 283 p. [his régime = 'grade', concept of a limiting slope for fluvial transport; meas. long.profile concave]

Svensson, Harald, 1956, Method for exact characterizing of denudation surfaces, especiallypeneplains, as to position in space: Lund, Sweden, Lund Studies in Geography, Ser, A, no. 8,paging unknown. [trend-surface analysis to map & distinguish erosional surfaces]

Swan, S.B.St.C., 1966, Stream representation on Malayan maps: Journal of Tropical Geography(Singapore), v. 22, no. 1, p. 1-9. [incomplete patterns pose problem for drainage-density calc.]

Sweeting, M.M., 1955, The land-forms of north-west County Clare: Transactions and Papers of theInstitute of British Geographers, no. 21, p. 33-49. [elaborated the height-range diagram ofSparks 1949]

Sykioti, Olga, Deffontaines, Benoît, Chrowicz, Jean, Obert, Daniel, Marsily, Ghislain de, Lauverjat,Jacques, and Carvalho, Jose, 1996, Imagerie numérique de la surface topographie, Application àla géométrie d'un milieu karstique—Verneuil-sur-Avre (Perche) (in French w/ English summary &figure captions): Bulletin de la Société Géologique de la France, v. 167, no. 2, p. 269-284.[synth. incl. drainage net + slope, hillshade, & envelope map fr 50-m DEM]

Szekely, Balazs, 2001, On the surface of the Eastern Alps; a DEM study: TuebingerGeowissenschaftliche Arbeiten, Reihe A, Geologie, Palaeontologie, Stratigraphie, v. 60, 124 p.[neo orometry; elev. max, mean, range, std dev., autocorrelation, variogram, slope, ruggednessparams, regions, etc.]


Tada, Fumio, 1937, Relief energy of Jehol (2), in Geography of Jehol, Report of the first scientificexpedition to Manchuria (in Japanese with German (& English?) summary): Tokyo, p. 121-132,plate 4, 1/2.5M, and plate 5, 1/1.5M (diff. method). [maps of 'relief energy'; resp. 8 & 10 relative-relief intervals, 14 & 5 km spacing of elevs.]

Tahari, D., 1994, Les Modèles Numérique de Terrain—état de l'art: Bulletin trimestriel de la SociétéBelge de Photogrammétrie-Télédétection et Cartographie, no. 195-196, p. 25-40. [French-language summary]

Taillefer, F., 1948, L'altitude moyenne des régions naturelles des Pyrénées françaises (in French):Revue de Géographie Alpine, v. 36, no. 1, p. 145-160. [mean elev. & 'coeff. of articulation' for 52& 46 zones, resp.]

Tajchman, S.J., 1981, On computing topographic characteristics of a mountain catchment: CanadianJournal of Forest Research, v. 11, p. 768-774. [mean slope of TIN facets]

Takahashi, S., Ikeda, T., Shinagawa, Y., Kunii, T.L., and Ueda, M., 1995, Algorithms for extractingcorrect critical points and constructing topological graphs from discrete geographical elevation data,in Post, F., and Göbel, M., eds., Eurographics '95; Computer Graphics Forum, v. 14, no. 3:

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Blackwell Publishers, p. C181-C192. [current definitions of 'critical points' fail to meet the EulerCriteria in DEM representation of terrain features; raster image-processing, filtering]

Takken, Ingrid, Jetten, Victor, Govers, Gerard, Nachtergaele, Jeroen, and Steegen, An, 2001, Theeffect of tillage-induced roughness on runoff and erosion patterns: Geomorphology, v. 37, nos. 1-2, p. 1-14. [flowpaths from 5-m DEM in tilled fields improve runoff calcs.]

Takken, Ingrid, Govers, Gerard, Steegen, An, Nachtergaele, Jeroen, and Guérif, Jérome, 2001, Theprediction of runoff flow directions on tilled fields: Journal of Hydrology, v. 248, nos. 1-4, p. 1-13.[logistic regr. eqn using slope, tillage direction, aspect, roughness]

Talling, P.J., Stewart, M.D., Stark, C.P., Gupta, Sanjeev, and Vincent, S.J., 1997, Regular spacing ofdrainage outlets from linear fault blocks: Basin Research, v. 9, no. 4, p. 275-302. [neo-orometryre/ Hovius 1996; stream spacing (n=551) char. of indiv. blocks (n= 43), but mean ratios var. widely =1.4-4.1 the half-width of the block]

Tang, Tao, and Day, M.J., 2000, Field survey and analysis of hillslopes on tower karst in Guilin,southern China: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 25, no. 11, p. 1221-1235. [slope-profile quantification]

Tanner, W.F., 1956, Parallel slope retreat in humid climate: Transactions, American GeophysicalUnion, v. 37, no. 5, p. 605-607. [3 stat. tests on 1/24K N. GA topo maps all suggest parallelretreat]

Tarboton, D.G., and Shankar, Ude, 1998, The identification and mapping of flow networks fromdigital elevation data (abs.): Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 79, no. 45,supplement, p. F248. [3 methods; best = accumulated no. of locally concave grid cells]

Tate, N.J., 1995, The fractal dimension of topography: Norwich, UK, University of East Anglia,unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 296 p. [details & elab. for Tate 1998]

Tate, N.J., 1998a, Estimating the fractal dimension of synthetic topographic surfaces: Computers andGeosciences, v. 24, no. 4, p. 325-334. [several methods: none 'optimal,' poor reproducibility; bigbiblio]

Tate, N.J., 1998b, Maximum entropy spectral analysis for the estimation of fractals in topography:Earth Surface Processes and Landforms—Technical and Software Bulletin, v. 23, p. 1197-1217.[MEM introduced; advantages & disadv., tradeoffs w/ other methods]

Taud, Hind, Parrot, J.-F., and Alvarez, Roman, 1999, DEM generation by contour line dilation:Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 7, p. 775-783. [contours dilate until they meet & createintermediate contour lines]

Taylor, T.J., 1851, An Inquiry into the Operation of Running Streams and Tidal Waters, with a view todetermine their principles of action, and an application of those principles to the improvement of theRiver Tyne: London, Longman Brown Green and Longmans, 119 p. [dynamic adjustment of formto process re. hydraulic geometry]

Tebbens, S.F., Burroughs, S.M., Barton, C.C., and Naar, D.F., 2001, Statistical self-similarity ofhotspot seamount volumes modeled as self-similar criticality: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 28,no. 14, p. 2711-2714. [cum. freq-vol. distr. is truncated power law, scaling exp. a = 0.57 (~ D=1.71)]

Temple, P.H., and Rapp, Anders, 1972, Landslides in the Mgeta area, western Uluguru Mountains,Tanzania: Geografiska Annaler, v. 54A, nos. 3-4, p. 157-193. [n=34; scar W, d, L; gradient; vol.,dist. fr ridge crest; aspect]

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Thauer, Walter, 1955, Morphologische Studien im Frankenwald und Frankenwaldvorland:Sonderabdruck aus den Mitteilungen der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft, no. 1, 232 p.;also 1954 dissertation. [relative-relief map by the circle method, published 1955 in PetermannsGeogr. Mitt. as plate 1]

Thieken, A.H., Lücke, Andreas, Diekkrüger, Bernd, and Richter, Otto, 1999, Scaling input data byGIS for hydrological modelling: Hydrological Processes, v. 13, no. 4, p. 611-630. [diff. in DEMresolution (12.5-50m) makes huge diff. in channels & params.; used KINEROS model]

Thom, B.G., 1970, Carolina Bays in Horry and Marion Counties, South Carolina: Geological Societyof America Bulletin, v. 81, no. 3, p. 783-814. [A-L-W-ellipt. & orient. stats.; nearest-neighbor tests;inconclusive]

Thomas, A.L., King, D., Dambrine, E., Couturier, A., and Roque, J., 1999, Predicting soil classes withparameters derived from relief and geologic materials in a sandstone region of the Vosgesmountains (Northesastern France): Geoderma, v. 90, no. nos. 3-4, p. 291-305. [Stats for elev,slope, aspect, plan & profile curv., dist. to stream fr 50-m DEM]

Thomas, R., Davis, C., Frederick, E., Manizade, S., Sonntag, J., Krabill, and McConnell, J., 1999,Greenland ice sheet elevation change since 1978 from radar and laser altimetry: Polar Geography,v. 23, no. 3, p. 169-184. [radar & laser data agree; So. Greenland in balance]

Thomas, T.R., Rosén, B.-G., and Amini, N., 1999, Fractal characterisation of the anisotropy of roughsurfaces: Wear, v. 232, no. 1, p. 41-50. [3-D structure functions & topothesy for diff. textures]

Thompson, J.A., Bell, J.C., and Butler, C.A., 2001, Digital elevation model resolution—effects onterrain attribute calculation and quantitative soil-landscape modeling: Geoderma, v. 100, nos. 1-2,p. 67-89. [10m surveyed DEM ± 0.1m precision vs. 30m DEM ± 1.0m prec.]

Thompson, M.M., 1956, How accurate is that map?: Surveying and Mapping, v. 16, no. 2, p. 164-173. [admits U.S. vertical acc. standards lower than those in Europe & that slope gradient needsto be taken into account]

Thompson, W.B., Thoenen, G.W., Moore, R.G., and Henderson, T.C., 1998, Extraction of micro-terrain features, in 1998 IMAGE Conference, Scottsdale, AZ, 2–7 August, The IMAGE Society,Inc., Proceedings: p. WBT 1-9, http://www.cs.utah.edu/vissim/bibliography/papers/ravine-features.pdf. [hydrol. analysis + computer vision, better than texture mapping; small ravines,military applic.]

Tillmann, E., 1915, Orometrie der Eifel (in German): Bonn, Univ. Bonn, Ph.D. diss., 92 p. [drainagedensity, mean slope & height &/or volume]

Tillo, A.A., 1890, Orography of European Russia based on a hypsometric map (in Russian):Proceedings of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, v. 26, p. 8-32. [among earliestRussian morphometry]

Tillo, A.A., 1889, Untersuchung über die mittlere Höhe der Kontinente und die mittlere Tiefe derMeere in verschiedenen Breitenzonen (in German): Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, v.35, no. 2, p. 48-49. [discusses Murray's 1888 paper & 1887 Barthol. map; gives tables of elevs.& depths by 10°lat. bins]

Tobler, W.R., 1993, Non-isotropic modeling, in Three presentations on geographical analysis andmodeling: Santa Barbara, CA, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, TechnicalReport 93-1, p. 1-4; http://www.geodyssey.com/papers/tobler93.html. [fr 'hiking fcn' & DEMcomputes maps of min. time path to all points, isochrons, & Gaussian curvatures]

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Tokunaga, Eiji, 1994, Selfsimilar natures of drainage basins, in Takaki, R., ed., Research of PatternFormations: Tokyo, KTK Scientific Publishers, p. 445-468. [fractal D of channel network is sameas that of its basin]

Tokunaga, Eiji, 2000, Dimensions of a channel network and space-filling properties of its basin:Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 21, no. 4, p. 431-449. [basin never filled byits streams; i.e. self-similar networks not space-filling in Tok. Branching Systems I & II]

Tolentino, M., Gandolfi, N., and Paraguassu, A., 1968, Estudo morfometrico das bacias hidrograficasdo Planalto de São Carlos (in Portuguese?): Rev. Brasil. Geogr., v. 30, no. 4, p. 42-50. [no info]

Toutin, Thierry, 1999, Error tracking of Radargrammetric DEM from RADARSAT images: IEEETransactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 37, no. 5, p. 2227-2238. [relief affectsDEM accuracy; suggests guidelines]

Treitz, Paul, and Howarth, Philip, 2000, Integrating spectral, spatial, and terrain variables for forestecosystems classification: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 66, no. 3, p. 305-317. [fair (k = 61%) result; need more detailed params. than elev, slope, & relief]

Tsukamoto, Yoshinori, and Ohta, Takehiko, 1988, Runoff process on a steep forested slope: Journalof Hydrology, v. 102, no. 1-4, p. 165-178. [define 3 slope units by combining the 9 basic slopetypes]

Tucker, G.E., 1996, Modeling the large-scale interaction of climate, tectonics, and topography: StateCollege, PA, Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, Technical Report 96-003, >267 p.[applic. of SIBERIA DEM-based landscape model?]

Tucker, G.E., Catani, Filippo, Rinaldo, Andrea, and Bras, R.L., 2001, Statistical analysis of drainagedensity from digital terrain data: Geomorphology, v. 36, nos. 3-4, p. 187-202. [hillslope-flowpathlength at nonchannel basin sites, fr. DEM, to get texture]

Tylor, Alfred, 1869, Section of surface of Lower Carboniferous series, Hirwain Common, Figure 7 inOn Quaternary gravels: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 25, first part, p.73. [illustrates author's thesis (same volume, p. 7) of paper read Nov. 11, 1868 that longitudinalstream profiles are parabolic; see his abstract]

Tyurk, G.G., 1924, Statistika kol'tsevykh form lunniy poverkhnosti (statistics of ring-shaped landformson the lunar surface; in Russian): Russk. Astron. Zhurn., v. 1, paging unknown; also 1927, Byull.Nabl. Ass. ob-va Lyubit. Astron., no. 9, paging unknown. [not seen; probably size-freq. stats]


Unbenannt, Maik, 1998, Ableitung und Bewertung morphometrischer Parameter ausgewählterHangsegmente im Cottonwood Canyon, Colorado, USA mit Hilfe Digitaler Höhenmodelle (inGerman; Derivation & eval. morph. param. selected slope segments ... DEM): Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Geography, M.A. thesis (unpublished), paging unknown.[multivariate analysis of slope, aspect, profile & plan convexity]

Unbenannt, Mail, 1999, Generation and analysis of high-resolution digital elevation models formorphometric relief classification, represented at a cuesta scarp sope on the Colorado Plateau,USA., in Gläßer, C., Will, H., and Engler, Th., eds., Environmental Assessment and Monitoring, 3rdGerman-Dutch Symposium KvAG (Niederlande) / DGPF-AK "Interpretation vonFernerkundungsdaten", 28-29 April, Halle, Germany, Proceedings: CD-Rom; http://mlucom6.urz.uni-halle.de/geographie/phys/UNBENANN/genera.htm. [see Unbennent 1998]

Unwin, D.J., 1981, Introductory Spatial Statistics: London and New York, Methuen, 212 p. [Fleming& Hoffer slope method fr DEM; also Ritter (1987)]

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U.S. Geological Survey, 2001, HYDRO1k Elevation derivative database: Sioux Falls, ND, EROS DataCenter; http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/gtopo30/hydro/index.html. [gridded river network at 1kmresolution; global coverage planned]

Utsunomiya, Hidehiko, Nagao, Fumiaki, and Hiraoka, Tateki, 1987, Effects of topographic factors onlocal wind properties: Natural Disaster Science, v. 9, no. 2, p. 77-95. [wind-tunnel modeling ofroad-cut form; ridge & open-cut height & slope, wind dir.]


Vacher, H.L., 1999, Computational geology 5—if geology, then calculus: Journal of Geoscienceeducation, v. 47, no. 2, p. 166-175. [tutorial; landform examples: Hack's equation; also allometry]

Vacher, H.L., 1999, Computational geology 8—the power function: Journal of Geoscience education,v. 47, no. 5, p. 473481-175. [fun tutorial; landform examples: slope, area & volume, &denudation]

Vaessen, E.M.J., 1997, A qualitative comparison of DEM data capturing techniques (in Dutch):Geodesia, v. 39, no. 11, p. 483-490. [no info]

Vakhtin, B., 1931, Experiments to determine mathematical characteristics of relief for the CCR (inRussian): Geodezist, no. 11-12, p. 43-55. [no info]

Valentine, P.C., Baker, J.L., Unger, T.S., and Polloni, Christopher, 1998, Sea floor topographic mapand perspective-view imagery of Quadrangles 1-18, Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary offBoston, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 98-138, one CD-ROM;http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/stellwagen/arc/sbtopo/readme.html. [block of 18topo. maps fr. multibeam echo-sounder data; 5m contour interval]

Valentine, P.C., Baker, J.L., and Unger, T.S., 2001, Sun-illuminated sea floor topography ofQuadrangle 13 in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary off Boston, Massachusetts: U.S.Geological Survey, Geologic Investigations Map 1-2713, 1/25,000 scale. [one of a block of 18shaded-relief maps of glacial features fr. multibeam echo-sounder data; same authors; illum.45ºelev. at 350º, 4X VE, 5m C.I.; glacial features &textures]

Valeo, C., and Moin, S.M.A., 2000, Variable source area modelling in urbanizing watersheds: Journalof Hydrology. v. 228, nos. 1-2, p. 68-81. [TOPMODEL (helpful summary) adapted to urbanbasins]

Vales, D.J., 1996, User's manual for ELKVULN, an elk vulnerability, hunter, and population projectionprogram, version 1.00: Moscow, ID, Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, University of Idaho,24 p. [PC software pkg uses mean slope & 'aspect contagion' ('broken' vs continuous)]

van Burkalow, Anastasia, 1945, Angle of repose and angle of sliding friction: Bulletin of theGeological Society of America, v. 56, no. 6, p. 669-707. [early attempt to numerically model talusslopes]

van der Beek, P.A., and Braun, Jean, 1998, Numerical modelling of landscape evolution ongeological time-scales—a parameter analysis and comparison with the south-eastern highlands ofAustralia: Basin Research, v. 10, no. 1, p. 49-68. [comprehensive DEM neo-orometry (incl.correl.); roughness amplitude, R, hyps. integral, elev., fractal D; variograms, etc.]

van Deursen, W.P.A., and Wesseling, C.G., 1995, The PCRaster package: University of Utrecht, TheNetherlands, Technical Report of the Department of Physical Geography, 198 p.<http://www.geog.uu.nl/pcraster.html>. [includes DEM-to-watershed transformation]

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van Dijk, W., and Le Heux, J.W.N., 1952, Theory of parallel rectilinear slope recession, I and II:Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wettenschappen, Proceedings, v. 55 B, p. 115-122 and123-129. [relation among non-parallel slope retreat, talus accumulation, & slope shape]

van Kreveld, Marc, 1996, Variations on sweep algorithms—efficient computation of extendedviewsheds and class intervals, in Kraak, M.-J., Molenaar, Martien and Fendel, E.M., eds.,International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, 7th, Delft, Neth., Proceedings: Edinburgh,Taylor & Francis, v. 2, p. 843-855. [2 new applics. of plane sweep paradigm]

van Remortel, R.D., Hamilton, M.E., and Hickey, R.J., 2001, Estimating the LS factor for RUSLEthrough iterative slope length processing of DEM elevation data: Cartography (Canberra), v. 30, no.1, p. 27-35. [updates 1994 Hickey et al. calcs. for RUSLE]

van Westen, C.J., Rengers, N., Terlien, M.T.J., and Soeters, R., 1998, Prediction of the occurrence ofslope instability phenomena through GIS-based hazard zonation: Geologische Runschau, v. 86,no. 2, p. 404-414. [excellent state-of-art review; 3 scale levels]

Vaughan, D.G., Bamber, J.L., Giovinetto, Mario, Russell, Jonathan, and Cooper, A.P.R., 1999,Reassessment of net surface mass balance in Antarctica: Journal of Climate, v. 12, no. 4, p. 933-946. [24 ice-flow drainage basins fr 10-km DEM (ERS-1) by DEM-to-watershed software]

Veinberg, B.P., 1934, Experiment to mathematically determine geomorphological concepts andmathematical characteristics of geomorphological properties, in All-Union Geographical Congress,1st, 11-18 April 1933, State Geographical Society, Leningrad, Proceedings: v. 3, p. 126-135. [noinfo]

Veitzer, S.A., and Gupta, V.K., 2000, Random self-similar river networks and derivations ofgeneralized Horton laws in terms of statistical simple scaling: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no.4, p. 1033-1048. [new class of models, recursive process, unlike trad. random model]

Velde, B., 1999, Structure of surface cracks in soil and muds: Geoderma, v. 93, nos. 1-2, p. 101-124.[segment & intersection freq. of crack networks; also width]

Veneziano, Daniele, and Iacobellis, Vito, 1999, Self-similarity and multifractality of topographicsurfaces at basin and subbasin scales: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. B6, p.12,797-12,812. [in this 1st (?) comparison of Z with XY methods & results, concludes Z-basedcomputations of fractal D are deficient & misleading, & that fluvial terrain is fundamentally self-similar, not multi-fractal]

Veneziano, Daniele, Moglen, G.E., Furcolo, Pierluigi, and Iacobellis, Vito, 2000, Stochastic model ofthe width function: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 4, p. 1143-1157. [new models basedon iterated random pulse (IRP) processes]

Veneziano, Daniele, and Niemann, J.D., 2000a, Self-similarity and multifractality of fluvial erosiontopography 1. mathematical conditions and physical origin: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no.7, p. 1923-1936. [expressed by topo increments in subbasins; dynamic modeling]

Veneziano, Daniele, and Niemann, J.D., 2000b, Self-similarity and multifractality of fluvial erosiontopography 2. scaling properties: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 7, p. 1937-1951. [real-world topo variations violate conditions of s-s & multifrctly]

Ventura, S.J., and Irvin, B.J., 2000, Automated landform classification methods for soil-landscapestudies, in Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., eds., Terrain Analysis—Principles and Applications, NewYork, John Wiley and Sons, p. 267-294. [reviews slope-form taxonomy; ARC/INFO, fuzzy, otherclustering on TAPES variables]

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Verdin, K.L., 1997, A system for topologically coding drainage basins and stream networks, in 1997ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, CA, July 8-11, Proceedings: Redlands, CA,Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., CD-ROM;http://www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to350/pap311/p311.htm. [hydro. modelingusing GTOPO30 DEM]

Verdin, K.L., and Greenlee, S.K., 1998, HYDRO1k documentation: Sioux Falls, ND, U.S. GeologicalSurvey, EROS Data Center; http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/gtopo30/hydro/readme.html. [8-parameterGIS database, incl 1-km DEM corrected by the Hutchinson algorithm]

Verdin, K.L., and Verdin, J.P., 1999, A topological system for delineation and codification of theEarth's river basins: Journal of Hydrology, v. 218, nos. 1-2, p. 1-12. [Otto Pfafstetter's concept;based on topo & thus impl. by DEMs, here NA GTOPO30]

Veregin, Howard, 2000, Quantifying positional error induced by line simplification: InternationalJournal of Geographical Information Science, v. 14, no. 2, p. 113-130. [can find freq. bandwidththat eliminates most vertices for streams, etc.]

Vernon, Peter, 1966, Drumlins and Pleistocene ice flow over the Ards/Strangford Lough area, CountyDown, Ireland: Journal of Glaciology, v. 6, p. 401-409. [perpendicular & parallel spacing, meas. fr.drumlins center-to-center]

Vertessy, R.A., Hatton, T.J., O'Shaughnessy, P.J., and Jayasuriya, M.D.A., 1993, Predicting wateryield from a mountain ash forest catchment using a terrain analysis based catchment model:Journal of Hydrology, v. 150, nos. 2-4, p. 665-700. [describes implementation of TOPOGsoftware pkg. to get network of quadrilateral terrain elements]

Veverka, Joseph, and 32 others, 2000, NEAR at Eros—imaging and spectral results: Science, v.289, no. 5487, p. 2088-2097. [Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous; d/D for 9 sub-pristine impactcraters (0.65km≤D≤5.5km) = 0.12-0.16]

Veverka, Joseph, and 32 others, 2001, Imaging of small-scale features on 433 Eros fromNEAR—evidence for a complex regolith: Science, v. 292, no. 5516, p. 484-488. [Near EarthAsteroid Rendezvous; d/D for craters >20m-100m ≈ 0.2]

VieIra, G.T., 2000, Glacial and periglacial data integration in a GIS—methodology used in the Sierrada Estrela, Portugal: Geological Quarterly (Warsaw), v. 44, no. 1, p. 27-31. [var. image mapsderived fr. 10-m DEM]

Vieux, B.E., 1993, DEM aggregation and smoothing effects on surface runoff modeling: Journal ofComputing in Civil Engineering, v. 7, no. 3, p. 310-338. [low-pass filtering a 7.5' DEM byconvolution to reduce spurious pits]

Vigil, J.F., Pike, R.J., and Howell, D.G., 2000, A tapestry of time and terrain: U.S. Geological Survey,Miscellaneous Investigations map, I-2720 (pamphlet accompanies map), scale 1/3,500,000;<http://tapestry.usgs.gov/>. [overlay of color geologic map onto shaded relief for lower 48 states]

Vincent, Luc, and Soille, Pierre, 1991, Watersheds in digital spaces—An efficient algorithm based onimmersion simulations: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, v. 13, no.6, p. 583-598. [using the grey scale-to-'watershed' transformation for image analysis]

Vinogradov, B.V., 1999, Remote sensing-based monitoring of geosystems using morphometricmethods: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing, v. 36, no. 3, p. 223-232. [indices of shape,nonuniformity, relative location, proximity, connectivity, & fractal D of strips & patches]

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Vitek, J.D., and Tarquin, Pamela, 1984, Characteristics of relict stone polygons, Sangre de CristoMountains, Colorado, USA: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 28, no. 4, p. 455-465. [n=193mapped @ 1/240; meas. l, w, A, slope, relief, & spacing; veg. growth obscures conclus.]

Vivas Miranda, A., and Paz Gonzalez, A., 1998, Influencia de las características iniciales de lasuperficie y la precipitacíon en la dimensíon fractal del microrrelieve del suelo (Influence of initialsurface characteristics and rainfall on the fractal dimension of soil microrelief, in Spanish): Cadernosdo Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe (Univ. Coruña), v. 23, p. 121-136. [laser profilometer; RMSmethod for D (Hurst exponent)]

Vogt, P.R., 2000, Endoresment of global ocean mapping project: Eos, Transactions of the AmericanGeophysical Union, v. 81, no. 43, p. 498. [more on GOMap DEM, a costly but excellent idea]

Vogt, Peter, and Jung, W.-Y., 2000, GOMap—a matchless resolution to start the new millenium: Eos,Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 23, p. 254, 258. [proposes 100-mres. mapping of entire ocean floor to get bathym. DEM]

Voigt, Erika, 1940, Neue hypsographische Kurven im Atlantischen Ozean (in German): Mitteilungender Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Leipsig, v. 55, p. 5-30 & 5 fold-outs. [hypso diagrams fr maps frrecent ship surveys; mid-Atlantic ridge]

Voislavsky, L.K., 1986, Differential digital terrain model (in Russian): Geodesiya, Aerophotosyemka iCartographiya, no. 44, p. 10-19. [no info]

Voislavsky, L.K., 1989, Differential digital terrain model with an irregular distribution of points (inRussian): Geodesiya, Aerophotosyemka i Cartographiya, no. 50, p. 12-19. [no info]

Voronov, P.S., 1968, Essays on regularities in morphometry of the global topography of the Earth (inRussian): Nauka, Leningrad, 123 p. [no info]

Voronoi, M.G., 1908, Nouvelles applications des parametres continus a la theorie des formesquadratiques (in French): J. Reine u. Angew. Math., v. 134, p. 198-287. [surface tessellation;polygon defined by lines bisecting lines connecting neighboring points]

Vörösmarty, C.J., Fekete, B.M., Meybeck, M., and Lammers, R.B., 2000a, Geomorphometricattributes of the global system of rivers at 30-minute spatial resolution: Journal of Hydrology, v. 237,nos. 1-2, p. 17-39. [7 chars. for 50 largest of 6200 basins, fr ETOPO5-to-watershed topology]

Vörösmarty, C.J., Fekete, B.M., Meybeck, M., and Lammers, R.B., 2000b, Global system of rivers—itsrole in organizing continental land mass and defining land-to-ocean linkages: GlobalBiogeochemical Cycles, v. 14, no. 2, p. 599-621. [automated procedure with manual correction toreduce error]


Wadhawan, S.K., 1998, Late Quaternary evolution of clustered parabolic megadunes in Thar desert,India, in Alsharhan, A.S., Glennie, K.W., Whittle, G.L., and Kendall, C.G.St.C., eds., QuaternaryDeserts and Climatic Change: Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 185-195. [several morphometric measures;height/spacing relation]

Waldrip, D.B., and Roberts, M.C., 1972, The distribution of slopes in Indiana: Proceedings of theIndiana Academy of Sciences, v. 81, p. 251-257. [automated gradient measurement from topomaps]

Wagner, Hermann, 1903a, Das Messen auf Karten (measurements on maps), § 112-115 in Lehrbuchder Geographie, v. 1 Einleitung Allgemeine Erdkunde (in German; ... intro to gen'l Earth science):

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Hannover & Leipzig, Hahn, p. 230-240. [review of cartometry complementing that of orometry insame textbook]

Wagner, Hermann, 1903b, Orometrische Werte (the value of orometry), § 173 in Lehrbuch derGeographie, v. 1 Einleitung Allgemeine Erdkunde (in German; ... intro to gen'l Earth science):Hannover & Leipzig, Hahn, p. 398-396. [review of orometry (this std. textbook went through manyeditions ~1880-1938)]

Wagner, Paul, 1933, Morphometrische Studien aus Sachsen; Fehlerquellen und Fehlergrenzen (inGerman; ... Saxony, sources & margins of error): Geographisches Anzeiger, v. 34, p. 38-44. [noinfo]

Walker, J.P., and Willgoose, G.R., 1999, On the effect of digital elevation model accuracy onhydrology and geomorphology: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 7, p. 2259-2268. ['ground-truth' compared to topo-map and photogram. DEMs: use publ. DEMs w/ caution]

Walschot, L., 1973, De hellingkaart (in Dutch): Natuurwetenschappelijk Tijdschrift, v. 55, p. 210-226.[manual method of slope mapping, not obsoleted by computer where detail needed]

Walton, T.L. Jr., 1999, Shoreline rhythmic pattern analysis: Jouirnal of Coastal Research, v. 15, no. 2,p. 379-387. [low-freq. (12km) non-stationary oscillations fr. time-series analysis]

Waltz, J.P., 1971, An analysis of selected landslides in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties,California: Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, v. 8, no. 2, p. 153-163. [l.s.-specific measures of plan & profile curvature the only signif. params.]

Wang, Jianjun, Robinson, G.J., and White, Kevin, 2000, Generating viewsheds without usingsightlines: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 66, no. 1, p. 87-90. [DEM-based 'reference planes' much faster than sightlines]

Wang, Kai, Lo, C.-P., Brook, G.A., and Arabnia, H.R., 2001, Comparison of existing triangulationmethods for regularly and irregularly spaced height fields: International Journal of GeographicalInformation Science, v. 15, no. 8, p. 743-762. [Delaunay still the best of 8 schemes in naturalterrain]

Wang, Xinhao, and Yin, Zhi-Yong, 1997, An evaluation of using ArcInfo to extract basinphysiographic parameters from DEMs, in 1997 ESRI International User Conference, San Diego,CA, July 8-11, Proceedings: Redlands, CA, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., CD-ROM; http://www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to250/pap215/p215.htm. [20 basins inW. VA compared; 1:24K, 1:250K, 1:100K USGS data]

Ware, J.M., and Kidner, D.B., 1997, A flexible storage-efficient TIN data model, in Hodgson, S.,Rumor, and Harts, J.J., eds., Joint European Conference on Geographical Information, 3rd,Vienna, Austria, Proceedings: Amsterdam, IOS Press, v. 1, p. 48-57. [triangulates on-the-fly atrun time; stores no topology, other advantages]

Ware, J.M., Kidner, D.B., and Herbert, M.J., 1996, Terrain in perspective—DEMs or TINs, in JEC-GI'96, Joint European Conference on Geographical Information, 2nd, 27-29 March, Barcelona,Proceedings: Amsterdam, IOS Press, p. 388-397. [no info]

Warner, R.C., and Budd, W.F., 2000, Derivation of ice thickness and bedrock topography in data-gapregions over Antarctica: Annals of Glaciology, v. 31, p. 191-197. [use DEM & ice distrib. viabalance fluxes & assumptions on ice-flow dynamics]

Warntz, William, 1967, Concepts and applications—spatial order, Part I and Part II section G, inWarntz, William, and Woldenberg, M.J., Geography and the properties of surfaces series, paper no.1: Harvard Papers in Theoretical Geography, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University, Graduate School

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of Design, Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis, for Geography Branch, Office ofNaval Research, Project NR 389-147, Technical Report, p. 11-94, 173-184. [11 sections reviewnetwork, surface topology; 'rediscovery' of concept origins; cites Reech (1858, including a freetransl.), Cayley, & Clerk Maxwell]

Warntz, William, and Waters, Nigel, 1975, Network representations of critical elements of pressuresurfaces: Geographical Review, v. 65, no. 4, p. 476-492. [applies peak-pit-pass-pale / ridge-course-slope line topology; good discussion of critical lines]

Watson, D.F., 1992, Contouring—a guide to the analysis and display of spatial data: Oxford, UK,Pergamon, 340 p. [comprehensive survey of the various contouring methods]

Watters, T.R., Schultz, R.A., Robinson, M.S., and Cook, A.C., 2002, The mechanical and thermalstructure of Mercury's early lithosphere: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no, 11, p. 37-1 to 37-4. [Topo. profile of 1.3-km-high lobate scarp fr DEM fr Mariner 10 stereo pairs]

Weaver, J.D., 1960, Note on higher level erosion surfaces of Puerto Rico: Caribbean Geol. Conf., 2d,Mayagueez, P.R., Jan. 4-9, 1959, Trans., p. 96-98. [altimetric curves fr 38 1/30,000 quads; 5levels, 2 known]

Webber, B.B., 1995, Testing the vertical accuracy of United States Geological Survey 7.5 minute and1 degree digital elevation models: Moscow, ID, University of Idaho, unpublished MS. thesis, 73 p.[stat. comp. yields true accuracy & potential problems in diff. terrains]

Weber, Dominique, and Herrmann, Agnes, 2000, Contribution de la photogrammétrie numérique àl'étude spatio-temporelle de versants instables—l'exemple du glissem*nt de terrain de Super-Sauze (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France) (in French with English summary & figure captions):Bulletin de la Société Géologique de la France, v. 171, no. 6, p. 637-648. [6 DEMs, differencemaps, trace morph. evolution of a complex flow slide]

Wechsler, S.P., 1999, Digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainty—evaluation and effect ontopographic parameters: Redlands, CA, ESRI User Conference,http://www.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/papers/pap262/p262.htm#_Author_Information; or http://www.csulb.edu/~wechsler/Dissertation/P262/P262.html. [used DEM metadata &spatial char.; Monte-Carlo simulations]

Wechsler, S.P., 2000, Effect of DEM Uncertainty on Topographic Parameters, DEM Scale and TerrainEvaluation: SUNY Syracuse, Ph.D. dissertation, 380 p.;http://www.csulb.edu/~wechsler/Dissertation/Abstract_web.doc. [ArcView-implemented MonteCarlo simulations use random error fields to quantify uncertainty in DEM, slope, upslope contrib. A,& topo. index (TI)]

Weibel, Robert, 1990, Verarbeitung und Anwendung digitaler Geländemodelle im Bereich derGeographie (in German; Processing & applying DTMs in Geography): Geographica Helvetica, v. 45,no. 4, p. 145-153. [no info]

Weibel, Robert, 1997, Digital terrain modelling for environmental applications—a review of techniquesand future trends, in Hodgson, S., Rumor, and Harts, J.J., eds., Joint European Conference onGeographical Information, 3rd, Vienna, Austria, Proceedings: Amsterdam, IOS Press, v. 1, p. 464-474. [a subsystem of GIS; DEM def., tasks, functions (DEM gen., manip., visual., applic.), trends]

Weih, R.C., and Smith, J.L., 1996, The influence of cell slope computation algorithms on a commonforest management, in Kraak, M.-J., Molenaar, Martien and Fendel, E.M., eds., InternationalSymposium on Spatial Data Handling, 7th, Delft, Neth., Proceedings: Edinburgh, Taylor & Francis,v. 2, p. 857-875. [compares 8 slope methods, 6 ~ similar, 2 not; large area diffs. result]

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Welch, D.M., 1967, Slope evolution on recessional moraines: University of Alberta, unpublishedM.SC. thesis, 100 p. [field profiles on 23 dated moraines (86 yrs.) reveal slope converges to 25-30 deg.]

Welch, D.M., 1970, Substitution of space for time in a study of slope development: Journal ofGeology, v. 78, no. 2, p. 234-239. [field profiles on recessional moraines; slope dispers. < rapidlyw/ time.]

Wells, N.A., 1999, ASTRA.BAS—a program in QuickBasic 4.5 for exploring rose diagrams, circularhistograms and some alternatives: Computers and Geosciences, v. 25, no. 6, p. 641-654. [greatflexibility, plus less-biased 'corona dot' and 'mean-deviation dot' diagrams]

Werner, B.T., 1995, Eolian dunes—computer simulations and attractor interpretation: Geology, v. 23,no. 12, p. 1107-1110. [simple transport model yields remarkably 'real' barchans, linear & stardunes]

Werner, B.T., 1999, Complexity in natural landform patterns: Science, v. 284, no. 5411, p. 102-104.[theories: self-org. in temp. hierarchy > reductionism & universality]

Werner, B.T., and Hallet, B., 1993, Numerical simulation of self-organized stone stripes: Nature, v.361, no. 6408, p. 142-144. [std. dev./mean = 1/4 for real & 2D simulated forms; means close]

Werner, B.T., and Kocurek, G., 1997, Bed-form dynamics—does the tail wag the dog?: Geology, v.25, no. 9, p. 771-774. [orientation of bed-form crests related to 'defects' (l. & r. terminations) inpattern]

Werner, Christian, 1972, Two models for Horton's law of stream numbers: The Canadian Geographer,v. 9, p. 50-68. [relation of str. no. to order of infinite topol. random networks obeys Horton's lawfor bifurcation ratio 4; proved by combinatorial theory]

Werner, Christian, 1982, Analysis of length distribution of drainage basin perimeter: Water ResourcesResearch, v. 18, no. 4, p. 997-1005. [can't be derived from the random model; descr, model ofridge & channel nets]

Western, A.W., Grayson, R.B., Blöschl, Günter, willgoose, G.R., and McMahon, T.A., 1999, Observedspatial organization of soil moisture and its relation to terrain indices: Water Resources Research, v.35, no. 3, p. 797-810. [organiz. high in wet season, low in dry; need diff. indices for ea.]

Weverinck, Th., 1936, Beiträge zur Tektonik und Morphologie von Schonen: Adhandl. Geol.-paläont.Inst. Univ. Griefswald, v. 42, 1/200K map. [relative relief map on 2-km squares; 6 relief intervals]

Wheatly, David, 1995, Cumulative viewshed analysis—a GIS-based method for investigatingintervisibility, and its archaeological application, in Lock, G., and Stancic, Z., eds., Archaeology andGIS—a European Perspective: London, Taylor and Francis, p. 171-186. [summed viewsheds forseveral sites = 'cumulative viewshed analysis']

Wheeler, D.A., 1979, Studies of river longitudinal profiles from contoured maps: Area (London), v. 11,no. 4, p. 321-326. [profile concavity?]

Wheeler, D.A., 1979, The overall shape of longitudinal profiles of streams, in Pitty, A.F., ed.,Geographical Approaches to Fluvial Processes: Norwich UK, Geobooks, p. 241-260. [profileconcavity increases with total fall for 115 UK rivers]

Whipple, K.X., 2001, Fluvial landscape response time—how plausible is steady-state denudation?, inPazzaglia, F.J., and Knuepfer, P.L.K., eds., The steady-state orogen—concepts, fieldobservations, and models: American Journal of Science, v. 302, nos. 4 & 5, p. 313-512. [modelparams. fit to measured channels test model in Central Range of Taiwan]

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Whipple, K.X., and Tucker, G.E., 1999, Dynamics of the stream-power river incisionmodel—implications for height limits of mountain ranges, landscape response timescales, andreseach needs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. B8, p. 17,661-17,674. [state-of-artreview of work on longitudinal stream profiles]

Whipple, K.X., Kirby, Eric, and Brockelhurst, S.H., 1999, Geomorphic limits to climate-inducedincreases in topographic relief: Nature, v. 401, no. 6748, p. 39-43. [scales of relief; fluvial &glacial relief production; E.E. Small's comments pp. 31-33]

Whitman, Dean, Gubbels, Timothy, and Powell, Linda, 1999, Spatial interrelationships between lakeelevations, water tables, and sinkhole occurrence in central Florida—a GIS approach:Photogrammetric engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 65, no. 10, p. 1169-1178. [distance tonearest sink, etc.; sinks not spatially random]

Wichman, R.W., 1999, Internal crater modification on Venus—recognizing crater-centered volcanismby changes in floor morphometry and floor brightness: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104,no. E9, p. 21,957-21,977. [bright- & dark-floored craters diff.; floor/rim diam., elev., etc.]

Wichman, R.W., and Schultz, P.H., 1995, Floor-fractured impact craters on Venus—implications forigneous crater modification and local magmatism: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 100, no. E2,p. 3233-3244. [arith. floor & peak-ring D for 4 crater types as f(arith. rim D)]

Wieczorek, G.F., Harp, E.L., Mark, R.K., and Bhattacharyya, A.K., 1988, Debris flows and otherlandslides in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Contra Costa, Alameda, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Lake, andYolo Counties, and factors influencing debris-flow distribution, in Ellen, S.D., and Wieczorek, G.F.,eds., Landslides, floods, and marine effects of the storm of January 3-5, 1982, in the SanFrancisco Bay Region, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1434, p. 133-161.[30-m DEM slopes for debris-flow sources contrasted with all slopes]

Wieczorowski, M., 2001, Spiral sampling as a fast way of data acquisition in surface topography:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, v. 41, Nos. 13-14, p. 2017-2022. [spiralof Archimedes is more efficient than grid sampling]

Wigmosta, M.S., and Lettenmaier, D.P., 1999, A comparison of simplified methods for routingtopographically driven subsurface flow: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 1, p. 255-264.[DHSVM vs. TOPMODEL: good agreement, but large differences remain]

Wijdenes, D.J., Poesen, Jean, Vandererckhove, Liesbeth, Nachtergaele, Jeroen, and DeBaerdemaeker, Jo, 1999, Gully-head morphology and implications for gully development onabandoned fields in a semi-arid environment, Sierra de Gata, southeast Spain: Earth SurfaceProcesses and Landforms, v. 24, no. 7, p. 585-603. [correl. of 9 params on 59 catchmentssuggest geomorph. conclusions]

Wilbur, S.C., 1988, Surging vs nonsurging glaciers—a comparison using morphometry and balance:Fairbanks, AK, University of Alaska, unpublished M.Sc. thesis, paging unknown. [univariateanalysis only]

Willemin, J.H., 2000, Hack's Law—sinuosity, convexity, elongation: Water Resources Research, v. 36,no. 11, p. 3365-3374. [38 hand-digitized perims. & channels, better than DEM data; exponent0.50-0.60; elongation with > size not general]

Willett, S.D., Slingerland, Rudy, and Hovius, Niels, 2001, Uplift, shortening, and steady-statetopography in active mountain belts, in Pazzaglia, F.J., and Knuepfer, P.L.K., eds., The steady-state orogen—concepts, field observations, and models: American Journal of Science, v. 302, nos.4 & 5, p. 455-485. [tectonic/surface-process model compared w/ topo profiles of mountains in WAUSA, Taiwan, N.Z.]

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Willgoose, G.R., Bras, R.L., and Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio, 1991, A physically based couplednetwork growth and hillslope evolution model, 1, Theory, 2, Applications: Water ResourcesResearch, v. 27, no. 7, p. 1671-1684 & 1685-1696. [SIBERIA; model for studying geomorphicevolution of landforms subject to erosion & mass transport]

William-Olsson, William, 1975, Relative relief map of the western half of Europe, Figure 1 in A preludeto regional geography—two maps of Europe: Stockholm, Esselte Map Service, 19-p. pamphlet, p.2. [data of Rutkis, 1971 (100 km2 circles); 1/18M, 8 geometric intervals; originial was in color at1/4M]

Williams, G.J., 1967, A relative relief map of Sierra Leone: Sierra Leone Geographical Journal, v. 11,no. 1, p. 11-14. [no info]

Williams, G.P., and Guy, H.P., 1971, Debris avalanches—a geomorphic hazard, in Coates, D.R., ed.,Environmental Geomorphology, proceedings of the first annual geomorphology symposium:Binghamton, N.Y., SUNY, Publications in Geomorphology, p. 25-46. [slope/distance plots,azimuth, slope length]

Williams, R.M.E., and Phillips, R.J., 2001, Morphometric measurements of martian valley networksfrom the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 106, no.E10, p. 23,737-23,751. [valley depth (~109m±), width (2km±) & ratios; V- and U-shaped valleysmodeled]

Wilson, B.N., Leaf, R.B., and Hansen, B.J., 2001, Microrelief meter for field topographymeasurements: Transactions, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v. 44, no. 2, p. 289-295.[portable, automated, non-contact; X, Y, Z accuracy ~ ±0.25mm, ±1.5mm, ±0.5mm, resp.]

Wilson, J.D., Klotz, L.D., and Nagaraj, C., 1997, Automated measurement of aggregate indices ofshape: Particulate Science and Technology, v. 15, no. 1, p. 13-35; also 1995, Federal HighwayAdministration Report FHWA-RD-95-116, paging unknown. [quant. graphs of roundness &angularity fr video-image analysis]

Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., eds., 2000a, Terrain analysis—Principles and Applications: ChichesterUK & NY, Wiley, 479 p. [proc. of 25-29 Nov. 1996 ACLEP workshop, Creation and Applications ofDigital Elevation Models (DEMs) in Land Resource Assessment; applic. of TAPES (Terrain AnalysisPrograms for the Environmental Sciences) algorithms, post-Ian Moore, esp. chapters 1-5, p. 1-161]

Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., 2000b, Digital terrain analysis, in Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., eds.,Terrain Analysis—Principles and Applications: New York, Wiley, p. 1-27. [mostly intro & review,plus summary of book chapters, emph. on DEMS & TAPES algorithms]

Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., 2000c, Secondary topographic attributes, in Wilson, J.P., and Gallant,J.C., eds., Terrain Analysis—Principles and Applications: New York, Wiley, p. 87-131. [topowetness, stream power, radiation & temp. indices fr DEMs & TAPES software]

Wilson, J.P., Repetto, P.L., and Snyder, R.D., 2000, Effect of data source, grid resolution, and flowrouting method on computed topographic attributes, in Wilson, J.P., and Gallant, J.C., eds., TerrainAnalysis—Principles and Applications: New York, Wiley, p. 133-161. [used USGS 7.5' DEMs ofMontana & Idaho]

Wimmer, Christian, Siegmund, Robert, Schwäbisch, Marcus, and Moreira, João, 2000, Generation ofhigh precision DEMs of the Wadden Sea with airborne interferometric SAR: IEEE Transactions onGeoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 38, no. 5, p. 2234-1145. [2.5-m spacing & 5-cm rms elev.accuracy over low-relief area]

Wise, S.M., 2000, Assessing the quality for hydrological applications of digital elevation modelsderived from contours: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, nos. 11-12, p. 1909-1929. [caveats general

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& specific; elev. derivs., incl. TOPMODEL results, are broadly similar, diff. in detail; good biblio (seealso http://www.shef.ac.uk/geography/staff/wise_stephen/dtm/dtm.htm]

Wise, S.M., 2000, GIS data modelling—lessons from the analysis of DTMs: International Journal ofGeographical Information Science, v. 14, no. 4, p. 313-318. [many analysis problems arise frmodeling deficiencies in current GIS packages]

Wohl, E.E., Thompson, D.M., and Miller, A.J., 1999, Canyons with undulating walls: GeologicalSociety of America Bulletin, v. 111, no. 7, p. 949-959. [I-shaped bedrock valleys; systematicallyvarying wall width]

Wohl, E.E., 2000, Basin morphometry, in Mountain Rivers: Washington, D.C., American GeophysicalUnion, Water Resources Monograph 14, p. 44-49. [mountain & lowland rivers differ in relief, valleyslope, & relief ratio, but not drainage density]

Wohl, E.E., and Merritt, D.M., 2001, Bedrock channel morphology: Geological Society of AmericaBulletin, v. 113, no. 9, p. 1205-1212. [9 params. on 41 reaches; substrate heterogen., slope &Selby RMS best descriminants]

Woldenberg, M.J., 1971, The two-dimensional spatial organization of Clear Creek and Old WomanCreek, Iowa, in Morisawa, M.E., ed., Quantitative geomorphology—some aspects and applications,Binghamton, NY, Annual Geomorphology Symposia Series, 2nd, October 15-16, Proceedings: p.83-106. [hexagonal hierarchies at Hortonian orders 5-7 compared to human lung]

Woldenberg, 1972, Relations between Horton's laws and hydraulic geometry as applied to tidalnetworks: Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Laboratory for computergraphics and spatial analysis, Harvard Papers in Theoretical Geography, 'Geography and theproperties of surfaces' series, no. 45, p. 1-39. [no info]

Wolock, D.M., and McCabe, G.J., 2000, Differences in topographic characteristics computed from100- and 1000-m resolution digital elevation model data: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, no. 6, p.987-1002. [50 US locales, old 3' DEM; diffs in slope, basin A, & wetness index due todiscretization]

Womersley, J.R., and Hopkins, M.R., 1945, Suggestions concernant l'emploi du corrélogramme pourl'interprétation des enregistrements du fini de surface (on using the correlogram to interpretmeasurements of surface finish, in French): Journées des Etats de Surface, Editions de l'OfficeProfessionnel Général de la Transformation des Métaux, Paris, p. 135-139. [first application ofstochastic techniques to describe rough surfaces]

Wood, E.F., Sivapalan, Murugesu, Beven, K.J., and Band, L.E., 1988, Effects of spatial variabilityand scale with implications to hydrological modeling: Journal of Hydrology, v. 102, no. 1-4, p. 29-47. [apply representative elementary area (REA) concept to hydrol.; ca. 1.0 km2; topog. infl.]

Wood, J.D., 1996, The geomorphological characterisation of digital elevation models: GeographyDepartment, University of Leicester, UK, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 456 p., also<http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/jwo/research/dem_char/thesis/>. [comprehensive DEM-based terrainmodeling; good biblio.]

Wood, J.D., 1998, LandSerf software (Version 1.6): University of Leicester, UK, Geography Dept.,computer program for terrain surface DEM analysis.<http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/jwo/research/LandSerf/landserf16/doc/index.html>. [see his 1996Ph.D. thesis]

Wood, J.D., 1998, Modelling the continuity of surface form using digital elevation models, inInternational Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, 8th, July 11-15, Vancouver, Canada,Proceedings: p. 725-736, and

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http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/jwo/research/conferences/sdh98/index.html. [quadratic interpolation ofcontinuous surfaces by semi-axes of conic sections]

Woodruff, J.F., 1963, Linear and areal properties of drainage basins as delimiting criteria (abs.):Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 53, no. 4, p. 631. [proposes paramatersfor regional characterization]

Wooldridge, S.W., 1928, The 200-foot platform in the London Basin: Proceedings of the GeologistsAssociation, v. 39, part 1, p. 1-26. [hypsometric curves fr lengths of intercepts along equidistantparallel lines]

Woronow, Alexander, and Mutch, Patricia, 1980, On the origin of Martian pedestal, lobate, andmultilobate ejecta deposits, in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary ScienceConference, 11th, March, Houston, TX, The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and PlanetaryScience XI, p. 1282-1284. [the old area/perimeter relation; fr Mandelbrot 1977 they get P1/H / A0.5

= K, where H & K are constants, H the 'Hausdorff dimension' & equiv. to 'lobateness' in Kargel1986]

Wright, D.J., Goodchild, M.F., and Proctor, J.D., 1997, GIS—tool or science? Demystifying thepersistent ambiguity of GIS as 'tool' versus 'science': Annals of the Association of AmericanGeographers, v. 87, no. 2, p. 346-362. [philosoph. issues relevant to Terrain Modeling; seeresponse by J. Pickles, p. 363-372]

Wu, Fan, 2000, Multi-scale automatic extraction of terrain structure line based on wavelet analysis(abs.): International Conference on Geographic Information Science 1st, GIScience 2000,Savannah, GA, 28-31 Oct., Abstracts, p. 389;http://www.giscience.org/GIScience2000/posters/090-Wu.pdf. [new way to extract ridges &channels fr contours]

Wurm, A., 1936, Morphologische Analyse und Experiment Hangentwicklung, Einebnung,Piedmonttreppen: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, v. 9, p. 57-87. [series of experimental topoprofiles evolved, systematically, w/ erosion]


Xiao, Yanni, 1996, Topographic characterization for DEM error modelling: Vancouver, BC, Universityof British Columbia, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 447 p. [cluster analysis, DEMs, fractals,spatial variations]

Xiaohua, Zhu, and Jian, Wang, 1998, Fractal analysis applied to mountain ridges and faults—A casestudy of China (in Chinese with English abstract & figure captions): Mountain Research (ShandiYanjiu), v. 16, no. 2, p. 94-98. [D= 1.63 (all China), but 1.35 in SW China; D of ridges & faultsrelated]

Xu, Jiandong, Qu, Guosheng, and Jacobi, R.D., 1999, Fractal and multifractal properties of thespatial distribution of natural fractures—analyses and applications: Acta Geologica Sinica, v. 73,no. 4, p. 477-487. [uses Cantor's dust theory; western NY sample; D is scale dependent]

Xu, Wei, and Cumming, Ian, 1999, A region-growing algorithm for InSAR phase unwrapping: IEEETransactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 37, no. 1, p. 124-134. [resulting DEM OKre. map heights; good but time-consuming]


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Yagi, Shintaro, and Takahashi, Yoshiaki, 1992, Three dimensional expression of the terrain usingdigital cartographic data: Bulletin of the Geographical Survey Institute, v. 37, p. 39-49. [relief-shading & other output from 50-m and 250-m DEM's; no maps shown]

Yamada, Shuji, 1999, Mountain ordering—a method for classifying mountains based on theirmorphometry: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 24, no. 7, p. 653-660. [neo-orometry;defined by closed contours; params resemble Strahler's; number, area, & height plot as powerseries]

Yamada, Shuji, 2001a, Classification and geomorphometry of Japanese mountains based onmountain ordering: Journal of Geography, v. 110, no. 1, p. 79-93. [applied neo-orometry fr1/500K maps; relief= H/A0.5, where H= height & A= area; rel. R= ∑ hi/H, where hi =height ofenclosed lower-order mtn.; perimeter fractal D; all 3 are related in Japan]

Yamada, Shuji, 2001b, Evaluation of topographic naturalness of anthropogenically modifiedmountains: Geographical Review of Japan, v. 74A, no. 11, p. 643-657. [applied neo-orometry; 3params. defined in 1999 & 2001a differ for developed & undeveloped mtn areas on 1/25K maps]

Yang, M.-S., and Lee, K.T., 2001, Determination of probability distributions for Strahler streamlengths based on Poisson process and DEM: Hydrological Sciences Journal, v. 46, no, 5, p. 813-824. [streams & Strahler order extracted fr 40-m Taiwan DEM]

Yang, Xiaojun, and Hodler, Thomas, 2000, Visual and statistical comparisons of surface modelingtechniques for point-based environmental data: Cartography and Geographic Information Science,v. 27, no. 2, p. 165-175. [DEM test; multiquadric RBF stat. best, min. curv. fastest, inverse-dist.poorest]

Yatsu, Eiju, 1955, On the longitudinal profile of the graded river: Transactions, American GeophysicalUnion, v. 36, no. 4, p. 655-663. [7 of 9 river profiles consist of two exponential curves, not one]

Yeh, P.A., 1994, Fractal geometry and its implications for the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwan (inChinese): Chung-Li, National Central University, Department of Applied Geology, M.Sc. thesis, 90p. [used Clarke's triangular prism surface method for D]

Yemelyanov, O.G., 1984, Determination of slope gradient of a bottom using digital terrain model (inRussian): Geodesiya i Cartographiya, no. 11, p. 37-40. [no info; seafloor?]

Yin, K.L., and Yan, T.Z., 1988, Statistical prediction models for slope instability of metamorphosedrocks, in Bonnard, Christopher, ed., International Symposium on Landslides, 5th, 10-15 July,Lausanne, Proceedings: Rotterdam, Balkema, v. 2, p. 1269-1272. [4 classes for polygon units;elev, slope, relief, azimuth, & lithology]

Yin, Z.-Y., and Wang, Xinhao, 1999, A cross-scale comparison of drainage basin characteristicsderived from digital elevation models: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 24, no. 6, p.557-562. [1/250K vs. 1/24K; elev. & length params. OK, but not slope params.]

Yokoyama, Ryuzo, Shirasawa, Michio, and Kikuchi, Yu, 1999, Representation of topographicalfeatures by 'opennesses' (in Japanese with English abstract & figure captions): Journal of theJapanese Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, v. 38, no. 4, p. 26-34. [image-processing; fits cone to each DEM elev.; brings out streams, ridges, textures]

Yokoyama, Ryuzo, Shirasawa, Michio, and Pike, R.J., 2002, Visualizing topography by openness—anew application of image processing to digital elevation models: Photogrammetric Engineering andRemote Sensing, v. 68, no. 3, p. 257-265. [grey-scale images computed from DEM expressdegree of dominance or enclosure of locations on any irregular surface]

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Yoshida, Takeyoshi, Kanisawa, Satoshi, Yokoyama, Ryuzo, Shirasawa, Michio, and Ohguchi,Takeshi, 1999, Refinement of geological map by referring to high-resolution DEM and the deriveddigital maps—application to the study of Late Cenozoic caldera swarm in the NE Honshu arc,Japan (abs.): EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 80, no. 46, Supplement, p.F1088. [Yokoyama's 'openness' algorithm (50-m DEM) identifies circular features]

Yoshikawa, Torao, Kaizuka, Sohei, and Ota, Yoko, 1981, Relief energy of Japan (simplified fromEconomic Planning Agency 1969), in The Landforms of Japan: Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press,front endpaper. [4 intervals: >800, 400-799, 200-399, 0-199 m; recent use of term]

Young, Anthony, 1978, Slopes—1970-1975, ch. 5 in Embleton, Clifford, Brunsden, Denys, andJones, D.K.C., eds., Geomorphology—Present Problems and Future Prospects: Oxford, TheUniversity Press, p. 73-83. [550 pubs. classified (but not listed); summary of slope mapping,profiles, other areas]

Young, R.A., and Mutchler, C.K., 1969, Effect of slope shape on erosion and runoff: Transactions ofthe American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v. 12, no. 2, p. 231-233, 239. [experiments onconvex, concave (least soil loss), straight slopes; microrelief meas.]

Young, R.A., and Mutchler, C.K., 1969, Soil movement on irregular slopes: Water ResourcesResearch, v. 5, no. 5, p. 1084-1089. [experiments on convex, concave (least soil loss), straightslopes; microrelief meas.]

Yu, Sidi, van Kreveld, Marc, and Snoeyink, Jack, 1996, Drainage queries in TINs—from local toglobal and back again, in Kraak, M.-J., Molenaar, Martien and Fendel, E.M., eds., InternationalSymposium on Spatial Data Handling, 7th, Delft, Neth., Proceedings: Edinburgh, Taylor & Francis,v. 2, p. 829-842; also 1996, 7th Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Proceedings: p. 13A.1-13A.14. [preprocessing to facilitate queries; properties of drainage networks]


Zaitsev, V.M., Lavrova, V.S., and Chigirev, A.A., 1973, Derivation of contour maps using astereomodel of a terrain and a computer (in Russian): Geodesiya i Cartographiya, no. 4, p. 48-53.[no info]

Zakrzewska, Barbara,1971, Nature of land form geography: Professional Geographer, v. 23, no. 4, p.351-354. [core of LFG = "recognition of spatial land form problems & analysis of their origin"]

Zâvoianu, Ion, 1972, The relationship between drainage density and stream frequency: Rev. Roum.Géol. Géophys., Géogr., Sér. Géogr., v. 16, no. 2, p. 167-174. [no info]

Zâvoianu, Ion, 1974, Determination of the drainage net average slope in a given hydrographic basin:Rev. Roum. Géol. Géophys., Géogr., Sér. Géogr., v. 18, no. 2, p. 137-152. [no info]

Zebker, H.A., Amelung, Falk, and Jonsson, Sjonni, 2000, Remote sensing of volcano surface andinternal processes using radar interferometry, in Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Crisp, J.A., and Fink, J.H.,eds., Remote Sensing of Active Volcanism: Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union,Geophysical Monograph 116, p. 179-205. [DEMs for 16 edifices; much variance in quality]

Zeitler, P.K., Meltzer, A.S., Koons, P.O., Craw, David, Hallet, Bernard, Chamberlain, C.P., Kidd,W.S.F., Park, S.K., Seeber, Leonardo, Bishop, Michael, and Shroder, John, 2001, Erosion,Himalayan geodynamics, and the geomorphology of Metamorphism: GSA Today, v. 11, no. 1, p. 4-9. [elev & shaded-relief maps; elev & relief vs. downstream dist.; stream-profile analysis; erosioninfluences tectonics]

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Zhang, J.-t., Qiu, Yang, and Zheng, F.-y., 2000, Quantitative methods in landscape pattern analysis(in Chinese): Journal of Mountain Science, v. 18, no. 4, p. 346-352. [patch params. (elong., circ.,etc.) of Turner, Forman, etc.]

Zhou, L., Kato, K., Umehara, N., and Miyake, Y., 1999, Nanometer scale island-type texture withcontrollable height and area ratio formed by ion beam etching on hard disk head sliders:Nanotechnology, v. 10, no. 4, p. 363-372. [nanoscopic 'landforms' created by design]

Zhu, Dehao, 1982, Evolution of peak cluster-depression in Guilin area and morphometricmeasurement (in Chinese): Carsologica Sinica, v. 1, p. 127-134. [claims to have identifiedevidence of 'dynamic equilibrium']

Zhu, Honglei, and Schneider, Kristin, 1999, Flat feature processes from triangulated irregularnetworks for hydrological modeling, in International Conference on GeoComputation, 4th,Fredericksburg VA, Mary Washington College, 25-28 July, GeoComputation 99:http://www.geovista.psu.edu/geocomp/geocomp99/Gc99/091/gc_091.htm. [algorithm removeslevel triangles, channels, & ridges in TIN models]

Zhu, Honglei, Eastman, J.R., and Toledano, James, 2001, Triangulated irregular network optimizationfrom contour data using bridge and tunnel edge removal: International Journal of GeographicalInformation Science, v. 15, no. 3, p. 271-286. [Delaunay triangulation & parabolic interpolation ofB & T edges]

Zimmerman, B.B., 1972, Perspective view by computer: The Military Engineer, v. 64, no. 422(November-December), p. 431. [hidden- & parallel-line plots of relief fr profiles or digitizedcontours]

Zobeck, T.M., and Popham, T.W., 2001, Cropping and tillage effects on soil roughness properties:Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v. 44, no. 6, p. 1527-1536. [5 cmDEM; random roughness, ridge height, & cum. shelter angle distr.]

Zöppritz, Dr., 1882, comments (in German) in Günther (1882), p. 146. [the area/perimeter problem]

Zötl, Josef, 1951, Die Reliefenergie des Waldaist-Gebietes, in Landformung und Talentwicklung inFlußgebiet der Waldaist: Arbeiten a. d. Oberösterr. Musealvereins, v. 96, p. 36. [ca. 1/250Krelative-relief map; 500-m samples; 6 relief intervals]

Zuber, M.T., and 14 others, 2000, Internal structure and early thermal evolution of Mars from MarsGlobal Surveyor topography and gravity Science, v. 287, no. 5459, p. 1788-1793. [crustthickness not correl. w/ topo. dichotomy, but is thin under lg. basins]

Zuber, M.T., and 20 others, 1998, Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the MarsOrbiter laser altimeter: Science, v. 282, no. 5396, p. 2053-2060. [2-km res. DEM; profiles ofcraters &; much new from MOLA]

Zuber, M.T., Smith, D.E., Phillips, R.J., Solomon, S.C., Banerdt, W.B., Neumann, G.A., andAharonson, Oded, 1998, Shape of the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter laseraltimeter (MOLA): Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, no. 24, p. 4393-4396. [18 profiles; elev.& slope (low E ≈ low S); peaked hypsogram]

Zuber, M.T., and 11 others, 2000, The shape of 433 Eros from the NEAR-Shoemaker laserrangefinder: Science, v. 289, no. 5487, p. 2097-2101. [detailed topo model of complex bodyfrom Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous; elev. maps & slope maps & freq. distr.]

Zuchiewicz, Witold, 1995, Selected aspects of neotectonics of the Polish Carpathians: FoliaQuaternaria (Krakow), no. 66, p. 145-204. [relative relief, stream orders & long. profiles, var.param. ratios & correls., etc.]

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Abdul-Rahman, Alias, 1992, Triangular network in digital terrain relief modelling: ITC, Enschede, Netherlands,unpublished M.Sc. thesis, paging unknown. http://www.odyssey.maine.edu/gisweb/spatdb/egis/eg94038.html.[developed set of TIN-based DTM algorithms for PC environment]

Baldwin, Jonathan, Fisher, Peter, Wood, Joseph, and Langford, Mitchel, 1996, Modelling environmental cognitionof the view with GIS: International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/jwo/research/dem_char/santafe/. [various considerations of viewshed analysis frDEM]

Boyko, A.V., 1980, Metody i sredstva avtomatizatsii topograficheskikh s'yemka (Methods and Tools forAutomated Topographic Surveys; in Russian): Nedra, Moscow, 222 p. [no info]

Brändli, Martin, 1996, Hierarchical models for the definition and extraction of terrain features, in Burrough, P.A.,and Frank, A.U., eds., Geographic Objects with Indeterminate Boundaries, GISDATA series 2: London, Taylorand Francis, p. 257-270. [object-oriented top-down approach to peaks, pits, & ridges; detail > at lower levels]

Brown, C.D., and Grimm, R.E., 1996, Floor subsidence and rebound of large Venus craters: Journal ofGeophysical Research, v. 101, no. E11, p. 26,057-26,067. [no evidence for elastic rebound est. rigidlithosphere 10–15 km thick]

Chentsov, V.N., 1948, Morphometric indices on small-scale geomorphological maps (in Russian), in Grigoryev,A.A., and Markov, K.K., eds., Problems of Geomorphology, Transactions of the Institute of Geography, no. 39:Soviet Academic Press, Moscow, p. 291-306. [no info]

Chou, Yue-Hong, 1992, Slope-line detection in a vector-based GIS: Photogrammetric Engineering and RemoteSensing, v. 58, no. 2, p. 227-233. [derives slope lines (slow-lines normal to contours) from digitizedcontours, preferred to grid DEMs]

Clarke, K.C., Hoppen, Stacy, and Gaydos, L.J., 1996, Methods and techniques for rigorous calibration of acellular automaton model of urban growth: International Conference on Integrating GIS and EnvironmentalModeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis,Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.sbg.ac.at/geo/idrisi/gis_environmental_modeling/sf_papers/clarke_keith/clarkeetal.html. [ground-slope gradient fr a DEM is one of the model constraints]

Coates, D.R., 1958, Quantitative geomorphology of small drainage basins of southern Indiana: Department ofGeology, Columbia University, NY, Office of Naval Research, Geography Branch, Project NR 389-042,Technical Report no. 10, 67 p. (Ann Arbor, University Microfilms: publ. no. 17, MicA 56-2237). [10 3rd-orderbasins ea. in 6 areas; L, A, P, DD, circ., relief, slope & stream gradient, hyps. integr. & curves, etc.; strongcontrast betw. USGS topo map & field-derived topo map "... somewhat startling and the implicationsdisturbing."]

De Sawal, Robert, 1996, Digital elevation data and GIS projects: International Conference on Integrating GIS andEnvironmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information andAnalysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM); http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/desawal_robert/usgspost.html. [good description of DEMs, their creation, flaws & limitations]

Einstein, Albert, 1926, Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flußläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes(Cause of the formation of meanders in river courses and of the so-called Baer's law): Naturwissenschaften, v.14, no. 11, p. 223-224. [the great man on a hydrogeomorphic problem]

Fels, J.E., and Matson, K.C., 1996, A cognitively-based approach for hydrogeomorphic land classification usingdigital terrain models: International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/fels_john/fels_and_matson.html. [land typesof all NC fr 100-m DEM; land-type classifications for each of 6 major NC physiographic provinces]

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Florinsky, I.V., Grokhlina, T.I., and Mikhailova, N.L., 1995, LANDLORD 2.0—Software for the analysis and mappingof geometrical characteristics of relief (in Russian): Geodesiya i Cartographiya, no. 5, p. 46-51. [elev., slope,aspect, curv., area, topo. index, stream power index]

Gallant, J.C., and Hutchinson, M.F., 1996, Towards an understanding of landscape scale and structure:International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM,National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.sbg.ac.at/geo/idrisi/gis_environmental_modeling/sf_papers/gallant_john/paper.html. [positivewavelet decomposition identifies topo features at diff. scales; feature shapes & orientations may help char.landforms & delimit contrasting regions]

Garbrecht, Jurgen, and Martz, L. W., 1997, TOPAZ—An Automated Digital Landscape Analysis Tool forTopographic Evaluation, Drainage Identification, Watershed Segmentation and Subcatchment Parameterization;TOPAZ User Manual: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands ResearchLaboratory, El Reno, OK, ARS Publication no. GRL 97-4, 119 p. [DEM-to-watershed software; see alsoTOPAZ Installation Guide, ARS Publ. GRL 97-3, 12 p. & TOPAZ Overview, ARS Publ. GRL 97-2, 21 p.]

Gauss, C.F., 1827, Disquisitiones generales circa superficies curvas (in Latin): Göttingen gelehrte Anziegen, no.177 (5 Nov.), p. 1761-1768; abstract originally delivered before the Royal Society of Göttingen on 8 October1827; reprinted 1873 in Carl Friedrich Gauss Werke: Königlichen Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften zuGöttingen 4, p. 217-258; translated 1902, as General investigations on curved surfaces of 1827 and 1825, byAdam Hiltebeitel & James Morehead: Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 127 p., & reprinted 1965,Hewlett NY, Raven Press. [landmark paper; the result of 30 years of thinking on geodesy; seed of a centuryof subsequent work in differential geometry; origin of ground-surface classification by curvature & treatingtopography as a random field; see Krcho, Shary, Dombrowski]

Gessler, P.E., McKenzie, Neil, and Hutchinson, Michael, 1996, Progress in soil-landscape modelling and spatialprediction of soil attributes for environmental models: International Conference on Integrating GIS andEnvironmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information andAnalysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM); http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/gessler_paul/my_paper.html. [elev., gradient, & topo index fr 20m grid DEM fr 10-m contours@ 1:25 000]

Hooke, R.LeB., and Rohrer, W.L., 1979, Geometry of alluvial fans—effects of discharge and sediment size:Earth Surface Processes, v. 4, no. 2, p. 147-166. [Markov-process models of slope & rel. elev. compared w/field meas.; power fncs. relate fan to basin properties]

Hoy, D.R., and Taylor, J.A., 1963, A descriptive classification of terrain (abs.): Annals of the Association ofAmerican Geographers, v. 53, no. 4, p. 598. [local relief, slope 'intensity' (contour density), topo. texture =basic elements; mapped Ohio]

Hutchinson, M.F., 1996, A locally adaptive approach to the interpolation of digital elevation models: InternationalConference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Centerfor Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/gtopo30/papers/local.html. [extends existing finite-difference approach tointerpolation of DEMs]

Hutchinson, M.F., Nix, H.A., McMahon, J.P., and Ord, K.D., 1996, The development of a topographic and climatedatabase for Africa: International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.sbg.ac.at/geo/idrisi/gis_environmental_modeling/sf_papers/hutchinson_michael_africa/africa.html.[digitized all 39 l/1M-scale air nav. charts; 109,000 non-zero pts. incl. spot elevs, important points oncontours, streams]

Jackson, J.R., 1834, Hints on the subject of geographical arrangement and nomenclature: Journal of the RoyalGeographical Society, v. 4, art. 4, p. 72-88 + colored diagram. [earliest (?) known topological ordering ofstreams (not cited in Cayley's two papers), but not definitive; lists basic geom. attributes of land form; plea forprecise descr.]

Koristka, Karel (Carl), 1858, Studien über die Methoden und die Benützung hypsometrischer Arbeiten,nachgewiesen an den Niveauverhältnissen der Umgebungen von Prag. Ein neuer Beitrag zur Geodäsie und zurOrographie (... methods & applic. of hypsom. work, detecting altitude relations around Prague. A new contrib.

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to geodesy & orography; in German): Gotha, Justus Perthes, 107 p., 2 colored contour maps. [his mostsignif. morphometric work; reviewed in Petermanns Geogr. Mitt. 1858, v. 4, no. 12, p. 517; much on method;many heights; 1st mean-slope calculations (p. 96-102), for several valleys (formula later criticized as toocomplex for any but ridge-&-valley terrain)]

Köthe, Rüdiger, 1996, Literary references for DTM, relief analysis, relief and soil, and relief and hydrology:http://uggg-pc-s1.uni-geog.gwdg.de/pg/sara/litdgm-e.htm. [link dead, 10/2002]

Laffan, Shawn, 1996, Rapid appraisal of groundwater discharge using fuzzy logic and topography: InternationalConference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Centerfor Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/laffan_shawn/s_fetxt4.html. [minimalistbroad-area model; 10m cell size, index of slope curvature]

Levitt, D.A., and Sandwell, D.T., 1996, Modal depth anomalies from multibeam bathymetry—is there a SouthPacific superswell?: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 139, nos. 1-2, p. 1-16. robust depths fr mode-seeking procedure (ETOPO5 data poor) reveal concentrations of deep flat surfaces]

Maidment, D.R., 1996, GIS and hydrologic modeling—An assessment of progress: International Conference onIntegrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for GeographicInformation and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM):http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/maidment/gishydro/meetings/santafe/santafe.htm. [incl. processing DEMs &standardized approach to watershed delineation]

Matson, K.C., and Fels, J.E., 1996, Approaches to automated water table mapping: International Conference onIntegrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for GeographicInformation and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM); http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/matson_kris/santa-fe.2.html. ['landscape-classification' approach uses land typesdetermined fr DEMs]

Mayer, Larry, 1990, Introduction to Quantitative Geomorphology—an exercise manual: Englewood Cliffs, NJ,Prentice Hall, 380 p.; online electronic edition, 1995, at http://tgl.geology.muohio.edu/gbook/gresources.html,link dead 10/2001. ['a quantitative foundation for the study of geomorphological processes']

McCullagh, M.J., 1996, Quality, visualization, and use of terrain models in physical system modelling:International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM,National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.sbg.ac.at/geo/idrisi/gis_environmental_modeling/sf_papers/mccullagh_michael/mjmpaper.html.[GIS pkgs. overtaken in flexibility & photorealism by true 3-D modelling systems]

Miller, D.R., and Morrice, J.G., 1996, Assessing uncertainty in catchment boundary delimitation: InternationalConference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Centerfor Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/miller1_david/miller_paper1.html. [derivation,reliability, stability assessment, national UK database]

Mitas, Lubos, Mitásová, Helena, Brown, W.M., and Astley, Mark, 1996, Interacting fields approach for evolvingspatial phenomena—Application to erosion simulation for optimized land use: International Conference onIntegrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for GeographicInformation and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA CD-ROM);http://www2.gis.uiuc.edu:2280/modviz/viz/SF.final/mitas.html. [elev., slope gradient & curvature combinedwith non-topo spatial info.]

Mitásová, Helena, and Hofierka, Jaroslav, 1993, Interpolation by regularized spline with tension—II, applicationto terrain modeling and surface geometric analysis: Mathematical Geology, v. 25, no. 6, p. 657-669. [bettereqns for profile, plan & tangent curvatures by descr.-geom. combining grid & vector appraches; real terrainexamples; added to GRASS pkg.]

Müller-Wohlfeil, D.-I., Lahmer, W., Krysanova, V., and Becker, A, 1996, Topography-based hydrological modellingin the Elbe drainage basin: International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd,January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIA

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CD-ROM); http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/mueller_dirk/dmwpaper.html.[apply TOPMODEL & WET, models based on the topographic-index concept]

Nowicki, A.L., 1961, Topographic lunar mapping at the Army Map Service: Washington, D.C., September, AMSTechnical Report no. 37, 20 p. [How AMS' 1:5M stereo 1-km-contour maps of the Moon were made fr 1896-1907 Paris Observatory photo plates]

Ollier, C.D., 1967, Geomorphic indications of contour map inaccuracy: Cartography (Canberra), v. 6, p. 121-124.[more caveats]

Péguy, Ch.P., 1942, Une analyse morphométrique de la zone intra-alpine des Alpes françaises Méridionales (inFrench): Bull. Assoc. Géogr. Franç., B, no. 144-145, p. 22-24. [rock hardness controls ave. slope but notelev.]

Penck, Albrecht, 1894, Chapter 2, Morphographie und Morphometrie, in Morphologie der Erdoberfläche (inGerman), Stuttgart, J. Engelhorn, v. 1, p. 33-95. [state-of-art review, possibly the most important untilNeuenschwander 1944; subheads incl. the forms their parts ('form-elements', 'unit-forms', 'landscapes', &'areas') & representation, mean height & slope (formula on p. 47), processing & surface area, mean height &fall & height processing of surface boundaries & area of boundary profiles, boundary processing & spatialarrangement, volume calc., surface & distance calc., types & classes of forms; mean slope formula; scale-dependent lengths of Istrian coast; etc.; book review by Charles Lapworth 1895, Geogr. Jour. 5/6, p. 575-81]

Pitty, A.F., 1969, A scheme for hillslope analysis, I. Initial considerations and calculations: University of Hull(UK), Occasional Papers in Geography, no. 9, 76 p. [fr. Ph.D. thesis; background, slope char., meas.methods, diagrams & calcs.; favors field over map data]

Ritter, Carl, 1852, Einleitung zur allgemeinen vergleichenden Geographie, und Abhandlungen zur Begründungeiner mehr wissenschaftlichen Behandlung der Erdkunde (Introduction to general comparative geography, &papers establishing a more scientific treatment of geography, in German): Berlin, Sammlung der AbhandlungenRitters (Ritter's Collected Papers), Berlin, G. Reimer, 246 p. [among earliest morphometry; re-release of'Einleitung...' & 'Allgemeine Vorbemerkungen über die festen Formen der Erdrinde' (both from intro to v. 1 of theErdkunde, 1817) & 5 lectures at the Kgl. Akad. d. Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1826, 1828, 1833, 1836, 1850,published previously in Abhandlung d. kgl. Akad. ... (hist.-phil. Kl.). A rather free English transl. by Wm.L.Gage, ed., 1861 (1863?), Geographical Studies: Boston (also N.Y.?), Gould & Lincoln, 356 p. (see pp. 142,150, 212-240, etc.). French transl. by Danielle Nicolas-Obadia, 1974, Introduction á la géographie généralecomparée, Cahiers de géographie de Besançon, no 22; Annales littéraires de l'Université de Besançon, 155:Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 253 p.]

Sonklar, C.E. von I., 1873, Orometrischer Theil (Orometric section) p. 173-192, in Allgemeine Orographie, dieLehre von den Relief-Formen der Erdoberfläche (General orography, the science of relief forms of the earth'ssurface, in German): Vienna, W. Braumüller, 254 p. [one of the landmarks in 19th C. orometry (a term heevidently coined, possibly in his 1860 book on the Oetzthaler Gebirgsgruppe), these few pages summarize hismajor contribution, 12 morphometric measures—later criticized (by Penck, Hettner, & others) as too many &not suffiently linked to geomorphic process; was the 2nd to propose a mean-slope formula, but too subjective;book shows influence by Ritter's concept of 'comparative geography']

U.S. Defense Mapping Agency, 1992, Digital chart of the World (Edition 1, July; for use with the Disk OperatingSystem), Fairfax, VA; 2nd, updated edition (1998) at http://www.nima.mil/publications/vmap0.html. [DCW database—1500 megabytes of vector data organized in 17 thematic layers, including all 1000-foot elevationcontours—Ed. 1 on 4 compact disks, VPFVIEW software, and users manual paged by section]

U.S. Geological Survey, 1994, GCIP Reference Data Set (GREDS): U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 94-388; one CD-ROM; http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/gcip.HTML. [for 48 U.S. states, incl. 500-m DEM,geology, land use, streams, reservoirs, ave. ann. runoff & precip., hydrologic units, etc.]

Vakhtin, B., 1930, On the determination of the mathematical characteristics of relief (in Russian): Geodezist(Moscow), no. 2-3, p. 7-16. [no info]

Verdin, Kristine, and Jenson, S.K., 1996, Development of continental scale digital elevation models andextraction of hydrographic features: International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling,3rd, January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings

A Bibliography of Terrain Modeling …kclarke/G232/terrain/Pike_2002.pdfA Bibliography of Terrain Modeling (Geomorphometry), the Quantitative Representation of Topography —Supplement - [PDF Document] (158)

(NCGIA CD-ROM); http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/gtopo30/papers/santafe3.html. [30 arc-sec. (90 m) global DEM toreplace ETOPO5 (5 arc-min, 10km) data]

Walker, Hoyt, Leone, J.M. Jr., and Kim, Jinwon, 1996, The effects of elevation data representation on mesoscaleatmospheric model simulations: International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, 3rd,January 21-25, Santa Fe NM, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Proceedings (NCGIACD-ROM); http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/walker_hoyt/gismod96.html.[signif. effects fr DEM resampling or smoothing]

Woldenberg, M.J., 1967, Concepts and applications—spatial order, Part II, in Warntz, William, and Woldenberg,M.J., Geography and the properties of surfaces series, paper no. 1: Harvard Papers in Theoretical Geography,Cambridge, MA, Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, Laboratory for Computer Graphics and SpatialAnalysis, for Geography Branch, Office of Naval Research, Project NR 389-147, Technical Report, p. 95-173,185-189. [6 sections on allometric growth, networks, surface topology, fluvial systems]

Zakharov, S.A., 1940, Importance of slope aspect and gradient for soil and vegetation distribution in theGreat(er) Caucasus (in Russian): Journal Botanique de l'URSS, v. 25, no. 4-5, 378-405. [see Zingg 1940 forpresumably similar material]

A Bibliography of Terrain Modeling …kclarke/G232/terrain/Pike_2002.pdfA Bibliography of Terrain Modeling (Geomorphometry), the Quantitative Representation of Topography —Supplement - [PDF Document] (2024)
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